Thesis Final Process Book

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Thesis Final Process Book

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<ul><li><p>1develop the dividemaria lyate</p></li><li><p>2</p></li><li><p>3develop the divide</p></li><li><p>4Thesis presented to the</p><p>Faculty of the Department of Architecture</p><p>College of Architecture and the Built Environment</p><p>Philadelphia University</p><p>In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of</p><p>BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE</p><p>Thesis Studio Instructor Susan Frostn</p><p>Academic AdvisorChristopher Harnish</p><p>Professional AdvisorLance Loethen</p><p>Philadelphia, Pennsylvania</p><p>May 2013</p><p>Develop The Divide </p><p>by</p><p>Maria Lyate</p></li><li><p>5table of contentsI. Title Page </p><p> II. Table of Contents </p><p>III. Thesis Abstract </p><p>IV. Topic Paper </p><p>V. Thesis Objectives &amp; Investigative Methods</p><p>VI. Appendix</p><p>VII. Works Cited</p><p>VIII. Site Analysis </p><p>IX. Site Documentation </p><p>X.Program Selection </p><p>XI. Preliminary Design </p><p>XII. Process Documentation </p><p>XIII. Final Design Documentation </p><p>XIV. Analysis/Critique of Completed Project</p></li><li><p>6abstract.proposal</p></li><li><p>7abstract.proposal</p></li><li><p>8Philadelphia holds great historical and industrial value but is currently overgrown with expressways and fragmented by uninhabitable spaces. The addition of intricate street networks throughout Philadelphia has resulted in the decay of social and natural interaction. Inside the urban boundaries of a city, people, build-ings, and streets coexist but because they all function within the same constrained boundaries, people and streets specifically clash. Walkable pathways are meant to connect a person to their destination and should be a safe and even sustainable solution to excessive automobile transportation. Corridors can act as people movers interiorly and exteriorly whether they are sidewalks, dirt paths, or hallways. Unfortunately, these paths are truly failing to provide a more reliable alternative because of their disjointed patterns. Each district or neighborhood no matter the location should essentially consist of a series of corridors and connections both accessible through motorized transit and human powered transit. With so much of our transportation focused on mass transit and the automobile, neighborhood boundaries are abruptly drawn when new roadways are installed. These edge conditions are where problems reside. Today, the edge is a divide between decay and inhabitation, which is in turn limiting the natural and economic growth of Phila-delphia. There is an opportunity here to develop an environmentally beneficial route for the public to safely and enjoyably connect to their destinations while also benefiting surrounding neighborhoods with residen-tial and commercial redevelopment. It is time to develop the divide.</p></li><li><p>9</p></li><li><p>10</p><p>[IDEAL CITY]</p><p>The ideal city of the future promotes diversity, walkability, and most importantly sustainability through both materi-ality and transportation. Though the word sustainability has taken to be a strong issue in our daily lives, its appli-cations are often perceived incorrectly. Most believe that living sustainably means adding a green roof here and there, but the concepts of sustainable design are far richer. Due to a growing trend in urban sprawl, the constric-tion and congestion of cities are becoming undesirable. Transportation is key to the success of all cities as well as all communities within a city. With such an emphasis on the use of cars and public transportation, we are under the assumption that walkways are just as efficient. A city contains many pathways of all scales. Some see these path-ways as corridors, which are simply interior and exterior paths. They are varying in size and density throughout the city, but their commonality is the fact that they move people. Whether walking, shopping, biking, or eating, these woven pathways join a person to their destination. Though walking paths should be a safe and even sustainable solution to excessive automobile transportation, they are truly failing to provide a more reliable alternative to the car. </p><p>Today, the divide between decay and inhabitation is strictly drawn within a few neighborhoods of the downtown district. Philadelphia alone holds great historical value within its various wards and districts, but is overgrown with expressways and uninhabitable spaces due to the addition of inefficient street networks. There is an opportunity here to develop an environmentally beneficial route for commuters to safely and enjoyably connect to their desti-nations. With the addition of this pedestrian pathway, residents and visitors will be able to interact with Philadelphia as a whole while experiencing various programs along the way. In addition to its benefit to commuters, surround-ing neighborhoods will gain both residential and commercial rejuvenation and redevelopment within the industrial zones which allowed for Philadelphias initial growth hundreds of years ago. </p></li><li><p>11</p><p>[1-2]Scranton, Philip B. Philadelphias Industrial History: A Context and Overview. (Workshop of the World-Philadelphia, 1990).