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This book is the product of two international programmes in which NGOs and universities have been working to understand, appreciate, evalue and strengthen endogenous knowledge.


Towards co-creaTion of sciencesBuilDing on tHe plurality oF worlDviewS, valueS anD MetHoDS in DiFFerent knowleDge coMMunitieSBertus Haverkort, Freddy Delgado Burgoa, Darshan Shankar and David Millar nimbybOOKSNIMBY BOOKSNIMBY BOOKS is an initiative by Civil Society magazine and an imprint of Content Services & Publishing Pvt LtdD- 26 (Basement), South Extension, Part 2, New Delhi, India 110049.Text Bertus Haverkort, Freddy Delgado Burgoa, Darshan Shankar and DavidMillar under the CAPTURED programme. CAPTURED stands for Capacity andTheory Development for Universities and Research Centers for EndogenousDevelopment. It is a programme funded by DGIS in the Netherlands andimplemented by UDS in Ghana, FRLHT in India and Agruco of UMMS in Bolivia.English language editor: Sara van Otterloo Cover photograph: Indigenous people of the Bolivian Andes conduct the openingceremony of the International Conference on Transdisciplinarity and EndogenousDevelopment in Tarata, Bolivia. First published in 2012 by Nimby Books, an imprint of Content Services & Publishing Pvt LtdLayout and cover design: Virender ChauhanTypeset in Adobe Garamond ProMailing AddressNimby Books, Content Services & Publishing Pvt Ltd, D- 26 (Basement), South Extension, Part 2, New Delhi, India 110049.Phones: 91(011) 46033825 and 91-9811787772E-mail: response@civilsocietyonline.comWebsite: www.civilsocietyonline.comISBN: 978-81-906570-4-4Printed at Samrat Offset Pvt Ltd, B-88, Okhla Phase II, New Delhi, India 110020.This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not by way of trade or otherwisebe lent, resold, hired out, circulated, and no reproduction in any form, in whole or inpart (except for brief quotations in critical articles or reveiws) may be made withoutwritten permission of the publishers.About this book 1About the authors 3Authors position 9Some concepts and denitions 10Chapter 1 Relations between dierent knowledge communities:Rejection, substitution, complementarity and co-cre-ation of sciences Bertus Haverkort, David Millar,Darshan Shankar and Freddy Delgado Burgoa 14Chapter 2 Indian health science: Ayurveda Darshan Shankarand M. N. B. Nair, FRLHT, India 44Chapter 3 Endogenous Knowledge in Northern Ghana DavidMillar and others, University for DevelopmentStudies, Ghana 82Chapter 4 Agricultural science and potato research in theNetherlands Anton Haverkort, Plant ResearchInternational, Wageningen University and Research,the Netherlands 132Chapter 5 Knowledge dialogues for sustainable endogenousdevelopment: Reforming higher education andresearch in Bolivia Freddy Delgado Burgoa, CesarEscobar, Stephan Rist and Dennis Ricaldi,Universidad Mayor San Simon, Cochabamba,Bolivia 186Chapter 6 Intra- and inter-science dialogues: Towards co-cre-ation of sciences Bertus Haverkort, David Millar,Darshan Shankar and Freddy Delgado Burgoa 234CONTENTS1This book is the product of two international programmes inwhich NGOs and universities have been working to under-stand, appreciate, revalue and strengthen endogenous knowl-edge. For more than 15 years the COMPAS programme( has brought together experiences ofNGOs in 12 countries across the globe concerning their initia-tives to support endogenous development: development basedmainly, but not exclusively, on local values, knowledge, institu-tions and resources. The experiences have led to a better under-standing of the role of the diversity of cultures and of endoge-nous knowledge in development programmes. They haveallowed those involved to articulate a number of basic principlesunderlying the support of endogenous development.Universities were also involved in the COMPAS programmeand since 2008 three universities (in Ghana, Bolivia and India)have been working together in a special programme to buildtheir own capacities for supporting endogenous developmentand implementing programmes for endogenous education andresearch: the CAPTURED programme ( the process, the participating universities have acquired moreinsights into the social relevance and the foundations of the spe-cific ways of knowing in their own cultures. Despite the mar-ginal position of endogenous knowledge, in each case endoge-nous knowledge has great impact on the decision making inmany areas of local peoples lives: farming, health practices, theways in which communities use water, land, plants and animals,the ways in which they organise themselves, and the ways inwhich they express and live their spiritual life and values. This book takes an endogenous perspective: the mainstreamparameters and criteria for expressing knowledge and science arenot taken as starting point. Rather endogenous worldviews, val-ues, ways of learning, endogenous logic and ways of organisingand assessing knowledge are presented. The