Social Entrepreneurship, Policy and Systems Entrepreneurship, Policy and Systems Change: ... How does social entrepreneurship theory manifest in ... and analyses of social entrepreneurship in practice.

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    Harvard Kennedy School of Government

    Social Entrepreneurship, Policy and Systems Change: How to Drive Real Impact on Social Problems

    MLD-835 Instructor: Alan Khazei Email: Schedule: Mondays, 4:00 PM - 6:00 PM Semester: Spring Location: Littauer 230 Credit: 1.0 Course Overview This seminar is designed for students with a strong interest in social entrepreneurship who would like to explore how social entrepreneurs can affect policy and become systems-changers. The course will explore action tanking, combining the best of what a think tank does generate and promote policy ideas and proposals with what a direct service organization does put ideas into action and achieve demonstrable results. The course will also explore different models of collective action, coalition building, and movement building. As part of the course, students will be exposed (through occasional site visits and guest lectures) to leading social entrepreneurs looking to engage the class about how to ratchet up impact. The focus of the course will be on United States based organizations, but will try to draw some insights from a few international examples. Students will work ideally in teams or individually to produce an important written work product -- a draft business plan for a social enterprise action tank that presents in some detail a systems change strategy. The course will culminate with presentations of these plans to peers and special guests for feedback and discussion. Thematic questions include:

    1. How does social entrepreneurship theory manifest in practice? What are the key methods, strategies, and models for path-breaking social entrepreneurial organizations to succeed?

    2. How can social enterprises leverage their work and impact to influence policy and systems change?

    3. What does it take to become a successful social entrepreneur? What does that career choice entail for those who choose it?

    By the end of this course, students will have achieved the following learning goals:

    1. Understand the elements of a successful action tank, and design and produce a business plan that demonstrates the translation of theory into practice.

    2. Be able to articulate models of collective impact and the pathways from proof of concept to policy change.

    3. Develop a working knowledge of fundraising and venture philanthropy.

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    Course Format This seminar course is designed to emulate an intensive workshop or boot camp for social entrepreneurs. Each two-hour session will be focused around participatory group discussion and activity, based on readings, student experience both from their own professional experience and from this courses assignments and hands-on learning opportunities, including occasional guest speakers and site visits to leading social entrepreneurial organizations in the Boston area. In addition to the weekly class seminar, students will be organized in small groups for weekly, self directed hourly sessions to discuss the readings and prepare for class. Students are expected to attend each session, having completed all readings and assignments, in order to participate actively and thoughtfully in a collaborative learning experience. In order to have enough time for class presentations of students final papers, the two last classes of the year will be extended until 7:30 pm (with pizza dinner included).

    Course Requirements

    Assignment: Due date: Percent of

    overall grade:

    1. Reflection writing assignment: Write a two-page paper (single-spaced) describing a social entrepreneur or a social entrepreneurial organization that you admire, and explain why. This is intended to be a creative, narrative assignment, so do not be too concerned about case study structure or hard definitions. Focus on the attributes, innovations, and impacts that are most compelling to you. Also tell me about yourself your background, why you enrolled in this course, and what you hope to get out of this class. If you already have an idea for an organization you want to start, note that as well. This first assignment is designed to help all of us in this course to get to know each other quickly, and to share the variety of individuals and organizations that make up the field of social entrepreneurship so interesting. These papers will be shared with the class, so we can all learn about each others interests and backgrounds in advance of the class discussion on Feb. 3rd.

    Thurs, Jan. 30

    (For class discussion on

    Feb. 3)


    2. Short paper #1: Students will read a selected book written by a social entrepreneur, and write a 3-5 page paper (single spaced) on the key insights and lessons learned from that social

    - Book selection:

    Feb. 3


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    entrepreneurs experience. See the Reading List below for selected books. To ensure that all books are covered, we will have a sign up list where you can rank your first, second, and third preference. We will assign the books and do our best to ensure you get one of your top choices.

    - Paper due:

    Wed, Feb. 26 (for class discussion on March 3)

    3. Short paper #2: Students in small groups will independently arrange and conduct a site visit to a selected social entrepreneurial organization in the Boston area. They will focus the inquiry of the site visit to write a 3-4 page paper (single spaced) that discusses the following: - What are the mission and goals of the organization? - How do they measure and report on their impact? - Does this organization have an action tank strategy? If

    they do, what is it, how effective is it, what is it doing? If not, what could it be, what are your recommendations for how it could develop one?

