ENTREPRENEURSHIP Entrepreneurship as Social

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<ul><li><p>Entrepreneurship as Social Change</p></li><li><p>Entrepreneurship asSocial ChangeA Third Movements in Entrepreneurship Book</p><p>Edited by</p><p>Chris SteyaertUniversity of St Gallen, Switzerland</p><p>and</p><p>Daniel HjorthCopenhagen Business School, Denmark, and ESBRI and Vxj University, Sweden</p><p>In association with ESBRI</p><p>Edward ElgarCheltenham, UK Northampton, MA, USA</p></li><li><p> Chris Steyaert and Daniel Hjorth 2006</p><p>All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalor photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission of thepublisher.</p><p>Published byEdward Elgar Publishing LimitedGlensanda HouseMontpellier ParadeCheltenhamGlos GL50 1UAUK</p><p>Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.William Pratt House9 Dewey CourtNorthamptonMassachusetts 01060USA</p><p>A catalogue record for this bookis available from the British Library</p><p>Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataEntrepreneurship as social change : a third new movements inentrepreneurship book / edited by Chris Steyaert, Daniel Hjorth.</p><p>p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.1. Social entrepreneurship. 2. Social change. I. Steyaert, Chris. II.Hjorth, Daniel.</p><p>HD60.E587 2006338.04dc22 2006011134</p><p>ISBN-13: 978 1 84542 366 7ISBN-10: 1 84542 366 6</p><p>Typeset by Cambrian Typesetters, Camberley, SurreyPrinted and bound in Great Britain by MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin, Cornwall</p></li><li><p>ContentsList of figures viiList of tables viiiList of contributors ixForeword and acknowledgements xi</p><p>Introduction: what is social in social entrepreneurship? 1Chris Steyaert and Daniel Hjorth</p><p>PART ONE: CONCEPTS OF SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP</p><p>1. Social entrepreneurship: the view of the young Schumpeter 21Richard Swedberg</p><p>2. The practice of social entrepreneurship: notes toward a resource-perspective 35Yohanan Stryjan</p><p>3. Communities in the global economy: where social and indigenous entrepreneurship meet 56Robert B. Anderson, Benson Honig and Ana Maria Peredo</p><p>4. Location and relocation, visions and revisions: opportunities for social entrepreneurship 79Ellen S. OConnor</p><p>5. Public entrepreneurship: moving from social/consumer to public/citizen 97Daniel Hjorth and Bjrn Bjerke</p><p>6. The rhetoric of social entrepreneurship: paralogy and new language games in academic discourse 121Pascal Dey</p><p>PART TWO: CONTEXTS OF SOCIAL CHANGE</p><p>7. Entrepreneurship, shifting life orientations and social change in the countryside 145Denise Fletcher and Tony Watson</p><p>8. Women, Mother Earth and the business of living 165Kathryn Campbell</p><p>v</p></li><li><p>9. The dynamics of community identity making in an industrial district: the spirit of Gnosj revisited 188Bengt Johannisson and Caroline Wigren</p><p>10. Entrepreneurship as boundary work: deviating from and belonging to community 210Monica Lindgren and Johann Packendorff</p><p>11. Discursive diversity in fashioning entrepreneurial identity 231Karin Berglund</p><p>12. City of enterprise, city as prey? On urban entrepreneurial spaces 251Timon Beyes</p><p>Notes 271References 277Index 317</p><p>vi Contents</p></li><li><p>List of figures1.1 Economic change and social entrepreneurship, according to </p><p>the young Schumpeter 342.1 Modes of conversion and reproduction 543.1 The global economy, after Anderson et al. (2003) 735.1 From social/consumer to public/citizen 1027.1 The relationship between social change and entrepreneurs and </p><p>their clients becoming other 152</p><p>vii</p></li><li><p>List of tables1.1 The Man of Action and the Non-Entrepreneurial Person, </p><p>according to the young Schumpeter 292.1 The enterprises: activity and resource mix 472.2 The team: members and strategies 503.1 The characteristics of aboriginal economic development, </p><p>adapted from Anderson and Giberson (2004, p. 142) 579.1 Participants in social worlds a typology 1959.2 The outsider as an insurgent 203</p><p>viii</p></li><li><p>List of contributorsRobert B. Anderson, University of Regina, robert.anderson@uregina.ca</p><p>Karin Berglund, Mlardalen University, karin.berglund@mdh.se</p><p>Timon Beyes, University of St Gallen, timon.beyes@unisg.ch</p><p>Bjrn Bjerke, Malm University, bjorn.bjerke@ts.mah.se</p><p>Kathryn Campbell, Trent University, kcampbell@trentu.ca</p><p>Pascal Dey, University of St Gallen, pascal.dey@unisg.ch</p><p>Denise Fletcher, University of Sheffield, denise.fletcher@sheffield.ac.uk</p><p>Daniel Hjorth, Copenhagen Business School &amp; Vxj University,dhj.lpf@cbs.dk</p><p>Benson Honig, Wilfrid Laurier University, bhonig@wlu.ca</p><p>Bengt Johannisson, Vxj University, bengt.johannisson@vxu.se</p><p>Monica Lindgren, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, monica.lindgren@indek.kth.se</p><p>Ellen S. OConnor, University of Paris Dauphine,o_connor_ellen@hotmail.com</p><p>Johann Packendorff, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, johann.packendorff@indek.kth.se</p><p>Ana Maria Peredo, University of Victoria, aperedo@uvic.ca</p><p>Chris Steyaert, University