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  • 2013

    Recovery Plan for the White Shark

    (Carcharodon carcharias)

  • 2 | Recovery Plan for the White Shark

    The issues paper linked to this recovery plan is obtainable from: www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/recovery-list-common.html

    © Commonwealth of Australia 2013

    This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce this material in unaltered form only (retaining this notice) for your personal, non-commercial use or use within your organisation. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, all other rights are reserved. Requests and enquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Public Affairs, GPO Box 787 Canberra ACT 2601 or email [email protected]

    Disclaimer

    While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure that the contents of this publication are factually correct, the Commonwealth does not accept responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the contents, and shall not be liable for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the contents of this publication.

    Images credits Front and back cover left to right: white shark over seabed — Rachel Robbins, white shark in open water — Barry Bruce, close up image of white shark — Les Parsons, white shark on the water’s surface — Mark Allen

  • 3

    CONTENTS1 Summary 6

    2 Background 82.1 Species description and distribution in Australian waters 8

    2.2 Population trends 8

    2.3 Habitat critical to the survival of the white shark 9

    3 Conservation status 10

    4 Reasons for listing under the EPBC Act 11

    5 Evaluation of performance of the previous Recovery Plan for the White Shark 12

    6 Threats 14

    7 Populations that require protective measures 15

    8 Objectives 16

    9 Actionstoachievethespecificobjectives 17

    10 Current management practices 2810.1 Marine bioregional plans 30

    10.2 Commonwealth marine reserves 32

    11 Effects on other native species or ecological communities 33

    12 Biodiversitybenefits 34

  • 4 | Recovery Plan for the White Shark

    13 Social and economic considerations 3513.1 Commercialandrecreationalfishing 35

    13.2 Sharkcontrolprograms 35

    13.3 Ecotourism 36

    13.4 International trade in shark products 36

    13.5 Habitatmodification/degradation 37

    14 Duration and cost of the recovery process 38

    15 Affected interests 39

    16 Efficientandeffectiveuseofresources 39

    17 Consultation 40

    18 Organisations/persons involved in evaluating the performance of the plan 41

    19 References 43

    20 Appendices 4620.1 Appendix 1. Biologically important areas 46

    20.2 Appendix 2. Progress on 2002 White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) Recovery Plan 47

    20.3 Appendix3.NationalSharkRecoveryGroup(NSRG) 56

  • 5

    List of figuresFigure 1: Distribution, foraging and aggregation sites for the white shark

    identifiedthroughtheMarineBioregionalPlanningprocess. 46

    List of tablesTable 1: Data at time of listing on abundance and size of white shark populations in

    Australian waters 11

    Table 2: Reported catches of white sharks in the NSWSMP,1950/51-2010/11(NSWDPI,2009,2011,2012). 30

    Table 3: Summaryofthestatusoftheactionsidentifiedinthe 2002 White Shark Recovery Plan (EA, 2002). 47

    Table 4: OrganisationsrepresentedontheNationalSharkRecoveryGroup(NSRG) 56

    AbbreviationsCITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna

    and Flora

    CMS Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals

    CSIRO CommonwealthScientificandIndustrialResearchOrganisation

    DSEWPaC Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Commonwealth

    EPBC Act Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999

    HSI Humane Society International

    IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature

    NSRG National Shark Recovery Group

    TRAFFIC Trade Records Analysis of Flora and Fauna in Commerce

    TSSC ThreatenedSpeciesScientificCommittee

  • 6 | Recovery Plan for the White Shark

    1 SUMMARYThis document constitutes the Australian National Recovery Plan for the White Shark. The plan considers the conservation requirements of the species across its range and identifiestheactionstobetakentoensurethespecies’long-termviabilityinnatureandthe parties that will undertake those actions. This is a revision of the 2002 White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) Recovery Plan (EA, 2002) and should be read in conjunction with the 2013 Issues Paper for the White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) (DSEWPaC, 2013), which is available for download from the department’s website at: www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/recovery-list-common.html.

    A review of the 2002 White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) RecoveryPlan,finalisedinNovember 2008, concluded that it was not possible to determine if the white shark population in Australian waters has shown any sign of recovery (DEWHA, 2008). Considering the lack of evidence supporting a recovery of white shark numbers—together with historical evidence of a greater decline in white shark numbers over the last 60 years as compared to other shark species — the review supports the white shark’s current status as vulnerable under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). The review concluded that a new recovery plan should be developed to remove the completed actions and include new conservation priorities.

    In addition to the white shark listing under Commonwealth legislation, the species is fully protected in the coastal waters of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia; and protected in the coastal waters of New South Wales and Queensland with exemptions made for shark control measures for bather protection (e.g. beach meshing and/or drumlining) in these two states. In some circumstances, the destruction of individual sharks is also authorised under Western Australia’s Fish Resources Management Act 1994.

