The Sonnet: Petrarch, Ronsard, Shakespeare, Herrick ...myweb.fsu.edu/ess07/pdf/ Sonnet: Petrarch, Ronsard, Shakespeare, Herrick, WordsworthThe Sonnet: ... invention of the sonnet but Petrarch perfected it. ... (woods, rivers). Poems of ...

  • Published on
    14-Mar-2018

  • View
    215

  • Download
    2

Transcript

Elliott StegallThe Sonnet: Petrarch, Ronsard, Shakespeare, Herrick, WordsworthThe Sonnet: Petrarch, Ronsard, Shakespeare, Herrick, WordsworthIf you would find an explanation for all this, you must recollect that although the delights of poetry are most If you would find an explanation for all this, you must recollect that although the delights of poetry are most exquisite, they can be fully understood only by the rarest geniuses, who are careless of wealth and possess a exquisite, they can be fully understood only by the rarest geniuses, who are careless of wealth and possess a marked contempt for the things of this world, and who are by nature especially endowed with a peculiar marked contempt for the things of this world, and who are by nature especially endowed with a peculiar l d f d f l C l d h h f h l dl d f d f l C l d h h f h l delevation and freedom of soul. Consequently, as experience and the authority of the most learned writers elevation and freedom of soul. Consequently, as experience and the authority of the most learned writers agree, in no branch of art can mere industry and application accomplish so little.agree, in no branch of art can mere industry and application accomplish so little.The SonnetThe earliest recorded sonnets are by Giacomo (or Iacopo) da Lentini, called "il Notaro" (fl. 1233 - ca. 1245), who was at the court of the Emperor Frederick II ( ), pin Sicily (reigned 1220-1250). Giacomo da Lentini is usually credited with the invention of the sonnet but Petrarch perfected it. Most of the entries in Il Canzoniere are sonnetsMost of the entries in Il Canzoniere are sonnets. The Petrarchan sonnet, at least in its Italian-language form, generally follows a set rhyme scheme, which runs as follows: abba abba cdc dcd. The first eight lines, or octave, do not often deviate from the abba abba pattern, but the last six lines, or sestet, frequently follow a different pattern, such as cde cde, cde ced, or cdc dee. Each line also has the same number of syllables, usually 11 or 7 by Petrarch The English Sonnet has 10 syllables per line7 by Petrarch. The English Sonnet has 10 syllables per line. How to write a sonnet:http://petrarch.petersadlon.com/submissions/Sonnet.pdfPetrarch:Petrarch:The Canzoniere (the Songbook) #The Canzoniere (the Songbook) #11You who hear the sound in scattered rhymesYou who hear the sound in scattered rhymesYou who hear the sound, in scattered rhymes, You who hear the sound, in scattered rhymes, of those sighs on which I fed my heart,of those sighs on which I fed my heart,in my first vagrant youthfulness,in my first vagrant youthfulness,when I was partly other than I am,when I was partly other than I am,I hope to find pity, and forgiveness,I hope to find pity, and forgiveness,for all the modes in which I talk and weep,for all the modes in which I talk and weep,between vain hope and vain sadness,between vain hope and vain sadness,in those who understand love through its trialsin those who understand love through its trialsin those who understand love through its trials. in those who understand love through its trials. Yet I see clearly now I have becomeYet I see clearly now I have becomean old tale amongst all these people, so thatan old tale amongst all these people, so thatit often makes me ashamed of myself;it often makes me ashamed of myself;it often makes me ashamed of myself;it often makes me ashamed of myself;and shame is the fruit of my vanities,and shame is the fruit of my vanities,and remorse, and the clearest knowledgeand remorse, and the clearest knowledgeof how the world's delight is a brief dreamof how the world's delight is a brief dreamof how the world s delight is a brief dream.of how the world s delight is a brief dream.Petrarch Petrarch I'vo pensandoI'vo pensando (I go thinking) #264(I go thinking) #264I thi ki d t itI thi ki d t itI go thinking, and