different cases pres-ent culture-specific ways of knowing, but we have attempted todo this within one framework: a framework that regardsABOUT THIS BOOKendogenous knowledge as an expression of an underlying sci-ence. The objective of this book is to stimulate co-creation of sciencesthrough an inter-cultural and inter-scientific dialogue a dia-logue in which each way of knowing expresses itself, where dif-ferences are positively and respectfully considered, and whereoptions for complementarity (and aspects of potential incom-mensurability) may become clear. The book is written for students, development workers, scien-tists and policy makers in different cultures who are interestedin cultural diversity, the implications of international coopera-tion and the potential of enhancing endogenous knowledge atcommunity level, and in colleges and universities. The authorshope to stimulate dialogues between the sciences that haveemerged from and function in the different cultures. Towards co-creaTion of sciences23The authors of the different chapters were all trained in main-stream academic traditions, and have pursued a career in formalinstitutions for development, education and/or research. At the same time, the authors have made personal and profes-sional choices that have led them to build relationships withlocal communities and learn with the members of these com-munities about their cultures, their knowledge and values. Ineach case this has led to programmes in which the strengthen-ing of these traditional ways of knowing is at the core of theiracademic activities. Bertus Haverkort, the lead editor of this book, was born andraised on a farm in the Netherlands. He studied agronomy andsocial sciences and has worked in rural development pro-grammes in the Netherlands, Colombia and Ghana. He hastravelled extensively and worked with development pro-grammes, NGOs and universities in many countries in Africa,Latin America and Asia. He started his international career working in top-down agri-cultural extension programmes. He learned that the applicationof Western knowledge can be important and relevant if, andonly if, some basic conditions for its applicability are being met:the proposed changes should be in line with the values of thepeople, should build on the local ecological and socio-culturalconditions, as well as on farmers own knowledge and availableresources. Only then will people be motivated to change theirway of farming in a culturally appropriate way. The presence of a functioning commercial infrastructure withincentives for local farmers to undertake steps towards moderni-sation; availability of services for credit and technology; accessto water resources and fertile soils; extension and education;research that address the issues and problems of rural peopleand policies: all are important, but they will only work if theyare embedded within a culturally sensitive approach. In many parts of the globe these conditions are not being met,ABOUT THE AUTHORS and it was this realisation that stimulated Haverkort to look foroptions where priority was given to building on locally availableresources, local knowledge and cultures. He worked for manyyears in programmes run by ETC Foundation: ILEIA andCOMPAS; he has also taught at the then AgriculturalUniversity in Wageningen and has written on subjects includ-ing Low External Input and Sustainable Agriculture (LEISA),Participatory Technology Development and the role of culturein development. As an initiator of the COMPAS programme and an internation-al advisor in CAPTURED he has extensive experience inendogenous development, endogenous education and endoge-nous research. He is currently involved in fieldwork, educationand research in Ghana, Bolivia and India.David Millar writes about the foundations of scientific knowl-edge of the Dagare and Gruni people in Northern Ghana. Hebelongs to the first group, and was born and raised inGenkengpe, in the heart of Dagare country. His mother was aperson of great wisdom and, being a rain goddess, possessedintricate endogenous knowledge and skills. Despite going abroad for his academic training and profession-al work, he has maintained intensive contacts with his brothersand sisters in his native community and has developed his ideasand insights through intensive sharing and dialogues with eld-ers, community leaders, healers and farmers, as well as withdevelopment workers and migrants. For more than 30 years he has lived and worked with the Gruniethnic communities in and around Bolgatanga. From his devel-opment work, which evolved from a top-down approach inagricultural extension to participatory and endogenous develop-ment, and study with local people, he has gained insight intothe cultural roots of the Gruni and the knowledge upon whichthese are based. Millar has worked for the Ghanaian Ministry ofFood and Agriculture, for the World Bank and for a church-based NGO. He received his undergraduate degree in Ghana