    - What are the keys to the organizations success? - Is the organization part of any type of collective impact

    work? Describe. Students will receive a list of selected organizations from which to choose, and will rank their top 3 choices. They will be assigned an organization in order to ensure that all are covered. Papers will be shared with the whole class in advance of the class discussion. Students must be prepared to discuss their own paper, as well as integrate and synthesize information from their classmates papers.

    - Site visit

    selection: Feb. 3

    - Paper due:

    Wed., Apr. 2 (for class discussion on Apr. 7)


    4. Action Tank Business Plan and PowerPoint presentation: Students will develop a business plan of 15-20 pages for a social entrepreneurial venture they would like to develop. They will also develop a PowerPoint presentation that outlines the key elements of their business plan that they can use to pitch their idea to prospective funders, champions and supporters. Students are encouraged to develop the plan for their organization with a partner(s), if they would like.

    - Workshop:

    March 10 - In-class

    presentation: Apr. 21 or 28

    Final written plan: May 8


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    The course will culminate with the presentations of the business plans to their peers and special guests for feedback and discussion, held over two class periods. The final business plan will be due on Thursday, May 8th. 5. Class participation and contributions to group discussion:



    Reading List Readings for the course will include articles, case studies, and books that provide the theoretical background for the concept of social entrepreneurship, as well as real-life examples and analyses of social entrepreneurship in practice. Students will also explore class topics through web-based media and technology such as TED Talks and data visualization tools. Readings will be available via the course page or in hard copy (provided by the instructor, or to be purchased by students). Excerpts from the following books will be provided through the course page:

    Peter Drucker, Innovation and Entrepreneurship Greg Dees, The Meaning of Social Entrepreneurship John Elkington and Pamela Hartigan, The Power of Unreasonable People

    The following books will be available on reserve at the library, or students will be asked to purchase their own copy:

    Jim Collins, Good to Great for the Social Sector David Bornstein. How to Change the World: Social Entrepreneurs and the Power of New

    Ideas David Bornstein and Susan Davis, Social Entrepreneurship: What Everyone Needs to

    Know Leslie Crutchfield and Heather McCleod, Forces for Good Alan Khazei, Big Citizenship (copies will be provided by the instructor)

    In order to learn directly from leading social entrepreneurs experience, students will select and read JUST ONE of the following books by a social entrepreneur for Short Paper #1 (due on February 27th) and the class discussion on March 3rd.

    Wendy Kopp, One Day All Children Geoffrey Canada, Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun Bill Shore, Revolution of the Heart Gerald Chertavian, A Year Up Darrell Hammond, Kaboom

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    Muhammed Yunis, Banker to the Poor: Micro-Lending and the Battle Against World Poverty

    Bill Strickland, Make the Impossible, Possible Bill Milliken: From the Rear View Mirror:Reflecting on Connecting the Dots

    Class Topics 1. Monday, January 27th Introduction, Goals, and Key Concepts: What is social entrepreneurship and action tanking? Readings due today:

    - J. Gregory Dees, The Meaning of Social Entrepreneurship, Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership, 30 May 2011.

    - J. Gregory Dees, Social Entrepreneurship is About Innovation and Impact, Not Income, Social Edge, September 2003.

    - Peter Drucker, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Introduction and Chapters 1-2 (pg. 10-50).

    - David Bornstein, How To Change the World, Chapters 1-2, 4, - David Bornstein and Susan Davis, Social Entrepreneurship What Everyone Needs to

    Know, Part 1 Defining Social Entrepreneurship, pgs. 1-47. - Sally Osberg and Roger Martin, Social Entrepreneurship: The Case for Definition,

    Stanford Social Innovation Review, Spring 2007. - John Elkington and Pamela Hartigan, The Power of Unreasonable People, Introduction

    (pg. 1-25). 2. Monday, February 3rd

    Starting an Organization How do we situate the social enterprise in the context of an identified problem? Connect the dots from the mechanics of how to be a social entrepreneur, to actually creating impact and solving problems. Assignments due IN ADVANCE of today:

    - Reflection writing assignment is due on Thursday, January 30th. Readings due today:

    - Classmates reflection writing assignments - Alan Khazei, Big Citizenship, Chapters 1-3 (pg. 17-108), Chapter 4 (pg. 109-124) and

    Appendix A (pg. 255-256) - Alan Khazei, Top 20 Lessons on Being A Social Entrepreneur. - Bill Drayton, Everyone A Changemaker: Social Entrepreneurships Ultimate Goal,

    Innovations, The MIT Press, Winter 2006.