so strong a pityI go thinking, and so strong a pityfor myself assails me in thought,for myself assails me in thought,that I'm forced sometimesthat I'm forced sometimesto weep with other tears than once I did:to weep with other tears than once I did:for seeing my end nearer every dayfor seeing my end nearer every dayfor seeing my end nearer every day,for seeing my end nearer every day,I've asked God a thousand times for those wingsI've asked God a thousand times for those wingswith which our intellectwith which our intellectcan rise from this mortal prison to heaven.can rise from this mortal prison to heaven.But till now nothing has eased me,But till now nothing has eased me,i h I di h I dno prayers, or sighs, or tears I produce:no prayers, or sighs, or tears I produce:and that is what has to be,and that is what has to be,since he who had strength to stand, but fell on the way,since he who had strength to stand, but fell on the way,deserves to lie on the ground and find his level.deserves to lie on the ground and find his level.I see those merciful armsI see those merciful armsI see those merciful arms,I see those merciful arms,I which I believe, still open wide,I which I believe, still open wide,but fear grips mebut fear grips meat other's example, and I tremble at my state,at other's example, and I tremble at my state,that spurs me higher, and perhaps I near the end.that spurs me higher, and perhaps I near the end.My Lord why will you not freeMy Lord why will you not freeMy Lord, why will you not freeMy Lord, why will you not freemy face ever of this blush of shame?my face ever of this blush of shame?Like a man who dreamsLike a man who dreamsLike a man who dreams,Like a man who dreams,death seems to be before my eyes:death seems to be before my eyes:and I would make defence yet have noand I would make defence yet have noand I would make defence, yet have no and I would make defence, yet have no weapons.weapons.I see what I have done truth badly understoodI see what I have done, truth badly understooddoes not deceive me, rather Love compels me,he who never lets those who believein him too much follow the path of honour:and I feel a gracious disdain, bitter and severe,from time to time, in my heart,that reveals every hidden thoughton my forehead, where others see:on my forehead, where others see:to love a mortal being with such faithas is owed to God alone, is the moredenied to those who seek more merit.A d it i t till i l d iAnd it cries out still in a loud voiceto reason, lead astray by the senses:but though mind hears, and thoughtattends, habit spurs it on,, p ,and pictures to the eyesher who was born only to make me perish,by pleasing me too much, and herself.I do not know what span heaven allotted meI do not know what span heaven allotted mewhen I was newly come to this earthwhen I was newly come to this earthwhen I was newly come to this earthwhen I was newly come to this earthto suffer the bitter warto suffer the bitter warthat I contrive to wage against myself:that I contrive to wage against myself:nor through the corporeal veil can Inor through the corporeal veil can Ianticipate the day that ends my life:anticipate the day that ends my life:but I see my hair alterbut I see my hair alterbut I see my hair alterbut I see my hair alterand my desires change within me.and my desires change within me.Now that I think the time for deathNow that I think the time for deathis near, or at least not far,is near, or at least not far,I'm like one that loss makes shrewd and wise,I'm like one that loss makes shrewd and wise,thinking of how it was he left the paththinking of how it was he left the paththinking of how it was he left the paththinking of how it was he left the pathof right, that brings us to our true harbour:of right, that brings us to our true harbour:and I feel the goadand I feel the goadof shame and grief turning me about:of shame and grief turning me about:yet the other does not free me,yet the other does not free me,that pleasure so strong in me by customthat pleasure so strong in me by customthat pleasure so strong in me by customthat pleasure so strong in me by customthat it dares to bargain with death.that