# The Geographer’s Tools. Eratosthenes- calculated the circumference of the earth around 255 B.C.

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The Geographers Tools

The Geographers ToolsThe Geographers ToolsEratosthenes- calculated the circumference of the earth around 255 B.C.

Geographers Tools: Maps and GlobesGlobe- a three-dimensional representation of the earthA way to view the earth as it travels through spaceNot always practical because they are not easily portable Maps- two-dimensional graphic representations of selected parts of the earths surface Easily portable, can be drawn to any scale neededDistortion occurs as the earths surface is flattened to create the map

Geographers Tools: Maps and GlobesCartographer- a mapmakerMap projection- a way of drawing Earths surface by presenting a round Earth on flat paperTypes of mapsGeneral reference maps, thematic maps, and navigational mapsWho was the first person to calculate the circumference of the earth?EmpedociesEratosthenesProtagoras[Default][MC Any][MC All]A globe is a two-dimensional graphic representation of selected parts of the earths surface.TrueFalseMapmakingSurveying: observe, measure, and record what is seen in a specific area (mostly done by aerial photography or by satellites)Satellites- provide geographic dateLandsat: a series of satellites that orbit more than 100 miles above EarthGeostationary Operation Environment Satellite (GOES): a weather satellite, flies in orbit in sync with Earths rotationhttp://youtu.be/Ezn1ne2Fj6Y Geographic Information Systems (GIS)A geographic information system (GIS) lets us visualize, question, analyze, interpret, and understand data to reveal relationships, patterns, and trends

Global Positioning System (GPS)Uses a series of satellites called Navstars, which beam information to the earthThe exact position-latitude, longitude, latitude, and time is then displayed on a hand-held receiverhttp://youtu.be/fpPwMu3foGg Geography SkillsFinding locationMagnetic compasses: introduced by the Chinese around the 1100s helped to accurately determine directionTheodolite: a type of surveying instrument that precisely measures angles and distances on the earthGeography SkillsScale: the relationship between distance on a map and on the earths surface (a scale shows distance!)Small scale- shows a large area but without much detail; used to see relative location in a region or between regionsLarge scale- shows a small area with much more detail; used to see relative location within a region Is this a large scale or small scale map?Small ScaleLarge Scale[Default][MC Any][MC All]

Geography Skills- Types of MapsPhysical Maps- maps that help you see the types of landforms and bodies of water found in a specific area Color, shading, or contour lines are used to indicate elevation or altitude Political Maps-show features on the earths surface that humans createdMay include cities, states, provinces, territories, or countriesWhat type of map is this?PoliticalPhysical[Default][MC Any][MC All]

Geography Skills-Types of MapsThematic Maps- focuses on specific types of informationClimate, vegetation, natural resources, population density, and economic activities