Red Wolf Canis rufus International Studbook

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  • Red Wolf Canis rufus

    International Studbook

    Becky Bartel/USFWS

    William Waddell International Studbook Keeper Red Wolf Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium Data current through 27 January 2014

  • ii

    Table of Contents

    Introduction ................................................................................................................... iii-iv

    Data Conventions .................................................................................................................v

    Living by Location ......................................................................................................... 6-20

    Births, deaths, transfers since last studbook publication ............................................. 21-27

    Historical Listing by Studbook Number .................................................................... 28-139

    Location Glossary .................................................................................................... 140-143

    Copyright 2014 by Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be

    reproduced in hard copy or other formats without advance written permission from the Point Defiance Zoo

    & Aquarium. Members of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) may copy this

    information for their own use. WAZA and the Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium recommend that users of

    this information consult with the ISB keeper for any interpretation and the most current data.

  • iii

    Introduction

    The data reported in this studbook was compiled by:

    William Waddell

    Red Wolf International Studbook Keeper

    Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium

    5400 North Pearl Street

    Tacoma, Washington 98407, USA

    Ph: +1 253-858-9172

    Fax: +1 253-591-5448

    william.waddell@pdza.org

    USFWS and IUCN status

    The red wolf is listed as endangered under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) (United States Public Law No.

    93-205; United States Code Title 16 Section 1531 et seq.). Wild red wolves inhabiting the northeastern North

    Carolina (NENC), USA recovery area and a single island propagation site (St. Vincent NWR, Florida) are

    designated as experimental non-essential populations under Section 10(j) of the ESA. The IUCN Red List of

    Threatened Species lists the red wolfs status as critically endangered.

    Current ex situ population status

    The data reported in this studbook are current through 27 January 2014. As of that date, the historical red wolf

    studbook consists of 868.907.53 (1828) animals and the living ex situ population of 79.113.0 (192) at 45

    institutions. Red wolf population management events (births, transfers, and deaths) recorded since the last studbook

    publication from 4 January 2013 are reported on pages 21 27.

    The most recent population analysis used to generate annual breeding and transfer recommendations took place at

    the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida in July 2013. Demographic and genetic summaries (Table 1)

    created from that planning meeting and an updated population census (Fig. 1) are included below.

  • iv

    Figure 1. Census of the Red Wolf SSP population as of January 2014

    Table 1. Demographic and genetic summaries July 2013

    DEMOGRAPHY

    Current Population Size (at time of analyses) 194 (80.114)

    Animals Excluded from Genetic Analyses 18 (6.12)

    Population size following exclusions 176 (74.102)

    Target Population Size 200 Number of Participating Institutions 44

    Mean Generation Time (years) 5.80

    Historical / Potential Population Growth Rate (lambda) 1.00 / 1.02

    GENETICS

    Current Potential

    Number of Founders 12 0

    Founder Genome Equivalents (FGE) 4.67 7.53

    Gene Diversity (%GD) 89.29 93.36

    Population Mean Kinship (MK) 0.1071 --

    Mean Inbreeding Coefficient (F) 0.076 --

    Percent pedigree known before assumptions/exclusions 100 -- Percent pedigree known after assumptions/exclusions -- --

    Effective Population Size to Census Size Ratio (Ne/N) 0.1646 --

    Years to 90% Gene Diversity already < 90% < 90%

    Years to 85% GD 14 16

    Year to 10% Loss in GD 37 42 Gene Diversity at 100 Years From Present (%) (assuming = historical = 1.00 /potential =1.02, Kt = 200)