it dares to bargain with death.Song, you know I grow colderSong, you know I grow colderSong, you know I grow colderSong, you know I grow colderwith fear than frozen snow,with fear than frozen snow,knowing I must truly die:knowing I must truly die:g yg yand that by indecision I've always turnedand that by indecision I've always turnedto ashes the best part of my life's brief thread:to ashes the best part of my life's brief thread:h h i b dh h i b dnor was there ever a heavier burdennor was there ever a heavier burdenthat that which I sustain in this state:that that which I sustain in this state:for with death at my sidefor with death at my sidefor with death at my sidefor with death at my sideI search for new help in living,I search for new help in living,and see the better and cling to the worstand see the better and cling to the worstand see the better, and cling to the worst.and see the better, and cling to the worst.90 90 The golden hair was loosened in the breezeThe golden hair was loosened in the breezeThe golden hair was loosened in the breeze The golden hair was loosened in the breeze That in many sweet knots whirled it and reeled, That in many sweet knots whirled it and reeled, And the dear light seemed ever to increase And the dear light seemed ever to increase Of those fair eyes that now keep it concealed: Of those fair eyes that now keep it concealed: And the face seemed to color, and the glance And the face seemed to color, and the glance To feel pity, who knows if false or true; To feel pity, who knows if false or true; I who had in my breast the loving cue, I who had in my breast the loving cue, Is it surprising if I flared at once? Is it surprising if I flared at once? Her gait was not like that of mortal things, Her gait was not like that of mortal things, But of angelic forms; and her words' sound But of angelic forms; and her words' sound Was not like that which from our voices springs; Was not like that which from our voices springs; A divine spirit and a living sun A divine spirit and a living sun Was what I saw; if such it is not found, Was what I saw; if such it is not found, The wound remains, although the bow is gone. The wound remains, although the bow is gone. Sonnets of Petrarch: http://website.lineone.net/~ssiggeman/petrarch1.htmlPIERRE de RONSARD, 1524PIERRE de RONSARD, 1524--1585.1585.PIERRE de RONSARD, 1524PIERRE de RONSARD, 1524 1585.1585.Ronsard's early years gave little sign of his vocation. He was for some time a Ronsard's early years gave little sign of his vocation. He was for some time a page of the court, was in the service of James V. of Scotland, and had his page of the court, was in the service of James V. of Scotland, and had his share of shipwrecks, battles, and amorous adventures. An illness which share of shipwrecks, battles, and amorous adventures. An illness which produced total deafness made him a scholar and poet, as in another age and produced total deafness made him a scholar and poet, as in another age and p p , gp p , gcountry it might have made him a saint and an ascetic. country it might have made him a saint and an ascetic. With all his industry, and almost religious zeal for art, he is one of the poets With all his industry, and almost religious zeal for art, he is one of the poets who make themselves rather than are born singers His epic the Franciadewho make themselves rather than are born singers His epic the Franciadewho make themselves, rather than are born singers. His epic, the Franciade, who make themselves, rather than are born singers. His epic, the Franciade, is as tedious as other artificial epics, and his odes are almost unreadable. is as tedious as other artificial epics, and his odes are almost unreadable. We are never allowed to forget that he is the poet who read the Iliad We are never allowed to forget that he is the poet who read the Iliad through in three days. He is more mythological than Pindar. through in three days. He is more mythological than Pindar. His constant allusion to his grey hair, an affectation which may be noticed in His constant allusion to his grey hair, an affectation which may be noticed in Shelley, is borrowed from Anacreon (A Greek lyric poet 582 Shelley, is borrowed from Anacreon (A Greek lyric poet 582 485 BC). 