SOME FACTS ABOUT MYTHOLOGY. JUST THE BASICS. CIVILIZATIONS. GREECE ROME. PURPOSES. RELIGION GUIDE THEM IN THEIR DAILY LIVES MAKE THEM FEEL SECURE IN AN UNKNOWN WORLD (explain phenomenon) LITERATURE AND ENTERTAINMENT. MYTHS. INCLUDE NATURE, GODS, GODDESSES, MONSTERS, HEROES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
SOME FACTS ABOUT MYTHOLOGY
SOME FACTS ABOUT MYTHOLOGYJUST THE BASICS1Mythology is a collection of traditional stories that express the beliefs or values of a group of people. The stories often focus on human qualities such as good and evil. Myths often tell the story of ancestors, supernatural beings, heroes, gods, or goddesses with special powers. Sometimes myths try to describe aspects of customs or explain natural events such as the sun or lightning.CIVILIZATIONS GREECE ROME2A long time ago in Athens, Greece people made up stories to explain the tribulations of life. These stories consisted of gods, heroes, and warriors. Years later the Greeks were conquered by the Romans. The new rulers were pleased with these stories so the Romans adopted them. They took the myths back to Italy, where the myths were well liked, except for one thing. The names were all Greek sounding. The Romans changed all the names in the myth to better fit there lifestyle.PURPOSES RELIGION GUIDE THEM IN THEIR DAILY LIVES MAKE THEM FEEL SECURE IN AN UNKNOWN WORLD (explain phenomenon) LITERATURE AND ENTERTAINMENT3MYTHS INCLUDE NATURE, GODS, GODDESSES, MONSTERS, HEROES THEY SOMETIMES CONTRADICT EACH OTHER BECAUSE STORIES WERE PASSED DOWN BY WORD OF MOUTH
4Types of MythsDivine myths -tales referring to the gods
Heroic myths - tales related to kingdoms on earth, heroes and heroines
The Greek myths may be divided into two categories:Divine myths, and Heroic myths.
The Divine myths consist of the tales referring to the gods, such as the creation of the world, the origin of the gods and other tales mainly related to them. The scene of these tales includes several places of imaginary nature, such as Tartarus, but refers also to visible places such as Mount Olympus.
The Heroic myths are formed by tales related to kingdoms on earth, heroes and heroines, and the events in these tales are normally located in real geographical places such as Mycenae or Rhodes. The term heroes is to be understood in a broad sense: they may be "warriors, kings, founders, benefactors, questers, or even robbers and pirates."
The foundation of the myths lies in divine presence, and the Heroic myths are linked to it through three devices: divine intervention in human affairs any kind of reference to the gods or to someone related to them genealogy establishing descent from the gods.
5PERSONALITIES OF THE IMMORTALS IMPERFECT--MADE MISTAKES MANY CHARACTERS INVOLVED THEMSELVES IN HUMANS LIVESCREATED BY THE UNIVERSE6GREEK & ROMAN GODS NAMES DIFFER STORIES ARE SIMILAR7BASIC FACTS HOME: MT. OLYMPUS FOOD: AMBROSIA DRINK: NECTARZEUS, AN OLYMPIAN, WAS KING 13 MAIN GODS & GODDESSES RULED IN A GROUP CALLED THE PANTHEON8BEGINNINGS GAEA (THE EARTH/FEMALE) MARRIED URANUS (SKY/MALE) THEY HAD 3 SETS OF CHILDREN TITANS (GOOD-LOOKING & STRONG) CYCLOPES (ONE-EYED GIANTS) 100-HANDED GIANTS (NOT ATTRACTIVE)9The Titans were the children of Gaia and Uranus (Ouranos) -- the Earth and Sky. BECAUSE THEY WERE SO UGLY, URANUS CAST OFF THE GIANTS AND CYCLOPES TO TARTARUS. THIS MOVE ENRAGED GAEA.10Gaeas RevengeShe helped Cronos overthrow Uranus.Uranus then made a prophesy that one of Cronoss children would overthrow him one day.