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    - David Bornstein, How to Change the World, Chapters 5, 6 (pg. 48-69), Chapter 8 (pg. 92-100), Chapter 10 (pg. 120 to 129).

    - Brown, Michael, National Service or Bust Action Tanking, The Social Entrepreneurs Trap, and a Promising Pathway to New Progressive Era, Working paper prepared for New Profit, Inc.'s Gathering of Leaders, 2006.

    In-class tasks:

    - Students will sign up for a social entrepreneurs book (to read for Short Paper #1) and a site visit organization (for Short Paper #2).

    3. Monday, February 10th Case Studies, Part 1: Model Action Tanks Special Guests: John Bell, Vice President Leadership Development, Youthbuild USA; Gerald Chertavian, Founder and Ceo, Year Up Readings due today:

    - Alan Khazei, Big Citizenship, Chapter 4 (pg. 109-124), Appendix A (pg. 255-256). - Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Even Bigger Change: A Framework for Getting Started at

    Changing the World, Harvard Business School Note 9-305-099, 2005. - Clay Christensen, Disruptive Innovation for Social Change, Harvard Business Review,

    December 2006. - Leslie Crutchfield and Heather McCleod, Forces for Good, Chapters 1, 2 (pg. 11-54). - Jim Collins, Good to Great For The Social Sector. - Review Year Up and Youthbuild websites.

    - Case studies:

    o Allen Grossman, Naomi Greckol-Herlich, Year Up: A Social Entrepreneur Builds High Performance Harvard Business School, 11 June 2008.

    o Ayse Guclu, The Growth of YouthBuild: A Case Study, Duke University Fuqua School of Business, CASE SE-02, 2004.

    NO CLASS: Monday, February 17th (Holiday) 4. Monday, February 24th Financing for social entrepreneurs: Fundraising and capital, and venture philanthropy. Special Guest: Vanessa Kirsch, Founder and Managing Director, New Profit Inc. Readings due today:

    - Bornstein and Davis, Chapter II, Challenges of Causing Change, pgs. 48-74. - Review New Profit Inc. Website

    - Case studies

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    o Robert Kaplan, New Profit Inc.: Governing the Nonprofit Enterprise, Harvard Business School, 9-100-052, 3 July 2001.

    o James L. Heskett, J. Gregory Dees, Jaan Elias, New Profit, Inc. Harvard Business Review, 28 Jan 2000.

    o Julie Battilana, Thomas DeLong, James Weber, Echoing Green, Harvard Business School, 9-410-013, 21 July 2009

    o Bill Drayton, Citizen Sector: Becoming as Entrepreneurial and Competitive as Business, California Management Review, 1 April 2002.

    Optional Readings:

    - Jeffrey B. Liebman, Social Impact Bonds: A promising new financing model to accelerate social innovation and improve government performance, Center For American Progress, February 2011.

    - George Overholser, Envisioning a $1 Billion Social Investment, Speech at America Forwards Gathering of Leaders, 12 February 2007.

    5. Monday, March 3rd Learning from Social Entrepreneurs Own Stories Special Guests: George Khaldun, Chief Administrative Officer, Harlem Childrens Zone Bill Shore, Founder and Ceo, Share Our Strength Assignments due IN ADVANCE of today:

    - Short Paper #1 due on Wednesday, Feb. 26th Readings due today: Review Harlem Childrens Zone and Share Our Strength Websites. --Stanford Social Innovation Review, Fall 2013, Vol. 11, Nov. 4. When Good is Not Good Enough, by Bill Shore, Darrell Hammond and Amy Celep

    - Case studies: o Allen Grossman, Daniel F. Curran, Harlem Children's Zone: Driving Performance

    with Measurement and Evaluation, Harvard Business School, 19 May 2003. 6. Monday, March 10th Business Plan Workshop and Collective Impact, Part 1 Readings due today:

    - William Sahlman, How to Write a Great Business Plan, Harvard Business Review 97409, 1 July 1997

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    - Ennis J. Walton and Michael J. Roberts, The Business Plan, Harvard Business School Case 9-389-020, 21 October 1998.

    - John Kania & Mark Kramer, Collective Impact, Stanford Social Innovation Review,

    Winter 2011. - Fay Hanleybrown, John Kania, & Mark Kramer, Channeling Change: Making Collective

    Impact Work, Stanford Social Innovation Review, 26 January 2012. - Bill Drayton, Tipping the world: The power of collaborative entrepreneurship, Voices

    on Society: What Matters, McKinsey & Company, 8 April 2010.

