ENTREPRENEURSHIP Entrepreneurship as Social

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  • Entrepreneurship as Social Change

  • Entrepreneurship asSocial ChangeA Third Movements in Entrepreneurship Book

    Edited by

    Chris SteyaertUniversity of St Gallen, Switzerland


    Daniel HjorthCopenhagen Business School, Denmark, and ESBRI and Vxj University, Sweden

    In association with ESBRI

    Edward ElgarCheltenham, UK Northampton, MA, USA

  • Chris Steyaert and Daniel Hjorth 2006

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalor photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission of thepublisher.

    Published byEdward Elgar Publishing LimitedGlensanda HouseMontpellier ParadeCheltenhamGlos GL50 1UAUK

    Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.William Pratt House9 Dewey CourtNorthamptonMassachusetts 01060USA

    A catalogue record for this bookis available from the British Library

    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataEntrepreneurship as social change : a third new movements inentrepreneurship book / edited by Chris Steyaert, Daniel Hjorth.

    p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.1. Social entrepreneurship. 2. Social change. I. Steyaert, Chris. II.Hjorth, Daniel.

    HD60.E587 2006338.04dc22 2006011134

    ISBN-13: 978 1 84542 366 7ISBN-10: 1 84542 366 6

    Typeset by Cambrian Typesetters, Camberley, SurreyPrinted and bound in Great Britain by MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin, Cornwall

  • ContentsList of figures viiList of tables viiiList of contributors ixForeword and acknowledgements xi

    Introduction: what is social in social entrepreneurship? 1Chris Steyaert and Daniel Hjorth


    1. Social entrepreneurship: the view of the young Schumpeter 21Richard Swedberg

    2. The practice of social entrepreneurship: notes toward a resource-perspective 35Yohanan Stryjan

    3. Communities in the global economy: where social and indigenous entrepreneurship meet 56Robert B. Anderson, Benson Honig and Ana Maria Peredo

    4. Location and relocation, visions and revisions: opportunities for social entrepreneurship 79Ellen S. OConnor

    5. Public entrepreneurship: moving from social/consumer to public/citizen 97Daniel Hjorth and Bjrn Bjerke

    6. The rhetoric of social entrepreneurship: paralogy and new language games in academic discourse 121Pascal Dey


    7. Entrepreneurship, shifting life orientations and social change in the countryside 145Denise Fletcher and Tony Watson

    8. Women, Mother Earth and the business of living 165Kathryn Campbell


  • 9. The dynamics of community identity making in an industrial district: the spirit of Gnosj revisited 188Bengt Johannisson and Caroline Wigren

    10. Entrepreneurship as boundary work: deviating from and belonging to community 210Monica Lindgren and Johann Packendorff

    11. Discursive diversity in fashioning entrepreneurial identity 231Karin Berglund

    12. City of enterprise, city as prey? On urban entrepreneurial spaces 251Timon Beyes

    Notes 271References 277Index 317

    vi Contents

  • List of figures1.1 Economic change and social entrepreneurship, according to

    the young Schumpeter 342.1 Modes of conversion and reproduction 543.1 The global economy, after Anderson et al. (2003) 735.1 From social/consumer to public/citizen 1027.1 The relationship between social change and entrepreneurs and

    their clients becoming other 152


  • List of tables1.1 The Man of Action and the Non-Entrepreneurial Person,

    according to the young Schumpeter 292.1 The enterprises: activity and resource mix 472.2 The team: members and strategies 503.1 The characteristics of aboriginal economic development,

    adapted from Anderson and Giberson (2004, p. 142) 579.1 Participants in social worlds a typology 1959.2 The outsider as an insurgent 203


  • List of contributorsRobert B. Anderson, University of Regina, robert.anderson@uregina.ca

    Karin Berglund, Mlardalen University, karin.berglund@mdh.se

    Timon Beyes, University of St Gallen, timon.beyes@unisg.ch

    Bjrn Bjerke, Malm University, bjorn.bjerke@ts.mah.se

    Kathryn Campbell, Trent University, kcampbell@trentu.ca

    Pascal Dey, University of St Gallen, pascal.dey@unisg.ch

    Denise Fletcher, University of Sheffield, denise.fletcher@sheffield.ac.uk

    Daniel Hjorth, Copenhagen Business School & Vxj University,dhj.lpf@cbs.dk

    Benson Honig, Wilfrid Laurier University, bhonig@wlu.ca

    Bengt Johannisson, Vxj University, bengt.johannisson@vxu.se

    Monica Lindgren, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, monica.lindgren@indek.kth.se