of St Gallen, chris.steyaert@unisg.ch</p><p>Yohanan Stryjan, Sdertrns hgskola (Sdertrn University College),yohanan.stryjan@sh.se</p><p>ix</p></li><li><p>Richard Swedberg, Cornell University, rs328@cornell.edu</p><p>Tony Watson, Nottingham University Business School,tony.watson@nottingham.ac.uk</p><p>Caroline Wigren, Jnkping International Business School,caroline.wigren@ihh.hj.se</p><p>x Contributors</p></li><li><p>Foreword and acknowledgementsEntrepreneurship as Social Change is the third book in a miniseries of fourpublications called Movements in Entrepreneurship. The journey from a so-called writers workshop to a publishable manuscript is a collective processwherein the quality of dialogue and conversation needs to develop into afocused and enriched book. A new movement in the field of entrepreneurship in this case social entrepreneurship is taken up for the purpose of a criticaland crucial discussion that does not reproduce just more of the same (entre-preneurship), but rather creates a chance to change our understanding of entre-preneurship itself. Whether this book succeeds in accomplishing such amovement, we will leave up to the interested and critical readers. This cannotprevent us from acknowledging the committed efforts of many direct and indi-rect contributors that have made the transition from workshop to book asmooth and worthwhile endeavour.</p><p>With the theme of the earth after the ones of water (see New Movementsin Entrepreneurship, Steyaert and Hjorth, 2003) and air (see Narrative andDiscursive Approaches in Entrepreneurship, Hjorth and Steyaert, 2004) weentered the site of the small and beautiful village of Tllberg, Sweden. Thevillage resides on a slope looking down on Lake Siljan. Lake Siljan is onereminder of the third largest meteorite impact in our planets history. Around360 million years ago, a 4-km large meteor fell from space and had an enor-mous impact on the Earth here, making it a worthy place to explore thegroundings of entrepreneurship. Close to Tllberg, we visited the extraordi-nary festival stage of Dalhalla, a former limestone quarry. The open mining inthis area has created a natural amphitheatre 400 m long, 175 m wide and 60m deep. How this performance arena came about offers an excellent illustra-tion of cultural entrepreneurship as social change, which was shared with theworkshop participants through the intriguing story told by Per Frankelius(University of rebro). We are grateful for his contribution. Furthermore,Ellen OConnor (University of Paris Dauphine) and Tor Hernes (NorwegianSchool of Management BI) gave excellent keynotes to stimulate discussions.We would also like to thank all participants in the workshop including thosewhose contributions did not make it into the book. Many of the participantsacted also as valuable reviewers for the papers of other authors during andafter the workshop. We also acknowledge the valuable contribution of theexternal (anonymous) reviewers who helped us in sharpening the arguments of</p><p>xi</p></li><li><p>the different chapters. In particular, we would like to thank Magnus Aronssonwho, as director of ESBRI, organized a flawless workshop event that made thewhole experience pleasant and socially stimulating. The publisher EdwardElgar especially Francine OSullivan and Jo Betteridge have respondedwith patience and enthusiasm, two rare qualities that we value considerably inthis cooperation. Finally, the editors special thanks go to Pascal Dey, whoseintellectual and practical support in preparing the final manuscript has beeninvaluable.</p><p>Keep looking at the Movements, Chris and Daniel</p><p>xii Foreword and acknowledgements</p></li><li><p>Introduction: what is social in socialentrepreneurship?Chris Steyaert and Daniel Hjorth</p><p>This book investigates the social of social entrepreneurship: what is meant byconnecting entrepreneurship with the social? How does the social make socialentrepreneurship different from entrepreneurship, if at all? Is social entrepre-neurship a new field within entrepreneurship research that needs its own theo-ries and concepts? Or is it just an epitheton ornans and is it better to questionany distinction between entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship? Or, yetagain, does the social appellation create new chances to probe into the social-ity of entrepreneurship and into a (new) entrepreneuriality of society?</p><p>The title of this third Movements in Entrepreneurship book Entrepreneurship as Social Change suggests a probing answer in the formof claiming a double sociality for entrepreneurship. Firstly, the title indicatesthat entrepreneurship is connected to social change and societal transforma-tion. This is an observation, belief and concept that has become popular in therecent rise in interest in social entrepreneurship, which we take up to inspectcritically, yet affirmatively: how is social change understood, imagined andpracticed? By connecting entrepreneurship with social change, we believe theplatform or the space of entrepreneurship becomes disclosed as part of soci-ety (Steyaert and Katz, 2004; Hjorth and Steyaert, 2003) and we can grasp thechance to look into the multidiscursive construction of entrepreneurshipbeyond any economic or progress-instrumentalist reductionism. However,some contend that the emergence of social entrepreneurship brings alongrather a return to economic and economizing discourse and an intensificationof managerial logic. This book examines this claim more closely, asks whetherthis is an inevitable evolution and inquires what alternative turns or twists canbe formulated and tried out: this book asks what people to come, what societyto come is unimagined in this dominant approach to social entrepreneurship,and brings such examples to our readers.