The Next Generation of Library Automation and Discovery: Key Issues and Trends

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Marshall Breeding Independent Consult, Author, Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides The Next Generation of Library Automation and Discovery: Key Issues and Trends. WiLSWorld Conference. July 25, 2012. Summary. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Next Generation of Library Automation and Discovery: Key Issues and TrendsMarshall BreedingIndependent Consult, Author, Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides

July 25, 2012WiLSWorld ConferenceSummaryLibraries today face incredible challenges as they face challenges brought on by shifts in their collections to include ever increasing of electronic content, never-ending budget pressures, and rising expectations by their customers for instant access to information. In response to these challenges, libraries demand more effective and efficient automation solutions with requirements for additional features and functionality aligned with these new realities that may not have been present in previous automation products. In the past, libraries could gain adequate automation by choosing the best integrated library system that fit their technical requirements and budget. Now, for better or worse, many choices now exist that represent quite different paths, including decisions regarding open source versus proprietary products, evolutionary ILS versus new-generation library services platforms, online catalogs versus discovery services, locally implemented versus cloud-based deployment. Marshall Breeding will present an overview of the current library automation landscape, highlighting the advantages and concerns presented by this new slate of alternatives.Library Technology Guides

www.librarytechnology.orgILS Turnover Report

ILS Turnover Report -- Reverse

Mergers and Acquisitions Context: Libraries in TransitionAcademic Shift from Print > ElectronicE-journal transition largely completeCirculation of print collections slowingE-books now in play (consultation > reading)Public: Emphasis on Patron EngagementIncreased pressure on physical facilities Increased circulation of print collectionsDramatic increase in interest in e-booksAll libraries:Need better tools for access to complex multi-format collectionsStrong emphasis on digitizing local collectionsDemands for enterprise integration and interoperabilityKey Context: Technologies in transitionClient / Server > Web-based computingBeyond Web 2.0Integration of social computing into core infrastructureLocal computing shifting to cloud platformsApplication Service Provider offerings standardNew expectations for multi-tenant software-as-a-serviceFull spectrum of devices full-scale / net book / tablet / mobileMobile the current focus, but is only one example of device and interface cyclesKey Text: Changed expectations in metadata managementMoving away from individual record-by-record creation Life cycle of metadata Metadata follows the supply chain, improved and enhanced along the way as neededManage metadata in bulk when possibleE-book collectionsHighly shared metadata E-journal knowledge bases, e.g.Great interest in moving toward semantic web and open linked dataVery little progress in linked data for operational systemsAACR2 > RDA MARC > RDF (Library of Congress bibliographic framework transition) Library Type DistinctiveAcademic Public School SpecialAcademic: Emphasis on subscribed electronic resourcesPublic: Engaged in the management of print collectionsDramatic increase in interest in E-books School: Age-appropriate resources (print and Web), textbook and media managementSpecial: Enterprise knowledge management (Corporate, Law, Medical, etc)Cooperation and Resource sharingEfforts on many fronts to cooperate and consolidateMany regional consortia merging (Example: suburban Chicago systems)State-wide or national implementationsSoftware-as-a-service or cloud based implementationsMany libraries share computing infrastructure and data resourcesEach Library Type DistinctiveAcademic Public School SpecialAcademic: Emphasis on subscribed electronic resourcesPublic: Engaged in the management of print collectionsDramatic increase in interest in E-books School: Age-appropriate resources (print and Web), textbook and media managementSpecial: Enterprise knowledge management (Corporate, Law, Medical, etc)Cooperation and Resource sharingEfforts on many fronts to cooperate and consolidateMany regional consortia merging (Example: suburban Chicago systems)State-wide or national implementationsSoftware-as-a-service or cloud based implementationsMany libraries share computing infrastructure and data resourcesStatus Quo Sustainable?ILS for management of (mostly) printDuplicative financial systems between library and campusElectronic Resource Management (non-integrated with ILS)OpenURL Link Resolver w/ knowledge base for access to full-text electronic articlesDigital Collections Management platforms (CONTENTdm, DigiTool, etc.)Institutional Repositories (DSpace, Fedora, etc.)Discovery-layer services for broader access to library collectionsNo effective integration services / interoperability among disconnected systems, non-aligned metadata schemes

