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The chemists tools. Elements and the periodic table. Elements. Pure substances that cannot be separated into different substances by ordinary processes Are the building blocks of matter 120 elements known today Examples: carbon gold calcium. Symbols of Elements. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • The chemists tools

    Elements and the periodic table

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • ElementsPure substances that cannot be separated into different substances by ordinary processesAre the building blocks of matter120 elements known todayExamples: carbongoldcalcium

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Symbols of ElementsUse 1 or 2 letter abbreviations Capitalise the first letter only

    Examples:C carbon CocobaltN nitrogenCacalciumF fluorine Br bromine O oxygen Mg magnesium

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Symbols from Latin NamesElementSymbolLatin nameCopperCucuprumGoldAuaurumLeadPbplumbumMercuryHghydrargyrumPotassiumKkaliumSilverAgargentumSodiumNanatriumTinSnstannum

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • % Major Elements in the BodyO65.0 %K 0.34C18.0S 0.26H10.0Na 0.14N 3.0Cl 0.14Ca 1.4Fe 0.004P 1.0 Zn 0.003 Mg 0.50Trace ElementsAs, Cr, Co, Cu, F, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Si, V

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Learning Check Select the correct symbol for each:A. Calcium1) C2) Ca3) CA

    B. Sulfur 1) S2) Sl3) SuC. Iron1) Ir2) FE3) Fe

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Solution

    Select the correct symbol for each:A. Calcium2) Ca

    B. Sulfur 1) SC. Iron3) Fe

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Learning Check Select the correct name for each:A. N1) neon2) nitrogen 3) nickelB. P1) potassium2) phlogiston3) phosphorusC. Ag1) silver2) aegean3) gold

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Solution Select the correct name for each:A. N2) nitrogen B. P3) phosphorusC. Ag1) silver

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Periodic TableThe periodic table is an arrangement of the elements according to similarities in their chemical and physical properties.

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Physical PropertiesThe characteristics of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance. ColorSizeShapeDensityFreezing and Boiling PointsOdor

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Groups of ElementsVertical columns on the periodic tableSimilar physical propertiesSimilar chemical properties

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Groups on the Periodic Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Representative GroupsGroup 1Alkali MetalsGroup 2 Alkaline Earth MetalsGroup 7 HalogensGroup 8Noble Gases

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Location of Some Groups 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

    Al mk ea tl ai l sAlkalineHalogensI Gn ae sr et s

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Periods on the Periodic TableHorizontal rows from Group 1 to Group 8.Numbered 1, 2, 3, .Include representative elements and transition elements

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Periods on the Periodic Table

    123456

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Learning Check A. Element in Group VIIA, Period 4 1) Br2) Cl3) Mn

    B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3 1) beryllium2) magnesium 3) boron

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Solution A. Element in Group 7A, period 4 1) Br

    B. Element in Group 2A, Period 3 2) magnesium

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Learning Check A. Element in Group VIIA, period 4 1) Br2) Cl3) MnB. Element in Group IIA, Period 3 1) beryllium2) magnesium 3) boron

    C. Metals in Group IVA 1) Ge, Sn, Pb 2) C, Si 3) C, Si, Ge, SnD. Nonmetals in Group VA1) As, Sb, Bi 2) N, P, As 3) N, P, As, Sb

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Solution A. Element in Group VIIA, period 4 1) BrB. Element in Group IIA, Period 32) magnesium

    C. Metals in Group IVA 1) Ge, Sn, Pb D. Nonmetals in Group VA2) N, P, As

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Metals and NonmetalsMetals Located to the left of the heavy line Shiny, ductileGood conductors of heat and electricityNonmetals Located to the right of the heavy lineDull and brittlePoor conductors, good insulators

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Metals and Nonmetals NONMETALS METALS METALSTransition metals

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Learning Check Specify metal (1) or nonmetal (2) for each:A. sulphur____B. chlorine____C. sodium____D. iron____E. carbon____F. silver____

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Solution Specify metal (1) or nonmetal (2) for each:A. sulphur2B. chlorine2C. sodium1D. iron1E. carbon2F. silver1

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Learning Check

    Select the correct elements:

    A. Metals in Group IVA 1) Ge, Sn, Pb 2) C, Si 3) C, Si, Ge, SnB. Non-metals in Group VA1) As, Sb, Bi 2) N, P, As 3) N, P, As, Sb

    LecturePLUS Timberlake

  • Solution

    A. Metals in Group 4A 1) Ge, Sn, Pb

    B. Nonmetals in Group 5A2) N, P, As

    LecturePLUS Timberlake