TOWARDS THE CREATION OF A BELARUSIAN GRAMMATICAL DICTIONARYIgor V. Shevchenko (ULIF NANU, Kyiv) Natalia Kotsyba (ISPAN, Warsaw)Kiryl Kurshuk (Hrodna University)
Grammatical dictionaries: applicationsprovide description of the word-declination and word-formationenable lemmatizationmorphological analysis and synthesisgrammatical tagging of text corporacan be integrated into other dictionaries: explanatory, synonimic, etc. ( )
Grammatical dictionaries: historyprototype: Grammatical Dictionary of Russian by Andrey Zaliznyak (1967)Grammatical dictionary of the Ukrainian language (UGD) by Igor Shevchenko, 2456 word-inflexion grammatical classes (WIC)Grammatical dictionaries for Polish, German, English, etc., in ULIF NASU
Grammatical dictionaries: featurescontain information about all the forms of inflected words of a language and their grammatical featuresuniformity of information is provided by WIC orWIC is a set of words with the same type of word-inflexionWIC is determined by a combination of the parameter valueswords belonging to the same WIC differ in their invariable parts only
POS-independent value parameterspart of speech (or WI-generalization, WI-type) masculine nouns, feminine nounstype of word stem conjugation patterntype of consonant-vowel changesparadigm incompletenessnon-typical features of wordforms in certain grammatical meanings type of the accent distribution in the word-inflexion paradigm.
POS-dependent value parametersFor verbs: aspect , reflexivity , imperative form, passive participle suffixFor nouns: gender, animacy, genitive for masculine nouns, locative for masculine and neutral nouns, dative for masculine nouns, accusative case in pluraletc.
WIC examples: #1540 and #382
LexemePOSconjugationbasisfinal suffixaspectreflexchangeWICfffv1deciota-imperf+ perf382
WIC examples: #2335 and #1145
Word-inflexion parameter: scopeword-inflexion parameter can be regarded as a discrete function with a limited range of possible values (the value area)parameter "type of the word stem" can get one of 5 values: hard, soft, combined, iotized and r-type. parameter gender has potentially 10 different values for a lexeme (three genders, six their combinations by the order of two and, besides, one combination of all three genders)genitive for masculine nouns has three values: -a (or -, depending on the word ending), - (-), or both - (-) and - (-) are possible.
GD for BelarusianDictionary of the Belarusian Language. Spelling. Orthoepy. Accentuation. Word-Inflection. ( . . . . ), , 1987ca. 100000 words, including material from:The Belarusian-Russian Dictionary (Moscow, 1962)Explanatory Dictionary of the Belarusian Language ( , vol. 1-5, 1977-1984)materials of the lexical card file of the Yakub Kolas Institute of Linguistics
Examples of word entriesf ., e, z, -, -, -, -s ., e, j, j, j, j, j # .-., -, -, -; () -, -t  -e -, -
Grammatical options and the accentf -, - -# - , -
The scope of paradigm presentation varies depending on the rolling accent: j, -, . #, -j t, t, . #, j f, f, . #, -j -, -, . #, -j
Regular errors# (under stress) > > (enrich)# (under stress) > > (clouds)However: (rejected). We cant change automatically combinations of some consonant letters, like into .e# (under stress) > > (rubbish) >
Substitution of some affixes-, -, - > -, -, --, -, -. > (rescuer) > (inspirer) > (educator)- (-) > - > (speaker)- > - > (pre-reform)
Parallelism in the word-inflexion systems of Ukrainian and Belarusiannouns of neutral gender on -: z (standing), # (idolizing), f (playing up) = Ukrainian WIC #2108 , -: z (standing), f (drawing)-: f (legality) f (light-mindedness) = Ukrainian WIC #2143, 3rd declension with the change o-i in some cases: b (activity), j (suddenness)adjectives with the - t (white), e (general) = Ukrainian WIC #2302 s (white), s (common), hard consonant stemverb ending with - (take care), (sleep) = Ukrainian WIC #697 f (take care), f (sleep), i.e. verbs of the 1st conjugation with iotized endings in present tense and without passive participle in the paradigmthe infinitive form ending - f (get rich), f (get used) = WIC #700 z (bend), z (stop)
Some corresponding WICs
Differences within WICsno vowel change in Belarusian in the feminine nouns on -: j (creativity), inherent in similar Ukrainian nouns on -i: e e (marksmanship) in some indirect casesUkrainian WIC 1607, masc. nouns , 2nd decl. with hard consonant stems and genitive -a flexion, without vowel change, designating inanimate objects: ("mushroom") = similar, vowel-invariable, Belarusian entries like "j" (frost). But: - t dat. t (season ticket) WIC 1615- t dat. t (doorway) WIC 1627double change of the lexeme (snow) with the locative t and the nominative plural s WIC 1635
Ukr. WIC > Bel. WIC
Languagelexemepart of speechdeclensionbasisanimgenitivchangeWICUkr. n2dechardinanimate1607Bel.jn2dechardinanimate1607Bel.tn2dechardinanimate-1615Bel.tn2dechardinanimate-1627Bel.n2dechardinanimate-,-1635
Ukr. WIC > Bel. WICappearance of the prothetic - in some grammatical meaningsUkrainian WIC #1991, neutral nouns with hard endings = Belarusian WICs #1991: f (economy)But also:j (window) inserted - in the plural (j j), WIC #2001j (lake) the omission of the same - (j ) WIC #2002
Ukr. WIC > Bel. WICUkr. verbal class #490, "e" (embrace) = Bel. WIC #490, e (fail to hold out)But also to:WIC #491, ending vowel change of -: e, -e, -, -t, -, -t, -e (surround)WIC #494, stem vowel change - e, e, j (embrace)
Ukr. WIC > Bel. WIC
Ukr. WIC < Bel. WICUkr. WIC as #1628, vocative change -: s (man) voc. s (o, man!) no vocative in modern Belarusian languageBel. t (man) more general class of masculine nouns on -, Ukr. WIC #1788, s (mystic), no vocative change
Ukr. WIC < Bel. WICtwo alternative forms of accusative plural in Ukrainian for nouns designating animals : nominative plural and genitive plural and (to graze horses) vsone form (coinciding with the genitive plural) for nouns designating people : , but not * (to meet girls)no such differentiation for Belarusian
languagelexemepart of speechdeclensionbasisvocative changeanimgenitivWICUkr.sn2dechardperson1788Bel.sn2dechardanimate1788Ukr.f n2dechardanimal1789Bel.f n2dechardanimate1788Ukr.s n2dechard-person1628Bel.tn2dechardanimate1788Ukr.f n2dechard-animal1629Bel.jn2dechardanimate1788
Conclusions about GDsStatistics of usage given by a GD can help us trace more common patterns of word-inflexion in similar classes of words, which can be useful for recommendations on standardization, considering the current variability of existing forms in both Ukrainian and Belarusian. Statistics of WICs can be of use in grammatical homonymy disambiguation.GDs can be a powerful tool for comparative studies.GDs are corpus-driven, so they help us reveal the information about a language that is not covered in grammars, or is not covered consistently or clearly enough for the users.