Thinking about Thinking Constructing Logical Support

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Thinking about Thinking Constructing Logical Support. By Kay M. Sagmiller OSU Center for Teaching and Learning. What thinking skills do your students lack and why does this concern you?. Workshop Objectives. 1. There are many different types of thinking - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Thinking about Thinking Constructing Logical Support

By Kay M. SagmillerOSU Center for Teaching and LearningWhat thinking skills do your students lack and why does this concern you?

Workshop Objectives1. There are many different types of thinking

2. Each type of thinking must be taught and practiced

3. Students development of thinking is within teachers locus of controlbut will require shifts in practice

What are types of critical thinking?Socratic questioningAnalysis within any disciplineEthical reasoningInductive ReasoningDeductive ReasoningDetecting bias and propagandaReading to discover information and ideas WritingSelf-awareness of motives, bias, assumptionsProblem solving

ComparisonClassificationAbstracting

What influences whether students think critically?Attitudes and perceptions about the learning environmentHabits of MindContent knowledgePrior experience with critical thinkingDegree of clarity about what is expected or needed

What can we do as professors to address students attitudes and perceptions about the classroom climate?Tasks?5

Students Attitudes and PerceptionsThe classroom climateDo they have a sense of comfort and order?Do they feel accepted by teachers and peers?

Classroom tasksAre the tasks valuable and interesting?Do they believe they have the ability and resources to complete the task?Are the task requirements clear?

Classroom climate conducive to learning: students feel safe and secure; accepted; significant and capable6

Habits of Mind

Is aware of own thinkingMakes effective plansIs are of, and uses necessary resourcesIs sensitive to feedbackIs able to evaluate the effectiveness of personal actionsIs accurate and seeks accuracyIs clear and seeks clarityIs open-mindedRestrains impulsivityTakes a position when the situation warrants itIs sensitive to the feelings and level of knowledge of others

How do people learn to think?

ModelShapeInternalizeFeedbackFeedbackFeedbackFeedbackFeedbackFeedbackExample:: drivers test-declarative/proceduralKnowledge: construct meaning, organize and storeSkill: model, shape, internalize8Complex problems require more than one type of thinkingAnalysis Problem Solving

Constructing Support

Comparison Classification

Teaching Thinking1. Make thinking explicit by thinking aloud

2. Model and demonstrate the steps in the thinking process

3. Scaffold students practice

4. Provide specific feedback: reinforce critical steps and identify difficult aspects of the thinking process

Ambiguous language; we make assumptions that people know HOW to thinkPRACTICE: constructing support.10Lets try it! Constructing Logical Support

1. Identify a claim that requires support (an opinion)

2. Provide sufficient or appropriate evidence (logical reasoning)

3. Elaborate and qualify the evidence

4. Incorporate other appeals of persuasion: personality, tradition and rhetoric Air travel is the safest mode of transportation. Each day, over 2,000 domestic flights occur in the United States without incident. From a statistical perspective, you could fly every day for 29 years before ever encountering a life-threatening situation during a flight. Each year 50,000 people are killed in automobile accidents, whereas only 250 people are killed in airplane accidents. The percentage of people killed in railway accidents each year is at least five times the percentage of people killed in airplane accidents. Although airplane travel is safe, there are some conditions that must be met to keep it safe: all aircraft older than 20 years must be inspected twice as frequently as those planes less than 20 years old and the frequency of flying cannot exceed its present level at the major airports in five cities: Denver, Newark, Chicago, Atlanta and L.A. Teaching Students to Construct Support1. Use think aloud strategy to illustrate a well-constructed argument-clearly indicate strategies used to persuade readers: facts, evidence, examples and appeals

2. Create opportunities to practice analyzing and constructing supportive arguments using a variety of tasks

3. Scaffold support. Provide specific feedback on how to improve

Think aloud is an effective method to illuminate your thinking: thinking about thinkingmake it explicit. Clearly explain and demonstrate each aspect of the thinking..Scaffold group work, graphic organizers, non-graded feedback, examples and non-examples, 13To truly reform education, teachers need work environments that allow them to discuss, collaborate, and practice new strategies without fear of professional repercussion. At present, school districts have as many as seven days of inservice education scheduled during the school year. On these days teachers are often held captive listening to a hired consultant whom they will never see again. If we are serious about enhancing the quality of teaching and learning, teachers, administrators and policy makers must become aware of broader conceptions of professional development.

What standards do you use when evaluating thinking?

The power of the rubric15Workshop Objectives1. There are many different types of thinking

2. Each type of thinking must be taught and practiced

3. Students development of thinking is within teachers locus of controlbut will require shifts in practice