and his MastersTowards co-creaTion of sciences4and PhD in the Netherlands. He was one of the founding part-ners of the COMPAS programme, and when he joined theUniversity for Development Studies in Tamale as a professor(and where he is now pro-vice chancellor) he initiated CECIK,the centre for indigenous knowledge, an NGO that is doingpioneering grassroots work on endogenous development.Aspects that are specific to African ways of knowing include astrong community basis, a worldview in which ancestors andancestral spirits play important roles, the sacredness of nature,traditional institutions that regulate community affairs andknowledge development, the use of magic and supernaturalforces and systems of accountability. The weaknesses of these ways of knowing are related to Africasmarginal position, corruption of indigenous leaders and Africanuniversities (as yet) lack of capacity to give African knowledgean appropriate place in education and research. Millar advocatesinter-scientific dialogue, where African knowledges areacknowledged as science, and where complementarity ratherthan substitution is aimed for.Richard Aniah, Samuel Abatey, John Dakorah and SalimahYahya belong to the centre for cosmovision and indigenousknowledge, CECIK, a community based NGO in Bolgatanga.Darshan Shankar presents the scientific basis of Ayurvedic med-icine in India. He elaborates on its deep historical roots,describing the rich physical, biological and spiritual conceptsand their application in contemporary health practices.Shankars presentation is based on around 30 years of experi-ence as a promoter and researcher of traditional health sciencesand practices in India. As the founder of the prestigiousFoundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions(FRLHT), he and his team have initiated and implementedprogrammes to assess the effectiveness and safety of Indianhealth sciences and the complementarity between modernWestern biomedicine, Ayurvedic medicine and folk medicine. FRLHT is acknowledged as a national centre of excellence forthe conservation of medicinal plants and Ayurvedic research,abouT The auThors 5and Shankar is respected as a practical visionary because of hissuccess in translating his vision into inspiring action researchand creating an institution that will continue long after his ownlifetime. This respect is manifested in his five-year appointmentas an advisor to the planning commission of the government ofIndia, and the Padma Shri, one the highest civilian awards in hiscountry, that he received from the Indian government.Shankars presentation of the interconnectedness of the manifestand intangible reality, the importance of a mind free of preju-dices to be able to learn from within, and his insights into thescientific principles of Ayurveda represent an important contri-bution to inter-scientific dialogue. Shankar is known as a bridgebuilder between traditional knowledge and mainstream science,and is also one of his country's staunchest supporters of ecosys-tem-specific, community-based oral knowledge of healthcareM.N.B. Nair is a botanist with a PhD from the University ofDelhi. He is a specialist on forest plant products, in particularresins and gums. He has a special interest in ethno-veterinarycare and issues related to knowledge rights. Freddy Delgado Burgoa started his work in a period duringwhich many elements of the endogenous cultures of Bolivia hadbeen forced into clandestinity, having been suppressed by thepolitical and intellectual elites in his country. His origins liewith the Kallawaya, an indigenous ethnic group that has a rep-utation for traditional healing and whose cosmovision has beenrecognised by Unesco and placed on the Intangible CulturalHeritage of Humanity. For more than 25 years Delgado has been one of the stimulat-ing forces behind Agroecologa Universidad Cochabamba(AGRUCO), the centre for research, training and sustainableendogenous development in the faculty of Agronomy,Livestock, Forestry and Veterinarian Sciences at the UniversityMayor San Simon in Cochabamba, Bolivia. He has initiatedand stimulated activities to re-value endogenous knowledge andto reorient educational programmes within public universitiesin Bolivia and Latin America. Towards co-creaTion of sciences6He has experienced resistance to his ideas from his academiccolleagues, and strives to be sensitive and responsive to theappreciation and guiding directions expressed by indigenousleaders and persons of wisdom among the Aymara andQuechua people. Delgado received his doctorate from theUniversity of Cordoba in Spain (Instituto de Sociologa yEstudios Campesinos) and has been an active member andleader in international movements such as the foundation forGenetic Resource Action International (GRAIN), the agro-ecology movement in Latin America (MAELA), Low ExternalInput and Sustainable Agriculture (LEISA) and the programmefor comparing and supporting endogenous development(COMPAS). His publications not