    65.36 67.78

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    140

    160

    180

    200

    1974 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 2009 2014

    Total N

    Female N

    Male N

    N Institutions

  • v

    Current status of population in the wild

    An estimated 100 120 red wolves currently inhabit more than 6000 km2 encompassing the five-county red wolf

    recovery area located in NENC. At the end of 2013, 62 known red wolves (i.e. monitored via functioning radio-

    collars occupied the recovery area. The population includes 11 packs totaling 36 wolves with 9 breeding pairs and 8

    mixed packs comprising 8 wolves and 8 sterile coyotes. An additional 18 wolves are not known to be associated

    with a pack. Additional wolves are likely present but have not been captured/radio collared or their presence

    otherwise confirmed. These individuals are not included in the living by location section and are recorded as lost-

    to-follow up (LTF) in the historical section until their presence is confirmed. The NENC population is also

    supported by an island propagation site located at St. Vincent Island National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA

    through a strategy of providing wild-born wolves trans-located for release at NENC.

    Taxonomic status

    The USFWS retains distinct species status for the red wolf. Recent taxonomic designations that have been proposed

    include assigning the red wolf as a subspecies of gray wolf, C. lupus rufus, or combining the red wolf with eastern

    gray wolf, C. l. lycaon. A review of red wolf taxonomy is included in Chambers et al. (2012) account of North

    American wolf taxonomy published in North American Fauna http://www.fwspubs.org/toc/nafa//77.

    Links to publications summarizing the Red Wolf Recovery Program

    Hinton, J. W., M. J. Chamberlain, and D. R. Rabon Jr. 2013. Red wolf (Canis rufus) recovery: A review with

    suggestions for future research. Animals 3:722-744. http://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/3/3/772

    Bartel, R. A. and D. R. Rabon Jr. 2013. Re-introduction and recovery of the red wolf in the southeastern USA.

    Pages 107 115 in P.S. Soorae (ed.). Global Reintroduction Perspectives: 2013. Further case studies from around

    the globe. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialists Group and Abu Dhabi, UAE: Environment

    Agency Abu Dhabi. xiv+282 pp. https://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/rsg_book_2013.pdf

    Bibliography and program reports are available at http://www.fws.gov/redwolf/

    http://www.fwspubs.org/toc/nafa/77http://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/3/3/772https://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/rsg_book_2013.pdfhttp://www.fws.gov/redwolf/

  • v

    Data conventions

    Scope This studbook report includes an alphabetical listing of red wolves living by location as of

    27 January 2014 and an historical listing by studbook number.

    Stud # A listing of all animals entering the program and assigned a permanent studbook number

    Sex F = Female (f - sterile)

    M = Male (m - sterile)

    ? = Unknown

    Date All dates listed as DD/MM/YY. ~ indicates estimated day, month, or year

    Sire/Dam By studbook number if known

    WILD if wild born. Wild-born individuals from parents of the contemporary reintroduced/free-ranging populations with an assigned studbook number, are entered

    as such in the SPARKS database.

    UNK if parental identity is unknown.

    Locations Listed by ISIS mnemonic

    Local ID Identification number reported by the holding institution

    Event Management activities in an animals lifetime. Individuals in the historical section with the

    first Event listed as Capture denote an estimated birth year based on historical records

    UDF User defined field (historical section)

    Y = animal determined a hybrid

    N = animal not hybrid

    U = undetermined unless confirmed

    Institutions that have contributed data to the current studbook publication are marked with * in the location glossary

    beginning on page 140. Those institutions that are not identified by an asterisk, no longer maintain red wolves.

  • RED WOLF STUDBOOK

    Living by Location 27 January 2014

    =======================================================================================================

    Stud # | Sex | Birth Date | Sire | Dam | Location | Date | Local ID | Event |Transponder # |

    =======================================================================================================

    6

    AKRON - Akron Zoological Park, Akron, Ohio, USA

    1856 F 24 Apr 2011 1414 1722 BLOOMINGT 24 Apr 2011 M11020 Birth 00-06CB-9954

    AKRON 4 Jul 2013 101263 Transfer

    1857 F 24 Apr 2011 1414 1722 BLOOMINGT 24 Apr 2011 M11021 Birth 00-06C6-7D63