</p><p>Secondly, the title puts forward a concept of entrepreneurship that says thatentrepreneurship is a process based on the course of social change. Byconceiving entrepreneurship as social change, we believe a possibility iscreated to inquire into the social nature of entrepreneurship and to switch the</p><p>1</p></li><li><p>all-too-familiar inclination of the field of entrepreneurship to return to apossessive individualism for a broader social science view (Swedberg, 1999)that conceives entrepreneurship through concepts of sociality such as relation,community, social cauldron, legitimacy, spatiality, resistance, citizenship andthe public. Also an opportunity exists here to alter the disciplinary hierarchythat has favoured theories from economics and (individualist) psychology andto connect with concepts and notions of less frequently visited disciplines andtheoretical domains (Steyaert, 2005). This book then combines and inter-weaves two beliefs we think the rise in interest in social entrepreneurshipenables us to explore, which can help to move the entire field of entrepre-neurship: entrepreneurship is a complex social-creative process that influ-ences, multiplies, transforms, re-imagines and alters the outlook of the spaceof society in which it is at once grounded and contextualized.</p><p>As a work in the series Movements in Entrepreneurship, this book hopes tocreate some movement itself. At a moment when the interest in social entre-preneurship booms in media, education and politics and is well on its way tobecoming the next fad in entrepreneurship studies and business schools, webelieve it well timed to engage with an in-depth inquiry into the social aspectsof entrepreneurship and the surprisingly entrepreneurial aspects of society, andwell placed to make possible a movement that brings social entrepreneurshipout of its endangered position of fashionable topic for philanthropists,pensioned CEOs equipped with problem-fixing managerial tools, educationprogrammers and social change engineers. The movement that might becomepossible is one that makes entrepreneurship social: that is, one that enables usto imagine and invent new possibilities, to contribute to its heterogeneity anddemocratic spread in society, and to reach out for the well-being of all on thisearth. The movement from social entrepreneurship to making entrepreneur-ship social requires us to leave fixed understandings of entrepreneurshipbehind and to release its multiple versions: the becoming social of entrepre-neurship and the becoming entrepreneurial of the social. As social entrepre-neurship is not yet a solidified signifier, it might be possible to rescue andmake public some of the less evident meanings that otherwise might remain atthe margins of the currently academic and popular discourse of social entre-preneurship. In that sense, we hope the book to be programmatic, not as a defi-nite plan with distinctive steps, but in the etymological sense of the Greekprogramma, meaning a written public notice, stemming from prographein,to write publicly. In that sense, with this book, social entrepreneurshipbecomes written in the public domain (see the contributions of OConnor andHjorth and Bjerke below) and can become envisioned as a public matter.</p><p>The argument of this introductory chapter evolves as follows. First, we willsituate the thematics of this book on entrepreneurship as social change in thelight of the recent rise of the phenomenon of social entrepreneurship and the</p><p>2 Introduction: what is social in social entrepreneurship?</p></li><li><p>increased attention being given to it. We summarize the types of interventionsthis book aims for, which we find important to secure some of the promises atthe margins of the current discourse of social entrepreneurship. The goal is toindicate how entrepreneurship might become social. Second, we will relate thesocial of entrepreneurship to the metaphor and idea of the earth as the spacewhere the social is not only grounded and contextualized but also changed andtransformed. We find the idea of the earth pertinent as it does not carve out thesocial as disconnected from nature and can allow us to conceive new readentrepreneurial versions and understandings of the social. Third, we willgive a commentated overview of the first section of this book that comprisesthe range of conceptual explorations in relation to the emergence of interest insocial entrepreneurship. We will travel move between a refreshing readingof the early Schumpeter and a rhetorical analysis of the current academic liter-ature on social entrepreneurship, exploring in between four empirica...</p></li></ul>

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