only articulate important insights aboutthe knowledges and wisdoms of indigenous people, but alsooften explore the policy implications for development agencies,local and national governments and the university system. Atpresent he is acknowledged as an important innovator in theuniversity education system in Bolivia and Latin America and inthe politics of development.In his contribution Delgado shares the experiences of AGRU-CO as a university centre and presents the insights gained intothe ways of knowing of the Aymara and Quechua population,and ways to revalue and strengthen indigenous notions of livingwell (vivir bien), in particular the worldview based onPachamama, community-based learning, reciprocity and spiri-tuality.Cesar Escobar is the coordinator for Latin America of theCOMPAS programme. Gustavo Guarachi is a PhD researcher at the University MayorSan Simon.Dennis Ricaldi is a member of staff at the University Mayor SanSimon.Stephan Rist worked with AGRUCO for several years andearned a PhD for his study of the Andean cosmovision and waysabouT The auThors 7Towards co-creaTion of sciences8of knowing. He is presently professor at the University of Bern,Switzerland, and coordinator at the Centre for Developmentand Environment.Anton Haverkort was born into the same farming family asBertus Haverkort. He studied agronomy and theoretical pro-duction ecology (crop growth modelling) at WageningenUniversity. He worked in agricultural research and develop-ment, focusing on potato production improvement in Peru,Turkey, Rwanda and Tunisia from 1976 to 1988. Since then hehas been a researcher at Plant Research International, part ofWageningen University and Research Centre in theNetherlands, where he specialises in potato research. His main focus is the enhanced sustainability of potato produc-tion and his interests range from subsistence to commercial pro-duction systems through high-tech precision and decision-sup-port systems. He co-initiated the organic potato research andtechnology transfer initiative BioImpuls and is extraordinaryprofessor of crop science at the University of Pretoria, fromwhere he supervises potato research in South Africa, Zimbabweand Lesotho. Haverkort is a frequent consultant for the Dutch and interna-tional potato industries and for institutions working on thereduction of footprints for land, water, energy and chemicals.He currently heads the DuRPh project which aims to substan-tially reduce the losses and costs associated with late blight, themost devastating potato disease, through cisgenic modification.With respect to the issue at stake in this book, the co-creationof a plurality of sciences, the authors share the following posi-tion:We acknowledge the rigour and enormous contribution ofmainstream science to technological development in the globe.We are grateful for the insights and intellectual development ithas provided us. Yet, we believe that injustice would be done tothe diversity of cultures and knowledge systems if scientists anddevelopment professionals were to limit their attention toimported knowledge and technologies. Understanding and enhancing culture-specific knowledge andgiving it a place in education and research programmes isimportant if we are to do justice to the existing diversity of waysof knowing in the world, to make education culturally appro-priate and to allow education and research to strengthen knowl-edge traditions. We hope that we will be able to present our materials in a self-aware and self-critical way and that our position related to exter-nal sciences will be seen as a constructive contribution to theinter-science dialogue. Articulating endogenous knowledge as ascience, while devoting attention to its weak and strong points,is a bold step in the CAPTURED programme. We believe that the diversity in ways of knowing across theglobe is one of humankinds greatest assets. We hope thatthrough dialogues and mutual learning processes, each of thedifferent ways of knowing will be encouraged to create andrecreate its own science and that, in this way, global scientificdevelopment will move away from universal application andtransfer of mainstream science, making way for endogenousways of knowing and leading towards the co-creation of differ-ent sciences, where synergy and complementarity are the maincharacteristics of the relationships between the sciences.The results are presented here with humility and pride.Humility because we know that the notion of a scientific basis9AUTHORS POSITIONto endogenous ways of knowing goes against some of the con-ventional notions of what science is, and we realise that some ofour sciences have definite weaknesses, and that we still have a lotto learn on our path to co-creation. Nevertheless we are alsoproud to present our ways of knowing as they reveal often-hid-den and undervalued aspects of our cultures. We hope that aninter-cultural and inter-science dialogue may contribute to abetter use of the diversity of