Cuvnt nainte Lucrarea de fa este un material necesar studenilor i tututror celor interesai de a studia limba englez pentru domenii specifice i este structurat n capitole, fiecare dintre ele coninnd subcapitole privind vocabularul specific, exerciii, probleme de gramatic, texte n domeniu. Anexele (teste de evaluare, vocabular englez-romn i lista verbelor neregulate) sunt materiale care completeaz aceast lucrare de real folos studenilor. Bibliografia cuprinde titlurile eseniale pentru un astfel de demers tiinific. Lucrarea are drept scop remprosptarea cunotinelor de limb englez dobndite anterior i reprezint un material de lucru util pentru studenii care se afl la un nivel mediu sau avansat n nsuirea limbii engleze prin studiu individual sau n cadru organizat, sub ndrumarea profesorului. Autorii
Unit I Accounting (1) Whereas the French accounting was initially geared to administrative and fiscal requirements, Anglo-Saxon accounting, especially in the U.S., aims mainly at informing shareholders and investors about the economic situation of the firm. Another difference is that there does not exit in Britain or the U.S. a detailed accounting plan similar to the French one. This, however, should not be constructed as evidence that the Anglo-Saxon accounting is less precise and strict than French accounting itself. The prevailing norms and rules edicted by official bodies or the profession (Institute of Chartered Accountants in Britain; American Institute of certified Public Accountants in the U.S.) are quite as stringent, and the practice of auditors quite as formal and reliable. All accounts and financial statements should be presented in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), which are as follows. Going concern (continuarea exploatrii): The basic assumption that the concern has no intention or obligation to liquidate or curtail operations. True and fair view, or air presentation (fidelitatea conturilor sau corectitudinea conturilor; imagine fidel): The word fair goes beyond the simple notion of accuracy, since accounts may be accurate while concealing some facts or failing to disclose some aspects of a firms economic and financial position. Prudence (pruden): Caution and circumspection, so that there should not be any extrapolation, or over or under estimation of results. In particular, only profits realized at the date of financial statements should be included, and losses which have arisen, or are likely to arise in respect of the financial year concerned, should be mentioned. Consistency (principiul consecvenei; principiul permanenei metodelor): This implies that similar operations should be dealt with in the same manner (consistency) from fiscal year to fiscal year. Matching principle (principiul armonizrii costurilor i veniturilor din aceeai perioad):
Charges and revenues must be correctly matched with the accounting periods to which they belong. Historical cost (costul istoric): Recording assets in the books at their initial cost, at the time of acquisition, as opposed to replacement cost. Accruals basis (principiul de anualitate; contabilitatea bazat pe angajamente): This means taking into account income and expenses when earned and incurred (commitments) regardless of cash is actually received or disbursed. Materiality (importan relativ) An item should be regarded as material if there is reason to believe that knowledge of it would influence the decision of an informed investor. In the event of any departure from the above principles, the reasons for it and its effects on the accounts must be set out clearly in the notes to the financial statement (there are often numerous notes to a balance sheet). Today, given the multiplication of international operations, mergers, takeovers and consolidations involving companies of different nationalities and the interlocking structure of multinationals- there is a strong movement towards the homogenization of accounting practices, and the profession is active in promoting this trend through its international norm- and standard setting institutes. The European Union is also issuing directives for the harmonization of Company Law. Vocabulary Practice I Accounts, accounting, accountancy (conturi, contabilitate) - The three words may sometimes be synonymous (Accounts Department, Accounting Department, Accountancy Department) but, of course, accounts corresponds to the statements or book entries themselves, accounting to the methods and procedures and accountancy to the profession itself. Other accounting terms Assets (activ, e) - Is used in the plural to denote the assets (activele), in a balance sheet, in the singular to denote one specific item (un activ). Bookkeeper (funcionar contabil) - Clerk in charge recording business transactions and entering them in the accounts books, but nor a chartered or certified public accountant. Bottom line (linia de rezultat net) - The last line of an income statement, that indicates the net results (profit or loss) of the firm. In ordinary parlance, it has come to mean the end result, the last word on something.
