Text of The Enlightenment A New Way of Thinking. I. The Enlightenment A. A time when the use of reason...
The Enlightenment A New Way of Thinking
I. The Enlightenment A. A time when the use of reason (logical thinking) and science were applied to political, social and economic problems.
B. It was a direct result of absolutism. DONT WRITE The people of Europe became tired of the abuses of power by absolute monarchs.
John CalvinThomas Hobbes
II. Thinkers A. Philosophes: (Lovers of Wisdom) Enlightenment thinkers who applied methods of science to improve society.
B. They wrote about natural laws, or laws that govern human behavior.
Thomas Hobbes Wrote Leviathan (1651)
C. The best government, according to Hobbes, was one that had the absolute power of a leviathan (sea monster).
Views & Beliefs Man is naturally cruel and must be controlled. social contractMan gives up rights for order to enter into a social contract an agreement to give up mans natural state to live in organized society.
Ideas on Govt A powerful govt must ensure order and obedience An absolute monarchy Ideas on Govt
Impact Absolute monarchs used his ideas to justify their rule. Impact
John Locke Wrote Two Treatises of Government (1690)
Views & Beliefs Man is naturally good & born equal natural rights-Every man has natural rights- rights belonging to all humans (life, liberty and property) If govt fails the people, they have the right to overthrow it
Ideas on Govt Best govt is where leader is limited and is accepted by all citizens (democracy)
Impact Used as the basis for American, French and Latin Revolutions in the 1700s and for modern democracy Impact
wrote the Spirit of Laws (1748) The Baron de Montesquieu
Views & Beliefs Govt should be separated into three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. This would prevent tyranny by each branch being able to check the other two.
Ideas on Govt Favored limited monarchy (studied British, Chinese, & Native American govt)
Impact Used as the basis for the structure of the American govt (checks and balances) Impact
Voltaire wrote Candide (1759)
Views & Beliefs published more than 70 books about the right to free speech. Promoted civil rights & religious toleration He targeted corrupted officials and offended the Catholic church.
Ideas on Govt Enlightened monarchs were best
Impact He helped make liberalism (the philosophy that emphasizes change, freedom from tradition and individual rights) more popular Impact
Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote The Social Contract (1762)
Views & Beliefs People are naturally good but are corrupted by the inequality of society. People should give up some rights for the common good. The general will of the people is for good. The individual should be subordinate to the community.
Ideas on Govt Two Views Democracy authority given to people OR Communism- good of the community over the individual
Impact His ideas helped spark the French Revolution. Impact
Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations (1776)
Views & Beliefs The free market- the natural forces of supply and demand, should be allowed to operate and regulate business. (If there is a demand for goods, suppliers will meet it) Believed in laissez-faire- allowing business to operate without govt interference.
Ideas on Govt Any govt that promotes laissez-faire economics
Impact Gave rise to capitalism and the Industrial Revolution Impact
Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women Supporter of womens rights Supporter of womens rights Argued that girls needed education as well as boys Argued that girls needed education as well as boys C. Mary Wollstonecraft
Mary Wollstonecrafts daughter, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, would write the classic novel Frankenstein. DONT WRITE
III. Spread of Ideas A. The printing press spread Enlightenment ideas throughout Europe.
B. Methods of Communication: 1. Diderots Encyclopedia: Political thoughts, writings and ideas all in one place.
2. Salons Informal social gatherings writers, artists, philosophers exchanged ideas & points of view Many women organized salons and used them to learn about the issues of the day.
IV. Enlightened Despots Absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change. Frederick the Great (Prussia) Catherine the Great (Russia) Joseph II (Austria)
V. Arts and Literature The middle class (merchants and town officials) influenced art and music. Baroque: A grand, bright style of art Rococo Style: Delicate Porcelain, portraits, tapestries Music: Composers- Bach, Mozart, Handel
VI. Effects Enlightenment ideas inspired a belief of personal freedom and equality. Enlightenment ideas inspired a belief of personal freedom and equality. These concepts, along with challenges to authority, caused a growth of democracy. These concepts, along with challenges to authority, caused a growth of democracy. The Enlightenment would contribute to an age of revolution! The Enlightenment would contribute to an age of revolution!