sciences, for example by makingappropriate use of them to address some of the pressing prob-lems in the world: underdevelopment, poverty, ecologicaldegradation and social disintegration, alienation of the youthfrom their cultural roots, marginalisation of cultures, loss of cul-tural diversity and the disappearance of endogenous knowl-edges.Towards co-creaTion of sciences10SOME CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS The CAPTURED programme aims to enhance endogenousdevelopment, endogenous education and endogenous research.A central term used in this book is endogenous knowledges andsciences. This refers to the knowledges and sciences of indige-nous peoples, or traditional and local knowledge communities,which have their origin in these particular societies, but havebeen modified and enhanced by inter-scientific dialogues andco-creation with other sciences.The central concept is endogenous, which we define as thatwhich has emerged from within; it often refers to somethingthat has emerged in a particular system or society, but has beenmodified and enhanced by dialogues and co-creation with othersystems. Endogenous is the opposite of exogenous, which refers to anaction or object that has emerged from outside a system. The term is also distinguished from indigenous, which meanssomething that has been generated by and exists within a spe-cific cultural system. The distinction in meaning lies in the lowdegree of modification by interaction with other systems associ-ated with the term indigenous.Other terms used in this context include: aboriginal, native,first people, first nation, autochthonous, local, classical, tradi-tional. These terms all have their specific meanings, but we con-sider them to be encompassed by the term endogenous.In this book we use the following definitions:Axiology: The study of what is considered as important interms of morality, aesthetics and values.Co-creation of sciences: The process whereby different sciencesdevelop their own intra-scientific dynamics and are engaged ininteraction and joint learning with other sciences, in sharingresearch methods and results, and in response adapt their ownparadigms and together create a plurality of sciences wherecomplementarity may exist alongside incommensurability. Endogenous development: Development based mainly, but notexclusively, on locally available resources, knowledge, cultureand leadership. It has openness to integrating endogenous andexogenous knowledges and practices. It has mechanisms forlocal learning and experimenting, enhancing local social, mate-rial and spiritual structures, and retaining the benefits in thelocal area.Endogenous learning and education: Activities to develop andtransfer knowledge, skills and wisdoms undertaken by people inindigenous or local communities and which combine tradition-al with other indigenous and mainstream ways of learning.Endogenous research: Research being carried out by indigenousand local knowledge communities using indigenous ways oflearning, transdisciplinary methods and co-learning with othersciences, with the aim of developing endogenous sciences. some concepTs and definiTions 11Towards co-creaTion of sciences12Epistemology: The study of what we know and how we haveorganised our knowledge into theories, laws of cause and effect,and fields of subject matter.Note: We are aware that in mainstream philosophy the termepistemology is not only related to the question what we know,but also to how we know. In our work we make a distinctionbetween epistemology, as the total of the products of our learn-ing process and gnoseology, the processes involved in acquiringknowledge and insights, and ways of learning, experimentingand teaching.Gnoseology: The study of how we know: the ways in which wearrive at deep knowledge, and how we learn, teach, and experi-ment within our own socio-cultural and scientific context.Incommensurable sciences: Sciences lacking a common quality(concepts, methods) on the basis of which they can be com-pared. If sciences are incommensurable, there is no way in whichone can determine which is more appropriate or accurate.Mainstream science (sometimes also referred to as normal,Western, Eurocentric or conventional science): Sciences thatgenerally are considered to be the most important science, andare being practised in formal education institutions and researchcentres in all corners of the globe. This form of science has itsorigin in the European Enlightenment, initially informed by amechanistic worldview, employing positivist and quantitativemethods, and is organised in specialised fields: disciplines thatfollow their own paradigms. Recent insights in fields such asquantum physics and internal reflections on the scope and char-acter of mainstream science have given rise to a number of newapproaches and paradigms, which attempt to include conceptssuch as uncertainty, chaos, self-regulation, transdisciplinarity,and to employ qualitative methods.Ontology: The