485 BC). Many of the sonnets in which he 'petrarquizes,' retain the faded odour of Many of the sonnets in which he 'petrarquizes,' retain the faded odour of y p q ,y p q ,the roses he loved; and his songs have fire and melancholy and a sense as the roses he loved; and his songs have fire and melancholy and a sense as of perfume from 'a closet long to quiet vowed, with mothed and dropping of perfume from 'a closet long to quiet vowed, with mothed and dropping arras hung.' Ronsard's great fame declined but he has been duly honoured arras hung.' Ronsard's great fame declined but he has been duly honoured by the newest school of French poetry. by the newest school of French poetry. y p yy p yThe forms that dominate the poetic production of these poets are The forms that dominate the poetic production of these poets are h P h l (d l d dh P h l (d l d dthe Petrarchan sonnet cycle (developed around an amorous the Petrarchan sonnet cycle (developed around an amorous encounter or an idealized woman) and the encounter or an idealized woman) and the Horatian/Anacreontic ode (of the 'wine, women and song' Horatian/Anacreontic ode (of the 'wine, women and song' variety often making use of the Horatian "carpe diem" toposvariety often making use of the Horatian "carpe diem" toposvariety, often making use of the Horatian carpe diem topos variety, often making use of the Horatian carpe diem topos --life is short, seize the day). Ronsard also tried early on to adapt life is short, seize the day). Ronsard also tried early on to adapt the Pindaric ode into French and, later, to write a nationalist the Pindaric ode into French and, later, to write a nationalist verse epic modelled on Homer and Virgil (entitled the verse epic modelled on Homer and Virgil (entitled the ve se ep c ode ed o o e a d V g (e t t ed t eve se ep c ode ed o o e a d V g (e t t ed t eFranciade), which he never completed. Throughout the period, Franciade), which he never completed. Throughout the period, the use of mythology is frequent, but so too is a depiction of the use of mythology is frequent, but so too is a depiction of the natural world (woods, rivers).the natural world (woods, rivers).PoemsofPierredeRonsard1550PoemsofPierredeRonsard1550PoemsofPierredeRonsard1550PoemsofPierredeRonsard1550ROSESROSESROSESROSESIsendyouhereawreathofblossomsblown,Isendyouhereawreathofblossomsblown,Andwovenflowersatsunsetgathered,Andwovenflowersatsunsetgathered,Anotherdawnhadseenthemruined,andshedAnotherdawnhadseenthemruined,andshedAnotherdawnhadseenthemruined,andshedAnotherdawnhadseenthemruined,andshedLooseleavesuponthegrassatrandomstrown.Looseleavesuponthegrassatrandomstrown.Bythis,theirsureexample,beitknown,Bythis,theirsureexample,beitknown,Thatallyourbeauties,nowinperfectflower,Thatallyourbeauties,nowinperfectflower,y , p ,y , p ,Shallfadeasthese,andwitherinanhour,Shallfadeasthese,andwitherinanhour,Flowerlike,andbriefofdays,astheflowersown.Flowerlike,andbriefofdays,astheflowersown.Ah,timeisflying,ladyAh,timeisflying,ladytimeisflying;timeisflying;Nay 'tisnottimethatfliesbutwethatgo Nay 'tisnottimethatfliesbutwethatgo Nay, tisnottimethatfliesbutwethatgo,Nay, tisnottimethatfliesbutwethatgo,Whoinshortspaceshallbeinchurchyardlying,Whoinshortspaceshallbeinchurchyardlying,Andofourlovingparleynoneshallknow,Andofourlovingparleynoneshallknow,Noranymanconsiderwhatwewere;Noranymanconsiderwhatwewere;Noranymanconsiderwhatwewere;Noranymanconsiderwhatwewere;Bethereforekind,mylove,whilesthouartfair.Bethereforekind,mylove,whilesthouartfair.