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GENETICS 101: DNA

So…How much do YOU know about genetics? Writing Log today: Take the pre-test in your notepacket. We will learn about each of the concepts in the pre-test

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Slide 2 Slide 3 SoHow much do YOU know about genetics? Writing Log today: Take the pre-test in your notepacket. We will learn about each of the concepts in the pre-test throughout this unit, and then we will take the post-test and see how well you did on the pre-test. Slide 4 Section 1: DNA -Whats this stuff made of? Slide 5 What do we find inside the nucleus? Slide 6 DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid Genetic Code Revised 10-10-2006 Slide 7 DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid Slide 8 Why is DNA important ? It is the genetic information in the cell. It is how genetic information is passed from one cell to another cell during cell division. It is passed on to you from your parents. It contains all the information a cell needs to function. Slide 9 How do we know? Slide 10 Hershey and Chase Injected a bacteriophage protein coat with radioactive Phosphorus-32 radioactivePhosphorus No radioactivity in bacteria Injected a bacteriophage DNA with radioactive Phosphorus-32 radioactivePhosphorus Radioactivity in bacteria produced subsequent bacteriophages with p-32 in DNA but not the protein coat Slide 11 DNA James Watson and Francis Crick Rosalind Franklin Slide 12 DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid What do we call this shape? Slide 13 Watson and Crick: Came up with the model we accept today as a DOUBLE HELIX Double helix: where the two strands are wound around each other Slide 14 Do you want to build with building blocks? Did you play with blocks as a kid? Slide 15 DNA DNA is made up of nucleotides Nucleotides are the BUILDING BLOCKS of DNA Slide 16 NUCLEOTIDE: building block of DNA Slide 17 Three parts of a NUCLEOTIDE: 1.Sugar (What the sugar called?) 2.Phosphate group 3.Nitrogen Base Slide 18 Backbone : Deoxyribose Sugar and Phosphate Slide 19 Inner Molecule: Nitrogen Bases Slide 20 Slide 21 4 kinds of nitrogen bases AdenineGuanine Slide 22 4 kinds of nitrogen bases AdenineGuanine Both of these types of molecules are called purines Slide 23 4 kinds of nitrogen bases ThymineCytosine Slide 24 4 kinds of nitrogen bases ThymineCytosine Both of these types of molecules are called pyrimidines Slide 25 www.youtube.com/watch?v=ID6KY1QBR5s Bio Rad video Slide 26 Slide 27 Plant Cell Animal Cell All organisms use the same four bases as a blueprint for that organism. Slide 28 Plant Cell Animal Cell All organisms use the same four bases as a blueprint for that organism. If there are only four types of nitrogen bases, and those nitrogen bases are the blueprint for all organisms, how come we dont all look the same? Why are there so many different types of organisms? Slide 29 Before you answer: Slide 30 Morse Code is a simple code of only 2 symbolsand yet it can be used to send complex information Slide 31 Slide 32 1950 Chargaff Purines: Adenine, Guanine Pyrimidines: Thymine, Cytosine Slide 33 DNA The three parts of a Nucleotides: Sugar (Deoxyribose) Phosphate group Nitrogen Base (A) Adenine (T) Thymine (C) Cytosine (G) Guanine Slide 34 DNA The three parts of a Nucleotides: Sugar (Deoxyribose) Phosphate group Nitrogen Base (A) Adenine (T) Thymine (C) Cytosine (G) Guanine Sides of DNA Ladder Steps of DNA Ladder Slide 35 Base Pairing Edwin Chargaff: In 1950, he analyzed the amount of each of the bases in the DNA of various species Erwin Chargaff Austrian Biochemist The area he was from in now in what is Ukraine Slide 36 Base Pairing Chargaffs Data (What do you notice?) Humans Fruit fly Corn Bread Mold Bacteria Slide 37 Base Pairing Chargaffs Rule: Chargaff found that the percentage of A (Adenine) equals the percentage of T (thymine); and C (cytosine)= G (guanine) % of A=% of T and % of C= % of G Erwin Chargaff Austrian Biochemist Slide 38 Base Pairing Base Pairs: two nucleotides hydrogen boding together Adenine (A) will bond or pair with Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) will bond or pair with Guanine (G) Slide 39 Hydrogen Bonding Turns out purines (Adenine (A) and Guanine (G)) like to bond with pyrimidines (Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T)) Slide 40 Hydrogen Bonding A (Adenine) and T (Thymine) have Two Hydrogen Bonds holding those nucleotides together G (Guanine) and C (Cytosine) have three hydrogen bonds Slide 41 Slide 42 Section 2: What is a DNA Replication? Slide 43 What is DNA Replication https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=27TxKoF U2Nw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=27TxKoF U2Nw Slide 44 DNA Replication Before cell division, DNA is replicated Semiconservative Replication: parental strands of DNA separate, serve as templates, and produce DNA molecules that have one strand of parental DNA and one strand of new DNA. In other words,Old strands of DNA act as a template Slide 45 DNA Replication Slide 46 Steps of DNA Replication: Helicase unwinds double helix (breaks hydrogen bonds) Slide 47 DNA Replication Slide 48 Steps of DNA Replication: Helicase unwinds double helix (breaks hydrogen bonds) RNA primase adds a primer to parental/template strands Slide 49 DNA Replication Slide 50 Steps of DNA Replication: Helicase unwinds double helix (breaks hydrogen bonds) RNA primase adds a primer to parental/template strands DNA Polymerase adds new nucleotides to create the complimentary strand to parental/template strand Slide 51 DNA Replication https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OnuspQG0Jd0 Slide 52 DNA Replication Lets try DNA Replication: Original DNA Strand ATTCGATCCGTTACCATGA TAAGCTAGGCAATGGTACT ATTCGATCCGTTACCATGA TAAGCTAGGCAATGGTACT New replicated DNA Strand Original DNA Strand Slide 53 Section 3: What is a gene? Slide 54 Genes First lets compare Chromosomes to a towel Slide 55 Chromosome Chromatin = Long strands of DNA Chromosome : coiled up strand of chromatin The X shape is where the chromosome has been copied. ChromatinChromosome Slide 56 How many chromosomes do we have in our nucleus? Slide 57 How many chromosomes do we have in our nucleus of each of our cells? a. 23 b. 52 c. 108 d. 46 Slide 58 How many chromosomes do we have in our nucleus of each of our cells? Slide 59 What is a Gene? Gene: functional unit that controls inherited trait expression that is passed on from one generation to another generation. Slide 60 Genes In other words, Genes are pieces of our DNA that code for our traits. Slide 61 Proteins from Genes Gene: Part of chromosome that codes for a protein Slide 62 The Human Genome How many paired nucleotides do we have? (i.e. how many base pairs do we have?) Slide 63 In 1964, Friedrich Vogel estimated that the total number of genes in the human genome to be ~ 6.7 million Slide 64 Slide 65 What is a Trait? Trait = Any characteristic Trait Slide 66 Inherited Trait Inherited trait = a characteristic that you get from your biological parents and. a trait you are born with. Its in your DNA! What are some examples? EX: (Write down one of your inherited traits) Slide 67 Acquired Trait Acquired trait = a characteristic that you develop in your lifetime a trait you learn or pickup after you are born (not inherited from your parents) What are some examples? EX: (Write down one of your acquired traits) Slide 68 Section 4: transcription and translation Slide 69 What are grandmas good for? Slide 70 What is DNA good for? PROTEIN SYNTHESIS: How proteins are made which are coded from DNA AKA: Transcription and Translation Slide 71 Protein Synthesis DNA RNA Transcription Slide 72 Protein Synthesis DNA RNA Protein Transcription Translation Slide 73 Slide 