study of the nature of being, existence or realityas such, as well as of the basic categories of being (material,social and spiritual) and the relationships between these. Aworldview (or cosmovision) arises from a culture-specific ontol-ogy.some concepTs and definiTions 13Paradigm: A paradigm is a coherent approach used by a scien-tific community that encompasses consistent worldviews,assumptions, theories, and research methods. Paradigms gener-ally have yielded some achievement to attract an enduringgroup of adherents. At the same time they are sufficiently open-ended to leave problems to be resolved. Science: A body of knowledge formulated within a specificworldview and value system and classified under a theoreticalframework. It includes the processes for producing, storing andretrieving knowledge, formulating assumptions, general princi-ples, theories and methodologies. It involves the active role of aspecific knowledge community that has reached consensus onthe validity of these processes. The knowledge acquired and theresulting science is always limited and subject to modification inthe light of new information and insights. Note: The term Western (or Eurocentric) science refers to sci-ences developed in Western or European countries. It is oftenassumed to be synonymous with mainstream or conventionalsciences. We prefer to use the term mainstream sciences asthese have not been built exclusively by European scientists andat present are being practised and enhanced all over the globe.We therefore avoid the term Western science when referring tomainstream science. A similar problem occurs in the use of theterm modern science. Claiming this term for mainstream sci-ence only suggests, erroneously, that endogenous sciences wouldnot be modern in the sense that they would not adapt theirstock of knowledge to present-day needs. Worldview: A worldview is a specific view held by a person ora group, on the basis of which they understand existence. It pro-vides the lens through which the world is seen and made senseof. In this context we often use the term cosmovision, as in dif-ferent cultures the reality in which people live is not consideredto be limited to the physical world, but encompasses physical,biological, social and spiritual realities.Knowledge communities have colourful expressions of their diversity1. INTRODUCTIONIt is often assumed that mainstream science and technologiesare universal and that they are the most reliable ways of under-standing nature and providing the foundation for developingtechnologies. On the basis of extended periods of working withindigenous peoples, and learning about their knowledge sys-tems, the authors of this book assert that local, endogenous andtraditional ways of knowing can be considered as expressions ofsciences in their own right. Their experiences have providedRelations betweendifferent knowledgecommunitiesChapter 1Bertus Haverkort, David Millar, DarshanShankar and Freddy Delgado BurgoaRejection, substitution, complementarity and co-creation of sciences1. Introduction2. Cultures, worldviews and sciences3. International policy context4. Approaches in endogenous development, research and education5. A university consortium for endogenous research and education: CAPTURED6. Dealing with the plurality of sciences7. ReferencesTowards co-creaTion of sciences16important insights into the specific worldviews, values, method-ologies and knowledge concepts present in India, Ghana andBolivia, and the ways in which the indigenous knowledge com-munities in these countries assess their knowledge. The bookalso presents a specific case of mainstream research: potatobreeding for pest resistance in the Netherlands. This has madeit possible to compare ways of knowing that stem from differ-ent socio-cultural and historic backgrounds. In the course of thehistory, endogenous sciences have often been marginalised andmany of them have lost some of their rigour or vitality. Yet, inmany countries they are still considered important and guidethe lives of people. Endogenous and mainstream sciences haveboth weaknesses and strengths. This book introduces the read-er to initiatives that seek to strengthen endogenous develop-ment, endogenous education and endogenous research. Theseinitiatives have helped revitalise local sciences and restore appre-ciation and understanding of them, within communities them-selves and further afield. Ensuring inter-science dialogues canenhance complementarity of the different sciences and lead toco-creation of sciences. The authors assert that a constructive dialogue between the rep-resentatives of different sciences has greater potential to addressthe multifaceted problems facing the globe than reliance onmainstream science only. They suggest that, as biodiversity is acondition for biological sustainability, cultural diversity and thediversity of sciences may become a critical issue in the progressof global civilisation. The first chapter presents two