11Cronus, the son of Uranus and Gaia and the youngest of the twelve Titans. His wife was also one of the Titans, since he married his sister Rhea. Their offspring were Demeter, Hestia, Hera, Hades, Poseidon and Zeus. It is written that Uranus, who in one version, hid his children away in the bowels of the earth (Tartarus) as he was aghast at the sight of them, in reality he was fearful of their great strength and power. Gaia found her offspring uncomfortable and also painful and when she found the discomfort too much to bear she hatched a plan, which was to end the passions of Uranus, so no more offspring could be produced and that would be the ending of her hurt. But to achieve this she required the help from one of her children. She asked them all, but only her youngest child Cronus would heed her call. Cronus lay in wait hidden from view, and when Uranus came into the castle, Cronus struck him with one mighty blow from the sickle. Once Cronus had overthrown Uranus, he and his wife Rhea took the throne. Under their power a time of harmony and prosperity began, which became known as the "Golden Age"; a time when it was said that people lived without greed or violence, and without toil or the need for laws. But not all was well for Cronus, as it was fated that he would be overthrown by one of his own children. To prevent this from happening he began to swallow his newborn, taking them at birth then swallowing them whole, retaining them inside his own body where they could do him no harm. Rhea did not like the thoughts of losing all her children, and with the help of Gaia she saved Zeus from this fate. Rhea wrapped a stone in Zeus' swaddling clothes which Cronus took and immediately swallowed thinking it was the child. Gaia and Rhea's plan worked well and the baby Zeus was taken to Crete, and there, in a cave on Mount Dicte, the divine goat Amaltheia suckled and raised the infant Zeus. When Zeus had grown into a young man he returned to his fathers domain, and with the help of Gaia, compelled Cronus to regurgitate the five children he had previously swallowed. (In some versions Zeus received help from Metis who gave Cronus an emetic potion, which made him vomit up Zeus' brothers and sisters). Zeus led the revolt against his father and the dynasty of the Titans, defeated and then banished them. CronosCronos then became the lead god.Married RheaChildren: Hestia, Pluto, Poseidon, Hera, and DemeterCronos, afraid of the prophesy, swallowed all of his children as soon as they were born.Rhea and Gaea were angry and plotted against CronosRheas next child was ZeusShe gave Cronos a stone wrapped in a blanket to swallow instead of the babyShe hid Zeus in a cave on the island of CreteOverthrowing CronosRhea & Gaea mixed a potion to give to Cronos which would make him throw up the children he had swallowed. Zeus was the cupholder.Now they could fight.Cronos and the Titans vs. Zeus, his 5 brothers and sisters, some other gods, monsters, 100-headed monsters, and Cyclopes THE VICTORYZeus took over Mt. Olympus, becoming king of the gods.13 gods and goddesses created the pantheon.They ruled for 1000 years.Zeus, an Olympian and jealous playboy, married Hera.Greek Family Tree1612 god and goddesses
17ZEUS (zoose or zyoose; Roman name Jupiter) was the supreme god of the Olympians. He was the father of the heroes Perseus and Heracles Zeus was the youngest son of the Titans Cronus and Rhea. When he was born, his father Cronus intended to swallow him as he had all of Zeus's siblings.
18HERA (HEE-ruh) was the goddess of marriage. Hera was the wife of Zeus and Queen of the Olympians. Hera hated the great hero Heracles since he was the son of her husband Zeus and a mortal woman. When he was still an infant, she sent snakes to attack him in his crib. Later she stirred up the Amazons against him when he was on one of his quests.
19DIONYSUS (dye-oh-NYE-sus) was the god of wine. Dionysus was the son of Zeus and the mortal heroine Semele. It was Dionysus who granted Midas the power to turn whatever he touched into gold, then was kind enough to take the power back when it proved inconvenient.
20APHRODITE (a-fro-DYE-tee) was the goddess of love, beauty and fertility. She was also a protecter of sailors. The poet Hesiod said that Aphrodite was born from sea-foam. Homer, on the other hand, said that she was the daughter of Zeus and Dione. 21APOLLO (uh-POL-oh) was the god of prophesy, music and healing. Like most of his fellow Olympians, Apollo did not hesitate to intervene in human affairs. It was he who brought about the demise of the mighty Achilles. 22ARES (AIR-eez) was the god of war, or more precisely of warlike frenzy. Though an immortal deity, he was bested by Heracles in battle and was almost killed when stuffed into a jar by two giants. 23ARTEMIS (AR-ti-mis) was the virgin goddess of the hunt. She helped women in childbirth but also brought sudden death with her arrows. Artemis and her brother Apollo were the children of Zeus and Leto. In some versions of their myth, Artemis was born first and helped her mother to deliver Apollo.
24ATHENA (a-THEE-nuh) was the goddess of crafts and the domestic arts and also those of war. She was the patron goddess of Athens. Her symbol was the owl. She was originally the Great Goddess in the form of a bird. She has come to be regarded as a goddess of wisdom25DEMETER (dee-MEE-tur) was the goddess of agriculture. Demeter as the sister of Zeus and the mother of Persephone. When depicted in art, Demeter is often shown carrying a sheaf of grain. 26HEPHAESTUS (he-FESS-tus) was the lame god of fire and crafts or the two together, hence of blacksmiths. Hephaestus was the son of Zeus and Hera or, in some accounts, of Hera alone. He limped because he was born lame, which caused his mother to throw him off Mount Olympus.27HERMES (HUR-meez) was the messenger of the gods and guide of dead souls to the Underworld. A prankster and inventive genius from birth, Hermes aided the heroes Odysseus and Perseus in their quests. Hermes was the son Zeus and a mountain nymph.
28POSEIDON (puh-SYE-dun) was the god of the sea, earthquakes and horses. Although he was officially one of the supreme gods of Mount Olympus, he spent most of his time in his watery domain. Poseidon was brother to Zeus and Hades. These three gods divided up creation. Zeus was ruler of the sky, Hades had dominion of the Underworld and Poseidon was given all water, both fresh and salt. 29Other CharactersTitansEpimetheusPrometheusAtlasand flocks.30Other god and godessessHades god of the underworldHestia goddess of the hearthPersophone queen of the underworldAeolus god of the windEros god of lovePan - was a god of shepherds and flocks.
32Map of Ancient Greece