Break-even point (prag de rentabilitate) - The break-even point is the point at which the margin from the sales is sufficient to cover a firms expenses without either profit or loss. Cashflow (flux de numerar) - This term used in capital budgeting represents the cash coming in less cash going out during a given period. - Pre-tax cashflow is the sum of pre-tax profits (profits before tax) and depreciation allowances plus certain reserves. - Net cashflow is the sum of after-profit and depreciation allowances plus certain reserves. Earnings report: income statement (declaraie de venituri) - The British still use the phrase Profit and Loss accounts (P&L). Fixed cost/expenses variable costs/expenses (costuri fixe ... costuri variabile) Gross profit (or Gross margin or margin) (profit brut, marj brut) Net profit or income (profit net) Notes to the account (anex la bilant) Overhead expenses (or overhead) (cheltuieli generale ) Price earning ratio (P.E.R.) (coeficient de capitalizare a rezultatelor) It is calculated as follows: market price____ earning per share Profit and revenues Profit and revenues (revenue = gains venituri din schimb valutar; earnings: beneficiu net; Income i Profit sunt termeni generali). Profit represents the income that a business has earned after certain deductions have been made from revenues. Revenue is one component that permits the recognition of profit. Provisions (provizioane) Turnover (cifr de afaceri) Working capital / operating capital (fond de rulment)
Vocabulary Practice IIaccounts payable (receivable) accrued dividends conturi de pli (de ncasat) dividente acumulate intangibles active necorporale a)stocuri; b)inventar.
accrued interest act as principal (to) advanced payment balance sheet bearer security break-even point call loan
dobnd intermediar acumulat a aciona pe cont propriu plat anticipat bilan titlu la purttor prag de rentabilitate mprumut rambursabil la cerere
irredeemable Nerambursabil issue price ledger liabilities lien merge (to) nominee pre de emisiune registru contabil pasiv; datorii drept de sechestru a fuziona candidat propus; persoan propus Fond de rulment scurgere de capital cheltuieli generale pltit n avans
pre de rscumprare capital gains impozit de plus valoare tax taxe; collection recuperare; charges ncasare mprumut call loan rambursabil la cerere common stock aciune ordinar CPA(Certified expert Public contabil Accountant) (US) current assets active circulante; active curente data due date scadenei equity capital active reale; resurse proprii a fi scadent; fall due a ajunge la scaden call price
operating capital outflow overheads
ready money bani lichizi
redeemable seed money statement
rambursabil capital iniial declaraie
Groups of words expressing time: Every two minutes - din dou n dou minute (days, months etc.) ( zile, luni etc.)
now and then - cnd si cnd from now on - de acum nainte in the same time - n acelai timp within this week - n limita acestei sptmni (month, year etc) (lun, an, etc.) all of a sudden - dintrodat all the year round - tot anul all day long - toat ziua plenty of time - o mulime de timp spare time - timp liber (prin economisirea lui) free time - timp liber (prin ngduina cuiva) in due time - la timpul fixat for a while - pentru un rstimp for a long time - timp ndelungat short time after - puin dupa aceea in the course of time - n cursul timpului all this time - n tot acest timp after some time - dup oarecare timp from time to time - din cnd n cnd for the time being - deocamdat to spend ones time - a-i petrece timpul years ago - cu ani n urm after some time - dup oarecare timp the right time - ora exact at the last moment - n ultima clip in no time, presently - imediat today a wee- de azi ntr-o sptmn without delay - fr ntrziere how many times? - de cte ori ? in the course of time - n cursul timpului
Test 1. The generally accepted method of valuation of the is cost of market. a) repertory b) inventory c) joint-stock d) warehouse 2. Mining and oil companies set up reserves to compensate for the natural wealth the company no longer owns.
a) depression b) repletion c) depletion d) completion 3. As it would not be reasonable to charge off the full expenditure in the present year, the cost incurred will gradually over the next few years. a) written b) written in c) written away d) written off 4. Bondholders have a claim or before other creditors on such assets as may be sold. a) lien b) link c) proceed d) slip 5. A stock is said to have high leverage if the company that issued it has a large proportion of outstanding in