Academic Library IssuesGreater concern with electronic resourcesManagement: Need for consolidated approach that balances print, digital, and electronic workflowsAccess: discovery interfaces that maximize the value of investments in electronic contentCloud ComputingMajor trend in Information TechnologyFew organizations have core competence in large-scale computer infrastructure managementEssentially outsourcing of server housing and managementUsually based on a consumption-based business modelMost new automation products delivered through some flavor of cloud computingMany flavors to suit business needs: public, private, hybridSoftware as a ServiceMulti Tennant SaaS is the modern approachOne copy of the code base serves multiple sitesSoftware functionality delivered entirely through Web interfacesNo workstation clientsUpgrades and fixes deployed universallyUsually in small incrementsData as a serviceSaaS provides opportunity for highly shared data modelsWorldCat: one globally shared copy that serves all librariesPrimo Central: central index of articles maintained by Ex Libris shared by all libraries implementing Primo / Primo CentralKnowledgeWorks database of of e-journal holdings shared among all customers of Serials Solutions productsGeneral opportunity to move away from library-by-library metadata management to globally shared workflowsOpen SystemsAchieving openness has risen as the key driver behind library technology strategiesLibraries need to do more with their dataAbility to improve customer experience and operational efficienciesDemand for InteroperabilityOpen source full access to internal program of the applicationOpen APIs expose programmatic interfaces to data and functionalityMobile Computing

Challenge: Disjointed approach to information and service deliveryLibrary Web sites offer a menu of unconnected silos:Books: Library OPAC (ILS online catalog module)Articles: Aggregated content products, e-journal collectionsOpenURL linking servicesE-journal finding aids (Often managed by link resolver)Subject guides (e.g. Springshare LibGuides)Local digital collectionsETDs, photos, rich media collectionsMetasearch enginesDiscovery Services often just another choice among manyAll searched separatelyOnline CatalogBooks, Journals, and Media at the Title LevelNot in scope:ArticlesBook ChaptersDigital objectsWeb site contentEtc.Scope of SearchSearch: Search ResultsILS DataNext-gen Catalogs or Discovery Interface (2002-2009)Single search boxQuery toolsDid you meanType-aheadRelevance ranked results (for some content sources)Faceted navigationEnhanced visual displaysCover artSummaries, reviews,Recommendation servicesDiscovery Interface search modelSearch: Digital CollectionsProQuestEBSCOhostMLA BibliographyABC-CLIOSearch ResultsReal-time query and responsesILS DataLocal IndexMetaSearch EngineDiscovery Products

Differentiation in DiscoveryProducts increasingly specialized between public and academic librariesPublic libraries: emphasis on engagement with physical collectionAcademic libraries: concern for discovery of heterogeneous material types, especially books + articles + digital objectsDiscovery from Local to Web-scaleInitial products focused on technologyAquaBrowser, Endeca, Primo, Encore, VuFind, LIBERO Uno, Civica Sorcer, Axiell ArenaMostly locally-installed softwareCurrent phase is focused on pre-populated indexes that aim to deliver Web-scale discoveryPrimo Central (Ex Libris)Summon (Serials Solutions)WorldCat Local (OCLC)EBSCO Discovery Service (EBSCO)Encore with Article Integration (no index, though)Web-scale Index-based DiscoverySearch: Digital CollectionsWeb Site ContentInstitutional RepositoriesE-JournalsReference SourcesSearch ResultsPre-built harvesting and indexingConsolidated IndexILS DataAggregated Content packages

(2009- present)Web-scale Search ProblemSearch: Search ResultsPre-built harvesting and indexingConsolidated Index???Non ParticipatingContent SourcesProblem in how to deal with resources not provided to ingest into consolidated indexDigital CollectionsWeb Site ContentInstitutional RepositoriesE-JournalsILS DataAggregated Content packagesEncore SynergySearch: Digital CollectionsProQuestLocal IndexILS DataWeb ServicesLocal Index ResultsLocal Index ResultsRemote Search ResultsEBSCOhostMLA BibliographyABC-CLIO

Consolidated indexSearch EngineUnified Presentation Layer

Search: Digital CollProQuestEBSCOJSTOROther ResourcesNew Library Management Model`API LayerLibrary Services PlatformLearningManagementEnterprise ResourcePlanningStockManagementSelf-Check /Automated ReturnAuthenticationServiceSmart Cad / Payment systemsDiscovery ServiceAdoption of Discovery ServicesNext-gen catalogs or discovery services have been around since 2002Many mature productsContinuing to evolve and expandOnline catalog components of ILS products have taken on many of the characteristics of discovery layersExamples: LS2 PAC, Polaris PowerPACDiscovery Service InstallationsDiscovery Product20072008200920102011InstalledPrimo123753506111914AquaBrowser55339646974254Encore72721095672326LS2 PAC46775888236Summon50164214407Enterprise1675100251Civica Sorcer7122239Axiell Arena61573376Chamo1034751EBSCO Discovery Service