scenarios forinter-science cooperation: one that continues to marginaliselocal sciences and another that seeks complementarity and co-creation of sciences. Chapters 2 to 5 present the worldviews,values, methods and concepts of the four different knowledgecommunities. The final chapter explores the options for inter-science dialogues.relaTions beTween differenT knowledge communiTies 172. CULTURES, WORLDVIEWS AND SCIENCESToday, the mainstream sciences are being taught, developed andapplied in all corners of the globe and they command a verystrong position because of their effectiveness, reliability, andwidespread applicability. They form the basis for formal educa-tion worldwide and receive considerable amounts of public andcorporate funding for their contribution to enhancing human,technological and economic development. At the same time a wide range of different endogenous knowl-edge systems co-exist with these mainstream sciences. To a largeextent, these endogenous ways of knowing determine how peo-ples in different cultures understand the world, the way theylearn, the way they take decisions about their own life, and theway they use their resources and build up their livelihoods. In the modernist scheme, not only were endogenous systems ofknowing generally dismissed, they were often replaced by main-stream systems and structures. In the name of modernisation,political, educational, economic and social systems have takenWestern forms. While this type of modernisation has had ben-efits, it has also become increasingly clear that such benefits willonly yield sustainable benefits if they are effectively and strate-gically rooted in local cultures and traditions. In most non-Western countries, institutions of learning fail to prepare stu-dents adequately to contribute to improving their endogenousknowledge. Their education has had the effect of alienatingthem from their own cultural roots and thus pushing them toseek jobs elsewhere outside their communities or even abroad.Also, denigrating and marginalising endogenous knowledge sys-tems has resulted in their failure to grow through intra-culturallearning and dialogues and has resulted in the absence of inter-science discourse. Education and research in the mainstreamcontinues to sustain the Western bias and thus ill-prepare stu-dents for life and the world of work in non-Western cultures. As part of the postmodern scepsis concerning universalisingknowledges, several efforts have emerged that support multi-perspectival knowledges. The works of Freire, Kuhn, Popper,Towards co-creaTion of sciences18Foucault, Dewey, Shiva, Derrida, Latour and Feyerabendamong others, have helped in the re-interpretation of knowl-edge foundations in ways that allow education, research anddevelopment to respond to specific cultural and social needs ofdiverse populations. For countries of the Third World, this waveof change has provided its own challenges. A number of possi-bilities and opportunities have been presented for reclaimingand revitalising local traditions. Indigenous and local expertshave written about the scientific basis of knowledge systems inNew Zealand (Smith, 1999; Bishop 1998), Canada (Battiste,2005), USA (Mishesuah & Wilson, 2004; Cajete, 2000;Barnhardt & Kawagley, 2005), South America (Delgado &Escobar, 2006), Africa (Millar et al., 2006), India(Balasubramanian & Devi, 2006) and Europe (Haverkort &Reijntjes, 2006). A large number of research and educationalprogrammes are emerging that aim at articulating and strength-ening local knowledge traditions and seek complementary rela-tionships with other sciences.Thus far these initiatives are relatively small in scale because of lim-ited national funding and limited international support, but theyhave raised important critical insights about the relevance and sta-tus of scientific diversity. One of the leading persons in CAP-TURED, Darshan Shankar, has phrased this relevance thus: justas biological diversity is essential to support biological evolution,cultural diversity represented by ethnic languages, traditional arts,science and technologies is essential for civilisational evolution. An important problem of universities throughout the world isthat, even if they wish to do so, they are usually not adequatelyequipped to teach about and perform research on endogenousknowledges and sciences. Educational and research staff havegenerally been exclusively educated in mainstream modes, andstandards and protocols used for educational accreditation andassessing research are generally exclusively based on the param-eters and criteria of mainstream knowledge. A reorientation ofthe university system to accept, incorporate and improveendogenous knowledges and sciences in their community serv-ices, education and research, may require substantial redesign ofthe university protocols and rules. International cooperation,sharing of theories, teaching materials and student


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