(thisfontiscalledConstantia)Les Amours de Marie: VILes Amours de Marie: VIIm sending you some flowers, that my handIm sending you some flowers, that my handPicked just now from all this blossoming,Picked just now from all this blossoming,That, if theyd not been gathered this evening,That, if theyd not been gathered this evening,Tomorrow would be scattered on the ground.Tomorrow would be scattered on the ground.Take this for an example, one thats sound,Take this for an example, one thats sound,That your beauty, in all its floweringThat your beauty, in all its floweringWill fall in a moment quickly witheringWill fall in a moment quickly witheringWill fall, in a moment, quickly withering,Will fall, in a moment, quickly withering,And like the flowers will no more be found.And like the flowers will no more be found.Time goes by my lady: time goes byTime goes by my lady: time goes byTime goes by, my lady: time goes by,Time goes by, my lady: time goes by,Ah! Its not time but we ourselves who pass,Ah! Its not time but we ourselves who pass,And soon beneath the silent tomb we lie:And soon beneath the silent tomb we lie:And after death therell be no news, alas,And after death therell be no news, alas,Of these desires of which we are so full:Of these desires of which we are so full:So love me now, while you are beautiful.So love me now, while you are beautiful.Note: Ronsards Marie was an unidentified country girl from Anjou.Note: Ronsards Marie was an unidentified country girl from Anjou.TO HIS YOUNG MISTRESSTO HIS YOUNG MISTRESSRONSARD 1550RONSARD 1550RONSARD, 1550.RONSARD, 1550.Fair flower of fifteen springs, that still Fair flower of fifteen springs, that still p g ,p g ,Art scarcely blossomed from the bud, Art scarcely blossomed from the bud, Yet hast such store of evil will, Yet hast such store of evil will, A heart so full of hardihood, A heart so full of hardihood, Seeking to hide in friendly wise Seeking to hide in friendly wise The mischief of your mocking eyes. The mischief of your mocking eyes. If you have pity, child, give o'er; If you have pity, child, give o'er; Give back the heart you stole from me, Give back the heart you stole from me, Pirate, setting so little store Pirate, setting so little store On this your captive from Love's sea, On this your captive from Love's sea, Holding his misery for gain, Holding his misery for gain, And making pleasure of his painAnd making pleasure of his painAnd making pleasure of his pain. And making pleasure of his pain. Another, not so fair of face, Another, not so fair of face, But far more pitiful than you, But far more pitiful than you, Would take my heart, if of his grace, Would take my heart, if of his grace, My heart would give her of Love's due; My heart would give her of Love's due; d h h ll h i i fi dd h h ll h i i fi dAnd she shall have it, since I find And she shall have it, since I find That you are cruel and unkind. That you are cruel and unkind. Nay, I would rather that it died, Nay, I would rather that it died, Within your white hands prisoning, Within your white hands prisoning, Would rather that it still abide Would rather that it still abide In your ungentle comforting. In your ungentle comforting. Than change its faith, and seek to her Than change its faith, and seek to her That is more kind, but not so fair. That is more kind, but not so fair. Sonnets Pour Helene Book I: LSonnets Pour Helene Book I: LSonnets Pour Helene Book I: LSonnets Pour Helene Book I: LThough the human spirit gives itself noble airsThough the human spirit gives itself noble airsIn Platos doctrine, who calls it divine influx,In Platos doctrine, who calls it divine influx,Without the body it would do nothing much,Without the body it would do nothing much,Without the body it would do nothing much,Without the body it would do nothing much,While vainly praising its origin up there.While vainly praising its origin up there.The soul sees through the senses, imagines, hears,The soul sees through the senses, imagines, hears,Has from the bodys powers its acts and looks:Has from the bodys powers its acts and looks:Th i it b di d h it k b kTh i it b di d h it k b kThe spirit once embodied has wit, makes books,The spirit once embodied has wit, makes books,Matter makes it more perfect and more fair.Matter makes it more perfect and more fair.You love the spirit, now, and yet, without reason,You love the spirit, now, and yet, without reason,You say that all passions defiled by the body.You say that all passions defiled by the body.y p y yy p y yTo say so is merely a fault of imaginationTo say so is merely a fault of imaginationThat takes what is false for true reality:That takes what is false for true reality:And recalls the ancient myth of Ixion,And recalls the ancient myth