[3-4]Farr, Douglas. Sustainable Urbanism: Urban Design with Nature. (Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, 2008, 19).[5]Transportation - The 2012 Statistical Abstract - U.S. Census Bureau. (Census Bureau, 2012). corridor: </p><p> _A long passage in a building from which doors lead into rooms _A belt of land between two other areas, typically having a particular feature or giving access to a particular area What it is: _varying in size &amp; density throughout a city _people mover _walking, shopping, biking, eating, commuting _void </p><p> What it will be: _encourage positive social interactions _safe &amp; sustainable solution to excessive automobile transportation _reliable alternative to something dangerous &amp; disjointed</p></li><li><p>12</p><p>[INDUSTRIAL CONTEXT]</p><p>From roughly 1880 through the 1920s, Philadelphias industrial districts supported an array of mills and plants but no city in the United States had a wider range of textile products to offer. Philadelphia was drastically expanding as it introduced more and more goods, but transportation to and from was becoming an issue in need of solv-ing. Philadelphias industrial foundation was more of a network of separate specialties. Each neighborhood was specifically focused on one kind of production. This industrial process is what essentially divided neighborhoods. Though it was a division, it also brought all producers together to combine their specialties into one product. By the mid-nineteenth century, a pattern had emerged of smaller industries interspersed with domestic housing throughout much of Old City and Center City. This meant that rather than consisting of multiple large-scale facto-ries focused on production, various smaller businesses existed within districts producing specific individual items. These small, often family owned businesses would produce their part of the good and then continue to pass it to a more specialized business that would complete the next step. This process allowed for a grand network of fabrica-tion that positively linked areas of the city of Philadelphia. Thousands of modest scale firms were linked together through contracts and trade in elaborate ways that make it possible to view the city as a vast workshop [1]. This industrial fabric that stretched across Philadelphia unfortunately suffered with the demise of the canal system be-cause of the rise of railroads and motor transportation. This transformed the built environment of Philadelphia as the rail lines of the Pennsylvania, Philadelphia &amp; Reading, and Baltimore &amp; Ohio Railroads edged the city on various levels [2]. Holes were torn in the fabric because of the division created by these lines. The most devastating issue being the fact that transportation had become too difficult. Businessmen and women were no longer able to safely or easily walk or bike their product to the next neighbor. In turn, previously existing business connections were severed and the city limits became strictly defined. </p></li><li><p>13</p><p>With the opening of the Benjamin Franklin Bridge in 1926, Vine Street had become an important east-west arterial route through Center City Philadelphia. In 1945, as part of the citys postwar development plan, the Philadelphia City Planning Commission proposed a depressed six-lane expressway along the Vine Street corridor [10]. Similar in design to todays Vine Street Expressway, the route was to be bound by service roads to allow for cross use within flanking neighborhoods. The expressway was meant to be open to all vehicles of all sizes and uses. The route originally ordered to have stone archways and overpasses to be landscaped. The landscaping was to camouflage the submerged concrete lanes submerged below. Be-tween the main roadway, service roads, and landscaping, including construction and additional right-of-way costs, the expressway was estimated to cost $26 million [8]. The Vine Street Expressway was to be the northern part of the Center City loop that also comprised of the Schuylkill Expressway (I-76), the Delaware Expressway (I-95) and the unbuilt Crosstown Expressway (I-695) along the South Street-Lombard Street corridor. In 1950, the Philadelphia City Planning Commission took the recommendations of the City Council one step further by providing routing and interchange plans [10]. </p><p>[1-2]Scranton, Philip B. Philadelphias Industrial History: A Context and Overview. (Workshop of the World-Philadelphia, 1990).[3-4]Farr, Douglas. Sustainable Urbanism: Urban Design with Nature. (Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, 2008, 19).[5]Transportation - The 2012 Statistical Abstract - U.S. Census Bureau. (Census Bureau, 2012).[6-10]Vine Street Expressway Historic Overview. (Philadelphia Area Roads, Crossings and Exits-Phillyroads.com, 2011).