Thesis Final

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Actual script of the thesis submitted for degree requirement. Chapter 1 is brief introduction to FACTS family.Chapter 2 is about STATCOM, SSSC and UPFC.Chapter 3 about basic power systems.Chapter 4 and onwards are simulation work done.contact if you want the simulation files at laeeq.faiz@gmail.com;)

Text of Thesis Final

FACTS Devices and Effect of UPFCon 500 KV Transmission System

Project Advisor: Assistant Prof. Adnan Bashir Group Members:Laeeq Ahmad Faiz Junaid-ur-Rehman Hafiz Muhammad Abdullah Muhammad Ismail Khan 2008-RCET-EE-11 2008-RCET-EE-13 2008-RCET-EE-24 2008-RCET-EE-28

Department of Electrical Engineering, Rachna College of Engineering and Technology Gujranwala

FACTS Devices and Effect of UPFC on500 KV Transmission SystemThis work is submitted as a discourse to the Department of Electrical Engineering, Rachna College of Engineering and Technology, Gujranwala Pakistan, for the partial fulfillment of the requirement of the degree of

Bachelorsin

Electrical EngineeringApproved on _______________

Internal Examiner(Project Advisor)

Assistant Prof. Adnan BashirDepartment of Electrical Engineering, RCET Gujranwala Signature ______________________

External Examiner

Name _________________________ Signature ______________________

Department of Electrical Engineering, Rachna College of Engineering and Technology, Gujranwala

DeclarationWe declare that the work contained in this thesis is our own, except where explicitly stated otherwise. In addition this work has not been submitted to obtain another degree or professional qualification. Signed: Laeeq Ahmad Faiz Junaid-ur-Rehman Hafiz Muhammad Abdullah Muhammad Ismail Khan ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________

Date:_______________

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

To our beloved parents who prayed for our success day and night and supported our every decision with affection and love and to our respected teachers whose guidance and advice has brought us to the point where we have deep understanding of things and can call ourselves professionals. And to our fellow students who were there for us through every thick and thin and who made it possible to spend those tiring curricular years in a healthy and light mood. To our respect project supervisor Sir Adnan Bashir who guided us through this tough subject and made possible for this project to see its finishing line. And finally to our team members who worked whole heartedly with a team spirit encouraging each other and supporting when then there were times of no hope.

To everyone who shared a smile or a tear.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Flexible AC Transmission is an emerging technology in the Power World which uses power electronic devices for reactive compensation. FACTS devices can be utilized to control power flow and enhance system stability. Particularly with the deregulation of electricity market, there is an increasing interest in using FACTS devices in the operation and control of power systems with new loading and power flow conditions. A better utilization of the existing power systems, to increases their capacity and controllability by installing facts devices becomes imperative. Due to the present situation there are two main aspects which should be considered in using FACTS devices. The first aspect is the flexible power operation according to the power flow control capability of FACTS devices the other aspect is the improvement in transient and steady state stability of power systems. Facts devices are the right equipment to meet these challenges. Facts devices can be effectively utilized for the steady state power control and dynamic control of power systems. One of the more intriguing and potentially most versatile classes of FACTS device is the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC).The UPFC can provide simultaneous control of all basic power system parameters (transmission) voltage, impedance and phase angle). The controller can fulfill functions of reactive shunt compensation, series compensation and phase shifting meeting multiple control objectives. From a functional perspective, the objectives are met by applying a boosting transformer injected voltage and an exciting transformer reactive current. The injected voltage is inserted by a series transformer. In addition to allow control of the line active and reactive power, the UPFC provides an additional degree of freedom. Its shunt converter operating as a STATCOM controls voltage by absorbing or generating reactive power. Both the series and shunt converters use a Voltage-Sourced Converter (VSC) connected on the secondary side of a coupling transformer. The VSCs use forced-commutated power electronic devices (GTOs, IGBTs or IGCTs) to synthesize a voltage from a DC voltage source. We have performed UPFC simulation in Simulink (Matlab) in which the power flow control, voltage regulation and stability provided by UPFC has been verified.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter # 1 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 INTRODUCTION TO FACTS DEVICES ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1 1.1 BACKGROUND ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1 1.2 FLEXIBLE ALTERNATING CURRENT TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS -------------------------------- 2 1.3 INHERENT LIMITATIONS OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS ------------------------------------------ 4 1.4 AN OVERVIEW OF FACTS CONTROLLERS ---------------------------------------------------------- 5 Chapter # 2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12 INTRODUCTION TO UPFC ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 12 2.1 STATIC SYNCHRONOUS COMPENSATOR(STATCOM) -------------------------------------------- 13 2.2 STATIC SYNCHRONOUS SERIES COMPENSATOR(SSSC) ----------------------------------------- 14 2.3 TECHNICAL ADVANTAGE OF UPFC----------------------------------------------------------------- 16 Chapter # 3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21 ELEMENTARY KNOWLEDGE TO UNDERSTAND FACTS ------------------------------------------------- 21 3.1 THE SYMMETRICAL SYSTEM ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 24 3.2 LOADS AND PHASOR DIAGRAMS ------------------------------------------------------------------- 25 3.3 FERRANTI EFFECT------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27 3.4 SYNCHRONISM: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 28 3.5 VOLTAGE PROFILE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 28 Chapter # 4 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 29 POWER FLOW CONTROL OF 500/230 KV GRID WITH UPFC -------------------------------------------- 29 SIMULATION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30 500/230 KV GRID WITHOUT UPFC ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 31 500/230 KV GRID WITH UPFC---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 34 SIMULATION RESULTS: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 41 NETWORK WITHOUT UPFC------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 41 WITH UPFC ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 43 BOTH BYPASSED (SIMULATION DIAGRAM) ----------------------------------------------------------- 44 BOTH BYPASSED (OBSERVATIONS) -------------------------------------------------------------------- 45 FIRST CONNECTED AND SECOND BYPASSED (SIMULATION DIAGRAM) ------------------------- 47 FIRST CONNECTED AND SECOND BYPASSED (OBSERVATIONS)----------------------------------- 48 BOTH CONNECTED (SIMULATION DIAGRAM) -------------------------------------------------------- 50 BOTH CONNECTED (OBSERVATIONS) ------------------------------------------------------------------ 51 REMARKS: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 53

Chapter # 5 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 54 VOLTAGE REGULATION OF 500KV TRANSMISSION SYSTEM ----------------------------------------- 54 VOLTAGE REGULATION: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 56 REMARKS: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57 Chapter # 6 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 58 STABILITY OF 500KV TRANSMISSION SYSTEM---------------------------------------------------------- 58 VOLTAGE WITHOUT UPFC (OBSERVATIONS) --------------------------------------------------------- 60 VOLTAGE WITH UPFC (OBSERVATIONS) -------------------------------------------------------------- 61 REMARKS: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 62 Chapter # 7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 63 CONCLUSION -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 63

LIST OF FIGURESFIG. 1.1 OPERATIONAL LIMITS OF THE TRANSMISSION LINES .............................................. 4 FIG. 1.2 OVERVIEW OF MAJOR FACT DEVICES ........................................................................... 6 FIG. 1.3 TYPICAL SVC CONFIGURATIONS .................................................................................... 9 FIG. 2.1 THE UNIFIED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER (UPFC) ................................................... 12 FIG. 2.2 STATCOM ............................................................................................................................ 13 FIG. 2.3 STATIC SYNCHRONOUS SERIES COMPENSATOR ...................................................... 14 FIG. 2.4 EFFECT OF SSSC ON TRANSMIS