of Ixion,Who fed on air and loved a clouds deceitWho fed on air and loved a clouds deceitWho fed on air, and loved a cloud s deceit.Who fed on air, and loved a cloud s deceit.Note: Ixion tried to seduce Juno, but Jupiter substituted a cloud for her person. Ronsard refers to NeoNote: Ixion tried to seduce Juno, but Jupiter substituted a cloud for her person. Ronsard refers to Neo--Platonic metaphysics in criticising Platos Idealism. Compare John Donnes poem The Ecstasie. Donne Platonic metaphysics in criticising Platos Idealism. Compare John Donnes poem The Ecstasie. Donne like Marvell seems to have been influenced by Ronsard and his peers.like Marvell seems to have been influenced by Ronsard and his peers.Poems of Ronsard:http://www.tonykline.co.uk/PITBR/French/Ronsard.htmShakespearean sonnetNot only is the English sonnet the easiest in terms of its rhyme scheme, calling for only pairs of rhyming words rather than groups of 4, but it is the most flexible in terms of the placement of the volta Shakespeare (1564 1616) often places the "turn " as in the Italian at L9:of the volta. Shakespeare (1564 1616) often places the turn, as in the Italian, at L9: "Sonnet XXIX"When in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes,I all alone beweep my outcast state,And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries,And look upon myself and curse my fate,Wishing me like to one more rich in hopeWishing me like to one more rich in hope,Featured like him, like him with friends possessed,Desiring this man's art and that man's scope,With what I most enjoy contented least,Yet in these thoughts my self almost despising,Haply I think on thee, and then my state,(Like to the lark at break of day arisingFrom sullen earth) sings hymns at heaven's gate,From sullen earth) sings hymns at heaven s gate,For thy sweet love remembered such wealth brings,That then I scorn to change my state with kings.Robert Herrick (1591Robert Herrick (1591--1674)1674)Robert Herrick (1591Robert Herrick (1591 1674)1674)TOTHEVIRGINS,TOMAKEMUCHOFTIME.GATHERyerosebudswhileyemay,Oldtimeisstillaflying:Oldtimeisstilla flying:AndthissameflowerthatsmilestodayTomorrowwillbedying.Thegloriouslampofheaven,thesun,Th hi h h ' iThehigherhe'sagetting,Thesoonerwillhisraceberun,Andnearerhe'stosetting.Thatageisbestwhichisthefirst,g ,Whenyouthandbloodarewarmer;Butbeingspent,theworse,andworstTimesstillsucceedtheformer.Th b t b t tiThenbenotcoy,butuseyourtime,Andwhileyemaygomarry:ForhavinglostbutonceyourprimeYoumayforevertarry.y yWilliam Wordsworth (1770William Wordsworth (1770 1850)1850)William Wordsworth (1770 William Wordsworth (1770 1850)1850)"London 1802""London 1802"London, 1802London, 1802Milton!thoushouldstbelivingatthishour:Milton!thoushouldstbelivingatthishour:Englandhathneedofthee:sheisafenEnglandhathneedofthee:sheisafenOf l d d Of l d d Ofstagnantwaters:altar,sword,andpen,Ofstagnantwaters:altar,sword,andpen,Fireside,theheroicwealthofhallandbower,Fireside,theheroicwealthofhallandbower,HaveforfeitedtheirancientEnglishdowerHaveforfeitedtheirancientEnglishdowerOfi dh i W lfi h Ofi dh i W lfi h Ofinwardhappiness.Weareselfishmen;Ofinwardhappiness.Weareselfishmen;Oh!raiseusup,returntousagain;Oh!raiseusup,returntousagain;Andgiveusmanners,virtue,freedom,power.Andgiveusmanners,virtue,freedom,power.Th l lik S dd l Th l lik S dd l ThysoulwaslikeaStar,anddweltapart;ThysoulwaslikeaStar,anddweltapart;Thouhadstavoicewhosesoundwaslikethesea:Thouhadstavoicewhosesoundwaslikethesea:Pureasthenakedheavens,majestic,free,Pureasthenakedheavens,majestic,free,S did h l lif ' S did h l lif ' Sodidstthoutravelonlife'scommonway,Sodidstthoutravelonlife'scommonway,Incheerfulgodliness;andyetthyheartIncheerfulgodliness;andyetthyheartThelowliestdutiesonherselfdidlay.Thelowliestdutiesonherselfdidlay.Here, the octave develops the idea of the decline and corruption of the English race, while the sestet opposes to that loss Here, the octave develops the idea of the decline and corruption of the English race, while the sestet opposes to that loss the qualities Milton possessed which the race now desperately needs.the qualities Milton possessed which the race now desperately needs.

Recommended

View more >