74 DNA vs. RNA DNA -Double strand -Sugar called deoxyribose -Bases are C G A T RNA -Single strand -Sugar called ribose -Bases are C G A U Slide 75 DNA vs. RNA DNA Double strand Sugar called deoxyribose Bases are C G A T RNA Single strand Sugar called ribose Bases are C G A U U = Uracil Slide 76 Slide 77 Transcription Using DNA to make RNA Happens inside the nucleus Slide 78 Translation Using RNA to make protein Happens outside the nucleus Slide 79 Protein: A chain of amino acids Slide 80 Each amino acid is coded for by three nucleotides called.. Slide 81 Codon: Three bases that code for a specific amino acid (Anticodon) Slide 82 Slide 83 Anticodon: The three opposite bases Slide 84 http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/~christjo/vc ell/animationSite/translation/index.html Slide 85 Slide 86 Slide 87 Slide 88 Look at the chart on page 338 of your book Slide 89 A T G AA T A G C T G G A G G G A T T A A T A C T T A T C G A C C T C C C T A A T T Transcription (inside the nucleus) Slide 90 A T G AA T A G C T G G A G G G A T T A A A UG A A U A G CU G G A G G GA U U A A T A C T T A T C G A C C T C C C T A A T T Slide 91 A UG A A U A G C U G G A G G GA U U AA Slide 92 ASP A METASPSERTRYARG Slide 93 So WHY DNA, the real purpose? To make PROTEIN!! Slide 94 Section 5: Mutations Slide 95 Mutations Evr made a mitsake in yourr spelng? Slide 96 MUTATIONS! A mess up in the DNA sequence Slide 97 Where do mutations occur? IN THE DNA!! (not the RNA) When do mutations occur? During replication Slide 98 MUTATIONS! Gene Mutations (2 types) Changes in a single base Chromosomal Mutations (4 types) Changes in whole chromosomes Slide 99 Gene Mutations Point Mutations Frameshift Mutations Slide 100 Point Mutation A T G AA T A G C T G G A G G G A T T T T T A C T T A T C G T C C T C C C T A A A A Slide 101 A T G AA T A G C T G G A G G G A T T T T A UG A A U A G C A G G A G G GA U U UU T A C T T A T C G T C C T C C C T A A A A Point Mutation Slide 102 These happen at only ONE POINT or base Usually one base is replaced by a different base End result: ONE amino acid in the protein chain is wrong A UG A A U A G C A G G A G G GA U U UU Point Mutation METASPSERARG ASP A PHE Slide 103 These happen at only ONE POINT or base Usually one base is replaced by a different base End result: ONE amino acid in the protein chain is wrong A UG A A U A G C A G G A G G GA U U UU Point Mutation METASPSERARG ASP A PHE Slide 104 A T G AA T A G C T G G A G G G A T T T T T A C T T A T C G T C C T C C C T A A A A Frameshift Slide 105 A T G AA T A G C T G G A G G G A T T T T A UG A A U A G C A G G A G G GA U U UU T A C T T A T C G T C C T C C C T A A A A Slide 106 A UG A A U A G GU G G U G G GA U U UU Frameshift Slide 107 A UG A A U A G G G G U G G G A U U UU Frameshift Slide 108 A UG A A U A G C U G G A G G GA U U UU METASPSERTRYARGASP A PHE Frameshift Slide 109 A UG A A U A G GU G G A G G GA U U UU METASPSERTRYARGASP A PHE Frameshift Slide 110 This causes a SHIFT in the rest of the sequence following the mutation End result: Every amino acid after the mutation is wrong! A UG A A U A G C G G A G G GA U U UU METASPSERGLY ISO Slide 111 MUTATIONS! Chromosomal Mutations (4) Changes in whole chromosomes Slide 112 Chromosomal Mutations 1.Deletion: part of the chromosome is lost Slide 113 Chromosomal Mutations 1.Deletion: part of the chromosome is lost 2.Duplication: part of the chromosome is repeated Slide 114 Chromosomal Mutations 1.Deletion: part of the chromosome is lost 2.Duplication: part of the chromosome is repeated 3.Inversion: part of the chromosome gets reversed Slide 115 Slide 116 Chromosomal Mutations 1.Deletion: part of the chromosome is lost 2.Duplication: part of the chromosome is repeated 3.Inversion: part of the chromosome gets reversed 4.Translocation: two chromosomes that are NOT pairs switch information Slide 117 Slide 118 Slide 119 So WHY DNA? To make PROTEIN!!