Gender and Education.
*ObjectivesDevelop your understanding of inclusionDevelop your understanding of gender and stereotypeAnalyse ongoing work in schoolsDevelop your ability to address gender equality through teaching
*Pre-session taskHow does your school approach inclusion?
What experience have you had of equality issues in your school?
What stereotypes (attitudes, behaviour, expectations, etc) have you experienced in school? How does your school acknowledge and challenge stereotypes?
What potential do you see in your own subject(s) for challenging stereotypes / promoting gender equality?
*Key question: What is gender?Where does gender come from?
How is gender created?
What is a stereotype?
How do schools contribute?
*SEX is biologicalGENDER - is a social constructGENDER describes the characteristics that a culture or society delineates as normal masculine or feminine behaviour
DISCUSSION how does our society allocate behaviours and attitudes to girls / boys and men/ women? What behaviours are promoted for girls? What behaviours are not considered appropriate for girls? And for boys?
*Creating gender roles
*Which gender would you associate these behaviours with? rational, stretching, aggressive, competitive,scientific, active, independent, emotional,fragile, caring, co-operative, passive,dependent, challenging, well-behaved,enquiring, demanding, helpful, strong,motivated, hardworking, patient, expressive,kind, gentle, reliable, eager to please,emotional, funny, beautiful, nice, active,sporty, sensitive, clean,
*Gender in schools - which gender are these school subjects associated with?English, MFL, physics, chemistry, biology, maths, ICT, football, netball, basketball, rounders, hockey, drama, history, geography, music, RE, A&D, sociology, psychology, PSHE,
*The problem with stereotypesPlace restrictions on peoples livesUnderpin prejudice and discriminationLock boys and girls into predetermined behaviour and oblige them to make choices based on pressure to conformInvolve policing of behaviour outside the norm
*The effect of stereotypesGender inequality is very real in societyMen earn more than women, and the gender pay gap is growingMen occupy more positions of decision-making and powerThey are less tied to households and childrearingThere are few women in science and engineering, fewer men in nursing and teaching
*And in schoolsYoung girls in primary school are concerned about body weight and physical appearance Girls as young as 12 feel under pressure to be sexually availableBoys feel under pressure to make sexual demandsGirls and boys are pressured into making gendered choices, rather than free choices
*Discussion: how do we contribute to the creation of gender roles?Teacher expectations of behaviourTeacher interactionsMaterials, resources and activities in the classroomTeachers as role models
*TASK: You are helping a Y11 project on gender and your subject area. You are providing advice for a group of pupils. Draw up a study plan for areas which will be relevant. Consider ways of actively challenging gender stereotypes and promoting gender equality. FEEDBACK.
*But arent boys underachieving?Yes but the picture is complexNot all girls do better than all boys social class and race indicators also play a roleThe media reports the gender achievement gap as bigger than it isThe biggest achievement gap is social class
*Boys have scored lower marks than girls for many years But now girls are getting higher marks in boys subjectsThis is an advance we should be celebrating but is it represented as being at the expense of boys achievements? Career-choices and A Level choices are still heavily gendered
*The problem with strategies aimed only at boys attainmentTend to stress stereotypes for both boys and girls
Obscure the needs of girls
Give boys mixed messages
*Education for the future
Preparing pupils for a future in which their behaviour is not dominated by gendered stereotypesWhere each individual is free to pursue the life they want, without fear of not living up to expectations or pressure to conformwhere women can choose not to get married and have childrenwhere men can choose not to have highly competitive jobs and stay at home with the childrenwhere girls feel comfortable being assertiveand where boys are allowed to cry