Global Primo Installations

Summon Global Adoption

Expanding the Depth of DiscoveryCitations / Metadata > Full TextCitations or structured metadata provide key data to power search & retrieval and faceted navigationIndexing Full-text of content amplifies access Important to understand depth indexingCurrency, dates covered, full-text or citationMany other factors Full-text Book indexingHathiTrust: 11 million volumes, 5.3 million titles, 263,000 serial titles, 3.5 billion pagesHathiTrust in Discovery IndexesPrimo Central (Jan 20, 2012) [previously indexed only metadata]EBSCO Discovery Service (Sept 8 2011)WorldCat Local (Sept 7, 2011)Summon (Mar 28, 2011)Challenge for RelevancyTechnically feasible to index hundreds of millions or billions of records through Lucene or SOLRDifficult to order records in ways that make senseMany fairly equivalent candidates returned for any given queryMust rely on use-based and social factors to improve relevancy rankingsQuest for Improved RelevancyExample: Ex Libris Primo ScholarRank Relevancy tuned for scholarly contentUses bX data to assign score that reflects scholarly importanceAble to weight by disciplines and filter by other factors for signed-in usersNow available in Primo Version 4

Challenges for Collection CoverageTo work effectively, discovery services need to cover comprehensively the body of content represented in library collectionsWhat about publishers that do not participate?Is content indexed at the citation or full-text level?What are the restrictions for non-authenticated users?How can libraries understand the differences in coverage among competing services?Evaluating the Coverage of Index-based Discovery ServicesIntense competition: how well the index covers the body of scholarly content stands as a key differentiatorDifficult to evaluate based on numbers of items indexed alone. Important to ascertain now your librarys content packages are represented by the discovery service.Important to know what items are indexed by citation and which are full textImportant to know whether the discovery service favors the content of any given publisherOpen Discovery InitiativeNISO Work Group to Develop Standards and Recommended Practices for Library Discovery Services Based on Indexed SearchInformal meeting called at ALA Annual 2011Co-Chaired by Marshall Breeding and Jenny WalkerTerm: Dec 2011 May 2013

Balance of Constituents45Marshall Breeding, Vanderbilt UniversityJamene Brooks-Kieffer, Kansas State University Laura Morse, Harvard UniversityKen Varnum, University of Michigan

Anya Arnold, Orbis Cascade AllianceSara Brownmiller, University of OregonLucy Harrison, College Center for Library Automation (D2D liaison/observer)Lettie Conrad, SAGE PublicationsBeth LaPensee, ITHAKA/JSTOR/PorticoJeff Lang, Thomson Reuters

Linda Beebe, American Psychological AssocAaron Wood, Alexander Street PressJenny Walker, Ex Libris GroupJohn Law, Serials SolutionsMichael Gorrell, EBSCO Information ServicesDavid Lindahl, University of Rochester (XC)Jeff Penka, OCLC (D2D liaison/observer)

TimelineMilestoneTarget DateStatusAppointment of working groupDecember 2011Approval of charge and initial work planMarch 2012Agreement on process and toolsJune 2012Completion of information gatheringOctober 2012Completion of initial draftJanuary 2013Completion of final draftMay 201346

46ODI Project Goals:Identify needs and requirements of the three stakeholder groups in this area of work. Create recommendations and tools to streamline the process by which information providers, discovery service providers, and librarians work together to better serve libraries and their users. Provide effective means for librarians to assess the level of participation by information providers in discovery services, to evaluate the breadth and depth of content indexed and the degree to which this content is made available to the user. The rise of e-booksAcademic libraries: e-books included in aggregated content packagesE-books used primarily for research and consultation, not long readingPublic Libraries: Subscriptions to e-book services that provide an outsourced collection of loanable e-booksK-12 Schools, Colleges, Universities: interest in electronic textbooksIntegrating e-Books into Library Automation InfrastructureCurrent approach involves mostly outsourced arrangementsCollections licensed wholesale from single providerHand-off to DRM and delivery systems of providersLoading of MARC records into local catalog with linking mechanismsNo ability to see availability status of e-books from the librarys online catalog or discovery interfaceTechnology IssuesAccess to materials...


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