    The principal threats and likely contributors to the lack of white shark recovery in Australia are mortality resulting from the accidental or illegal (i.e. targeted) capture by commercial and recreationalfishersandsharkcontrolactivities.Otherpotentialthreatstothespeciesincludethe impacts of illegal trade in white shark products, ecosystem effects as a result of habitat modificationandclimatechange(includingchangesinseatemperature,oceancurrentsandacidification)andecotourism,includingcagediving.

  • 7

    This recovery plan sets out the research and management actions necessary to stop the decline of, and support the recovery of, the white shark in Australian waters. The overarching objective of this recovery plan is to assist the recovery of the white shark in the wild throughout its range in Australian waters with a view to:

    • improving the population status, leading to future removal of the white shark from the threatened species list of the EPBC Act

    • ensuring that anthropogenic activities do not hinder recovery in the near future, or impact on the conservation status of the species in the future.

    An accompanying issues paper has also been developed to provide background information on the biology, population status and threats to the white shark. Both the issues paper and the recovery plan can be found at: www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/recovery-list-common.html

  • 8 | Recovery Plan for the White Shark

    2 BACKGROUND2.1 Species description and distribution

    in Australian watersThe white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), also known as the great white shark or the white pointer, is a close relative of the mako and porbeagle sharks in the family Lamnidae (Last & Stephens, 2009). White sharks are long-lived, living for 30 years or more (Bruce, 2008), and are found throughout temperate and sub-tropical regions in the northern and southern hemispheres (Last & Stephens, 2009).

    In Australia, the white shark has a range extending from central Queensland, around the southern coastline, and up to the North West Cape in Western Australia (Last & Stephens, 2009; Appendix 1). The white shark is primarily an inhabitant of continental and insular shelf waters but is also known to inhabit the open ocean. It often occurs close inshore near the surf-line, and may move into shallow bays.

    The species is also commonly found in inshore waters in the vicinity of islands, and often near seal colonies (Malcolm et al., 2001). These areas include locations such as the Neptune Islands off the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia; Wilsons Promontory, Victoria (particularly juveniles); the coastal region between Newcastle and Port Stephens, New South Wales (particularly juveniles) and the Recherche Archipelago and the islands off the lower west coast of Western Australia (Malcolm et al., 2001; EA, 2002).

    2.2 Population trendsDeterminingtrendsintheAustralianwhitesharkpopulationisdifficultbecausethespeciesis a widely dispersed, low density, highly mobile apex predator. In addition, it is not targeted byfishersinAustralianwaters,limitingcatchreportsasanindexofpopulationstatus.Recentevidence from the New South Wales Shark Meshing (Bather Protection) Program suggests that white shark numbers may have stabilised over the last 30 years in that state. There is, however, historical evidence of a greater decline in white shark numbers Australia-wide over the last 60 years, and no evidence to suggest that white shark numbers have recovered substantially sincereceivingprotection(Reidetal.,2011).However,itisdifficulttodistinguishpopulationchange from the high rates of inter-annual variability in the numbers observed within any one site or region (Cliff et al., 1996). This high level of inter-annual variability means that what may be seen as a decline or increase in numbers over a stretch of a few years may actually be the

  • 9

    result of changes in the distribution of white sharks from one place to another (Bruce, 2008). In addition to this variability caused by movements of white sharks, any rate of increase in the population size of white sharks will be inherently low because of their life history characteristics andwillthereforebedifficulttodetect.

    2.3 Habitat critical to the survival of the white sharkThe white shark is widely but not evenly distributed in Australian waters, with observations more frequent in some areas (Appendix 1). These areas include waters in and around some fur seal and Australian sea lion colonies such as: the Neptune Islands (South Australia); areas of the Great Australian Bight as well as the Recherche Archipelago and the islands off the lower west coast of Western Australia (Malcolm et al., 2001; EA, 2002). Juveniles appear to aggregateseasonallyincertainkeyareasincludingtheCornerInlet−90MileBeachareaofeastern Victoria and the coastal region between Newcastle and Forster in New South Wales, with particular concentrations in the Port Stephens area (Bruce & Bradford, 2008, 2012). The data collected by Bruce & Bradford (2012) demonstrate that these areas were utilised repeatedlyonaseasonalbasisacrossdifferentyearsandareconsistentwiththedefinitionof‘shark nursery areas’ applied by Heupel et al. (2007).

    These regions of higher concentration have been mapped as part of the Australian Government’s marine bioregional planning process. Appendix 1 shows the biologically important areas for white sharks in Australia’s Commonwealth Marine Regions. This map showsnotonlythebroaddistributionofwhitesharkswithinAustralianwatersbutalsoidentifieshigh density foraging sites, mostly around seal and sea lion colonies, and juvenile aggregation sites, where known.