    Ellen S. OConnor, University of Paris Dauphine,o_connor_ellen@hotmail.com

    Johann Packendorff, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, johann.packendorff@indek.kth.se

    Ana Maria Peredo, University of Victoria, aperedo@uvic.ca

    Chris Steyaert, University of St Gallen, chris.steyaert@unisg.ch

    Yohanan Stryjan, Sdertrns hgskola (Sdertrn University College),yohanan.stryjan@sh.se


  • Richard Swedberg, Cornell University, rs328@cornell.edu

    Tony Watson, Nottingham University Business School,tony.watson@nottingham.ac.uk

    Caroline Wigren, Jnkping International Business School,caroline.wigren@ihh.hj.se

    x Contributors

  • Foreword and acknowledgementsEntrepreneurship as Social Change is the third book in a miniseries of fourpublications called Movements in Entrepreneurship. The journey from a so-called writers workshop to a publishable manuscript is a collective processwherein the quality of dialogue and conversation needs to develop into afocused and enriched book. A new movement in the field of entrepreneurship in this case social entrepreneurship is taken up for the purpose of a criticaland crucial discussion that does not reproduce just more of the same (entre-preneurship), but rather creates a chance to change our understanding of entre-preneurship itself. Whether this book succeeds in accomplishing such amovement, we will leave up to the interested and critical readers. This cannotprevent us from acknowledging the committed efforts of many direct and indi-rect contributors that have made the transition from workshop to book asmooth and worthwhile endeavour.

    With the theme of the earth after the ones of water (see New Movementsin Entrepreneurship, Steyaert and Hjorth, 2003) and air (see Narrative andDiscursive Approaches in Entrepreneurship, Hjorth and Steyaert, 2004) weentered the site of the small and beautiful village of Tllberg, Sweden. Thevillage resides on a slope looking down on Lake Siljan. Lake Siljan is onereminder of the third largest meteorite impact in our planets history. Around360 million years ago, a 4-km large meteor fell from space and had an enor-mous impact on the Earth here, making it a worthy place to explore thegroundings of entrepreneurship. Close to Tllberg, we visited the extraordi-nary festival stage of Dalhalla, a former limestone quarry. The open mining inthis area has created a natural amphitheatre 400 m long, 175 m wide and 60m deep. How this performance arena came about offers an excellent illustra-tion of cultural entrepreneurship as social change, which was shared with theworkshop participants through the intriguing story told by Per Frankelius(University of rebro). We are grateful for his contribution. Furthermore,Ellen OConnor (University of Paris Dauphine) and Tor Hernes (NorwegianSchool of Management BI) gave excellent keynotes to stimulate discussions.We would also like to thank all participants in the workshop including thosewhose contributions did not make it into the book. Many of the participantsacted also as valuable reviewers for the papers of other authors during andafter the workshop. We also acknowledge the valuable contribution of theexternal (anonymous) reviewers who helped us in sharpening the arguments of


  • the different chapters. In particular, we would like to thank Magnus Aronssonwho, as director of ESBRI, organized a flawless workshop event that made thewhole experience pleasant and socially stimulating. The publisher EdwardElgar especially Francine OSullivan and Jo Betteridge have respondedwith patience and enthusiasm, two rare qualities that we value considerably inthis cooperation. Finally, the editors special thanks go to Pascal Dey, whoseintellectual and practical support in preparing the final manuscript has beeninvaluable.

    Keep looking at the Movements, Chris and Daniel

    xii Foreword and acknowledgements

  • Introduction: what is social in socialentrepreneurship?Chris Steyaert and Daniel Hjorth

    This book investigates the social of social entrepreneurship: what is meant byconnecting entrepreneurship with the social? How does the social make socialentrepreneurship different from entrepreneurship, if at all? Is social entrepre-neurship a new field within entrepreneurship research that needs its own theo-ries and concepts? Or is it just an epitheton ornans and is it better to questionany distinction between entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship? Or, yetagain, does the social appellation create new chances to probe into the social-ity of entrepreneurship and into a (new) entrepreneuriality of society?

    The title of this third Movements in Entrepreneurship book Entrepreneurship as Social Change suggests a probing answer in the formof claiming a double sociality for entrepreneurship. Firstly, the title indicatesthat entrepreneurship is connected to social change and societal transforma-tion. This is an observation, belief and concept that has become popular in therecent rise in interest in social entrepreneurship, which we take up