</p></li><li><p>14</p><p>[URBAN OPPORTUNITY]</p><p>Communities as we know it are meant to be structured by public space and centered on a circulation system to support the pedestrian as well as the vehicle. Unfortunately, city centers have deteriorated because much of the transportation routes have made it far too easy to live within the suburbs and work within the urban context. In addition to the human, economic vitality has also pushed out into the suburbs causing cities to struggle financially. According to the values of New Urbanism, the relationship between architecture and public space can and should be the strongest in urban settings. Though New Urbanism has a strong focus on the role of walking and close proximity lifestyles, its architecture has suffered. There is instead a strong focus on the pedestrian but not the des-tination. A great opportunity lies within the idea of a pedestrian focused community because it positively influences the people that travel within its limits. Cities possess great opportunity because of their ability to hold all of the necessary goods for survival within a limited distance. This then allows for a high level of human interaction and social growth which is ideal to economic expansion as well. Unfortunately, the city of Philadelphia can be viewed as more of a burden to living because of its increasingly high travel difficulty especially as a pedestrian. The networks of transportation routes surrounding the city and its neighborhoods have overwhelmed the opportunity that exists within. The utilization of existing infrastructure to introduce new travel and social patterns hold the best potential and opportunity to preserve these open urban spaces. By revitalizing existing sites, new growth will be grounds for easier development and adaption to current transit routes. Architecture is about how we form the region, about its density, scale and public space in every context. The positivity of dense city centers should reach out to other points within a city rather than being disconnected by expressways, rail lines, and secondary streets. </p></li><li><p>15</p><p>[HUMAN CONTACT]</p><p>Today, we can recognize the impact new urbanism, smart growth and green building could have on the success of a design. There is plenty of evidence to realize that our lifestyles have led to a serious deterioration in public health and we have become a population, completely deprived of exercise and natural outdoor interaction [3]. A baby born in the United States will spend close to 87 percent of his or her lifetime indoors and another 4 percent in enclosed transit. The reason for this is that we have become extreme experts at creating shelter with outstand-ing levels of indoor comfort. With our indoor lifestyles becoming more and more comforting, statistics are showing that each average house is actually increasing in size. From 1970-2000, the average household size in the US shrank from 3.14 to 2.62 people, while the size of the typical new American house increased from 1385 square feet to 2140 square feet, a rise of 54 percent [4]. The lack of human contact with nature has created terrible damage and a strong reliance on enclosed lifestyles. This containment not only occurs inside a building or home but also within the confines of a car, bus, plane or train. The average human spends a large portion of their day traveling but there is often an opportunity to travel outside by walking or biking a short distance. From just a simple handful of statistics, it is evident the progress we are making in energy efficiency cannot keep up with our appetite for bigger houses, better cars, and a faster lifestyle. For example, most commuters in New York City get to work by public transit because of its famously extensive subway and bus system. In many cases this is out of habit and resistance to change. Similarly, Philadelphia is just as dependent upon the car and mass transit because in recent statistics about 280,000 workers drove alone, while public transportation (including taxis) was utilized by 145,000, and only about 1/3 of that, or 50,000 people, walked to work [5]. Sustainable urbanism draws at-tention to the enormous opportunity to redesign the built environment in a manner that supports a higher quality of life and promotes a healthy and positive American lifestyle without the addition of even more public transporta-tion or roadways. </p></li><li><p>16</p><p>[VINE STREET EXPRESSWAY]</p><p>Rather than continuing on this negative path to obesity, congestion and stress, the need for an alternative walking and biking path is inevitable. Through the study of precedents and similar concepts, Philadelphia has shown great potential for the introduction of a green corridor. Most study has been directed towards the Callowhill and Vine Street area, which have multiple blocks of deteriorating land and structure. The Vine Street Expressway could be the sole reason for this deterioration but looking at its history, this was certainly not the intention of the East-West route. Early on, with the opening of the Benjamin Franklin Bridge in 1926, the Vine Street area had become an important axis route through the center of Philadelphia [6]. In 1945, as part of the citys postwar development plan, the planning commission proposed a sunken six-lane expressway along the Vine Street corridor [7]. Though not exact, the design similarly included a main artery w...</p></li></ul>