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MARK BAUER & ROSS HODDINOTT
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First published 2014 byAmmonite PressAn imprint of AE Publications Ltd166 High Street, Lewes,East Sussex, BN7 1XU, UK
Text and photographs Mark Bauer and Ross Hoddinott, 2014Copyright in the Work AE Publications Ltd, 2014
All rights reserved
The rights of Mark Bauer and Ross Hoddinott to be identified as the authors of this work have been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, sections 77 and 78.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior permission of the publisher and copyright owner.
This book is sold subject to the condition that all designs are copyright and are not for commercial reproduction without the permission of the designer and copyright owner.
Whilst every effort has been made to obtain permission from the copyright holders for all material used in this book, the publishers will be pleased to hear from anyone who has not been appropriately acknowledged and to make the correction in future reprints.
The publishers and author can accept no legal responsibility for any consequences arising from the application of information, advice or instructions given in this publication.
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Publisher Jonathan BaileyProduction Manager Jim BulleyManaging Editor Richard WilesSenior Project Editor Dominique PageEditor Chris GatcumManaging Art Editor Gilda PacittiDesigner Simon GogginCover Designer Robin Shields
Set in FrutigerColour origination by GMC Reprographics
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CHAPTER ONE > EQUIPMENT 10Camera formats 12Lenses 16Camera supports 21Filters 24Other essentials 30
CHAPTER TWO > SHOOTING TECHNIQUE 32Exposure 34Depth of fi eld 38Hyperfocal distance 42Diffraction 46Colour theory 48
CHAPTER THREE > BALANCE 52Visual balance 54Placing the main subject 56The rule of thirds 58The Golden Section 60Alternative methods for organizing the frame 64Symmetry 66The rule of odds 68Camera orientation 70
CHAPTER FOUR > DEPTH AND PERSPECTIVE 72Linear perspective 74The vanishing point 76Foreground interest 78Tilt and shift 82Light in defi ning depth 86Visual separation 88Other tips and tricks 90
CHAPTER FIVE > THE GEOMETRY OF COMPOSITION 92Lines 94Corners and pointers 98Shapes 100Layers and planes 102Movement and fl ow 104Motion 106
CHAPTER SIX > LIGHT 108Direction of light 110Quality of light 112Seasons 114Shooting in poor light 116Low-light photography 118Thinking in black and white 122Silhouettes 124Spot lighting 126
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CHAPTER SEVEN > TYPES OF LANDSCAPE 128Coastal cliff tops 130Shoreline 132Hills and mountains 134Woodland interiors 136Rivers, streams and waterfalls 138Lakes and refl ections 140The miniature landscape 142
CHAPTER EIGHT > PROCESSING 144Software 146Cropping 148Creative sharpening 150Local enhancements 152Focus stacking 154Panoramic stitching 156Exposure blending 158Converting to black and white 160
CHAPTER NINE > DEVELOPING A PERSONAL STYLE 162Traditional composition 164Minimalism 166Impressionism 168Abstract 170Defi ning your style 172Analyzing the authors personal style: Mark Bauer 176Analyzing the authors personal style: Ross Hoddinott 178
Technical details 180Useful websites and downloads 185Glossary 186About the authors 188Index 189
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THE ART OF LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY
Since its inception, there has been debate about whether or not
photography qualifi es as art. It is a debate that continues to this
day. Those who reject its status as art do so on the basis that it is
representational and relies on technology. However, if we accept
the above dictionary defi nition, it clearly meets many of the
criteria: it is a visual medium through which people express their
creativity; there is skill involved in the process of its creation; viewers
appreciate its beauty, and done well, it is capable of evoking
powerful emotional responses.
Skill is involved on two levels: in controlling the equipment
necessary to make photographs and in creating powerful
compositions. In our fi rst book on landscape photography,
The Landscape Photography Workshop, we took an overview of the
topic, covering everything from choosing equipment, the specifi c
techniques you need to master in order to create a technically sound
landscape photograph, and the basics of composition, through to
producing a digital print. In this book we assume a basic familiarity
with the technical elements and focus much more deeply on
aesthetics on the art of landscape photography. This is not to say
that we are ignoring equipment and technique, but it is discussed
mostly with regard to how it impacts upon composition.
Of course, teaching and learning the technical aspects of
photography is relatively straightforward compared to teaching
and learning the creative side. Creativity is intensely personal,
and because it depends on what the individual wishes to express,
arguably it cannot be taught. That said, art has been practised and
analysed for centuries, so there are many widely accepted theories
on which elements work in a composition, which dont, and what
innately appeals to the human sense of beauty. In this book we will
examine the theory and practice of these principles, using our own
images to illustrate the points.
However, simply following established compositional guidelines
isnt enough to guarantee good results. Done without consideration
it can produce images that are predictable, sterile and (ironically)
lacking in creativity. Once you have understood the theories of
composition you should be able to use them as a framework
for your own creative expression, so that composition ultimately
becomes an unconscious, instinctive, but considered process.
To be truly creative, an artist needs to establish a recognisable
personal style. This can be a long and challenging process, and while
no one else can do it for you, we have tried to give some pointers to
help you on your way. Establishing a personal style is not the end of
the journey, however, as your photography and style should evolve
and change over time.
We hope that this book will provide the inspiration for you to
begin your creative journey.
Mark Bauer and Ross Hoddinott
INTRODUCTIONART/a:t/ (Noun)The expression or application of human creative skill and imagination, typically in a visual
form such as painting or sculpture, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their
beauty or emotional power.
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MISTY RIVERAn understanding of balance, harmony and what appeals to peoples aesthetic sense will help you to create images that evoke an emotional response in the viewer.
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While the art of composition might be a creative one, a
photographer still requires the appropriate hardware to
capture an image that truly encapsulates their skill and
vision. Your choice of camera, the type of lens you use
and the focal length will greatly influence the look and
feel of the final photograph. A good tripod is essential
for supporting your set-up and you also need to invest in
the right type of tripod head one that will allow you to
make precise adjustments to fine-tune your composition.
Even in the digital age, a handful of in-camera filters
remain essential for both corrective and creative purposes
and there are other useful camera accessories that will aid
you while out in the field.
Therefore, before we progress to the more creative, artistic
and theoretical side of photography we shall first address
the practical considerations: the camera equipment you
need to become a landscape photographer.
CHAPTER ONE > EQUIPMENT
TECHNICAL ACCURACYAlthough photography is a creative art, dont neglect the technical and practical side of taking photos. When I took this particular image, the light and conditions were truly magical. However, had I not selected the right focal length, fi ltration and support, I could have easily wasted the opportunity.
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THE ART OF LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY
CAMERA FORMATSThere are several camera formats available to photographers. Simply
speaking, the camera format is based on the size of the sensor
the light sensitive chip that is at the hub of a camera. Not only
will the size of the sensor affe