    NO CLASS: Monday, March 17th (Spring Break) 7. Monday, March 24th : Social Entrepreneurs operating Internationally

    Special Guest: Wendy Kopp, Founder and Ceo Teach For All, Founder Teach For America

    Readings due today: - David Bornstein, How to Change the World, Chapter 12 (pg. 151-163), Ch. 14 (p. 183-


    - Alan Khazei, Big Citizenship, Chapters 6, 7 (pg.153-206), Appendices B, C (pg. 257-270). - Review Teach For All and Teach For America Websites

    - Case studies:

    o Bill George, Diana Mayer, Andrew N. McLean, Wendy Kopp and Teach For America (A), Harvard Business School, 9-406-125, 11 April 2007.

    o Bill George, Diana Mayer, Andrew N. McLean, Wendy Kopp and Teach For America (B), Harvard Business School, 9-407-031, 11 April 2007.

    o Mark Moore, Muhammad Yunus and the Grameen Bank (A): A Personal and Social

    Search for Inclusive Economic Development: The Start-Up, Harvard Kennedy School, 5 October 2007.

    Optional Readings: o William A. Sahlman, Michael J. Roberts, Endeavor Determining a Growth

    Strategy, Harvard Business Review, 9-803-126, 18 November 2005. o V. Kasturi Rangan, The Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India: In Service for Sight,

    Harvard Business School, 9-593-098, 15 May 2009.

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    8. Monday, March 31st

    Collective Impact, Part 2 , Special Guest, Anna Muoio, Senior Manager, Monitor Institute Deloitte Readings due today:

    - Alan Khazei, Big Citizenship, Chapters 6, 7 (pg.153-206), Appendices B, C (pg. 257-270).

    Case studies: o The Strive Partnership, Creating Cradle to Career Civic Infrastructure: A

    Collection of Papers. o The Strive Partnership, Shared Community Vision: Building the Partnership to

    Maintain the Roadmap. o Transformer: How to build a network to change the system: A Case Study of the

    Re-Amp Network, The Monitor Institute, Heather McLeod o Howard Husock, Mark Moore, The AmeriCorps Budget Crisis of 2003: (A) Why

    the National Service Movement Faced Cutbacks and How it Responded, Harvard Kennedy School, 1 March 2004.

    o Howard Husock, Mark Moore, The AmeriCorps Budget Crisis of 2003 (B), Harvard Kennedy School, 1 March 2004.

    o The AmeriCorps Budget Crisis of 2003: (Sequel) Why the National Service Movement Faced Cutbacks and How it Responded, Harvard Kennedy School, 1 March 2004.

    9. Monday, April 7th

    Putting it all together: What does it take to be an effective Social Entrepreneurial Organization? Site Visit Discussion Assignments due IN ADVANCE of today:

    - Short Paper #2 due on Wednesday, April 3rd. Readings due today:

    - Classmates Short Papers #2. - Leslie Crutchfield and Heather McCleod, Forces for Good

    o Chapter 5: Nurture Non-Profit Networks (pg. 104-127) o Chapter 7: Share Leadership (pg. 153-178) o Chapter 9: Putting It into Practice (pg. 207-224)

    - David Bornstein, How To Change the World, Chapter 16, (pg. 205-216), Chapter 18 (pg. 238-246), Chapter 20, Chapter 21 (pg. 262-288)

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    10. Monday, April 14th

    Social entrepreneurship and advocacy in Education Special Guest: Chris Gabrieli, Founder and Chairman, National Center on Time and Learning Readings due today: Review National Center on Time and Learning Website and Mass 20/20 Website

    - Case studies o Elliot Regenstein, Illinois: The New Leader in Education Reform? Center for

    American Progress and EducationCounsel LLC, July 2011. o Deanne Pearn, Gabriel Orozco, Max Selver, Sam Cobbs, Issue Brief: Staying

    Power, First Place for Youth, October 2012

    11. Monday, April 21st Business Plan Presentations (final due May 8th) (Note Class will run from 4:10 pm to 7:30 pm with pizza dinner included)

    Readings due today:

    - Classmates draft business plans - Peter Drucker, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, HarperCollins Business Edition, 1993:

    Conclusion (pg. 292-305) - Bornstein and Davis: Chapter III Envisioning An Innovative Society, pgs.75-128.

    12. Monday, April 28th Business Plan Presentations Continued (final due May 8th)

    (Note Class will run from 4:10 pm to 7:30 pm with pizza dinner included) Readings: Classmates draft business plans.


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