    The white shark is not known to form and defend territories and is only a temporary resident in areas it inhabits. However, its ability to return on a highly seasonal or more regular basis impliesadegreeofsitefidelitythathasimplicationsforrepeatinteractionswithsite-specificthreats(Bruceetal.,2005).Recentgeneticstudieshavesupportedthetheorythatwhitesharks are philopatric — that is, they return to their birth place for biological purposes such as breeding (Blower, et al. 2012). Previously it was thought that only females exhibited philopatry (Pardini et al., 2001), but evidence in Blower et al. (2012) suggests that males may also display adegreeofphilopatry.Identifiedforagingareas,aggregationareas,andsitestowhichwhitesharks return on a regular basis may represent habitat critical to the survival of the species. However, further research is needed to identify such habitat.

  • 10 | Recovery Plan for the White Shark

    3 CONSERVATION STATUSSince the late 1990s, the white shark has been fully protected in Australia under Commonwealth and state legislation and is listed under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II (CITES, 2004a, 2004b, 2004c).

    The white shark is listed as:

    Commonwealth: Vulnerable and migratory under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) in 1999.

    New South Wales: VulnerableunderSection5,Part1,Fisheries Management Act 1994, in 1999. This legislation also contains an exemption for accidental catches in beach meshing.

    Queensland: Protected under Schedule 78(1), Fisheries Act 1994 in 1997. This legislation also contains an exemption for accidental catches in beach meshing.

    South Australia: Protected under Schedule 42, Fisheries Act 1982 in 1998.Tasmania: ProtectedunderSchedule135(2),Threatened Species Protection

    Act 1995,in2000,Section135(2),Living Marine Resources Management Act 1995, in 1998 and declared vulnerable under the Fisheries (GeneralandFees)Regulations1996,in2005.

    Victoria: Protected under Schedule 71, Fisheries Act 1995, in 1998.Western Australia: ListedasrareorlikelytobecomeextinctunderSchedule5ofthe

    Wildlife Conservation Act 1950, in 1999 and protected under Schedule 46 of the Fish Resources Management Act 1994, in 1997.

    International: • AppendixIIoftheConventiononInternationalTradeinEndangeredSpecies of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), in 2004.

    • AppendicesIandIIoftheConventionontheConservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), in 2002.

    • 2012InternationalUnionfortheConservationofNature(IUCN) Red List, listed as vulnerable, in 1996.

  • 11

    4 REASONS FOR LISTING UNDER THE EPBC ACT

    The white shark was listed as vulnerable under the EPBC Act on 16 July 1999. This listing was based on a number of factors, including evidence of a declining population; its life history characteristics (long-lived and low levels of reproduction); limited local distribution andabundance;and,atthetimeoflisting,significantongoingpressurefromtheAustraliancommercialfishingindustry.AtthetimeoflistingtheavailabledatastronglysuggestedasignificantdeclineinthesizeofwhitesharkpopulationsinAustralianwaters(Table1).

    Table 1: Data available at time of listing on abundance and size of white shark populations in Australian waters

    Year Location Data Used Trend Data Source1950–1999 New South

    WalesAnnual catch per unit effort in beach protection nets

    70% decline Reid & Krogh, 1992; Malcolm et al., 2001

    1950–1970 New South Wales

    Average length of sharks caught in nets

    Decline from 2.5–1.7m

    NSW Fisheries, 1997

    1962–1998 Queensland Annual catch per unit effort in beach protection nets and drumlines

    60–75%declinesince 1962

    Malcolm et al., 2001

    1961–1999 South eastern Australia

    Capture in sportsfisheryrelative to other large sharks

    95%decline Pepperell, 1992

    1980–1990 South Australia Annual game fishingcatch

    94% decline Presser & Allen, 1995

  • 12 | Recovery Plan for the White Shark

    5 EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE OF THE PREVIOUS RECOVERY PLAN FOR THE WHITE SHARK

    A recovery plan for the white shark in Australia was made in July 2002 (EA, 2002). Under the EPBC Act (section 279 (2)), recovery plans need to be reviewed every fiveyears.Thepurposeofthereviewistosummarisetheactionsundertakenagainst thosespecifiedinthe2002WhiteSharkRecoveryPlan,andtoassesswhether:

    • there is an ongoing need for a recovery plan under the EPBC Act

    • the recovery plan needs to be varied to ensure further protection for the species.

    A review of the 2002 White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) Recovery Plan was completed in November 2008 (DEWHA 2009). The review can be downloaded from the department’s website at: www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/recovery-list-common.html

    The review found that progress had been made on most of the 34 actions listed in the 2002 white shark recovery plan. Of the 34 actions, 14 have been completed, nine have been partially completed, four are ongoing, four have had minimal action recorded against them and three havenotbeeninitiated.Asummaryofthestatusoftheactionsidentifiedinthe2002whiteshark recovery plan is provided at Appendix 2.

    The review noted that since the introduction of the 2002 white shark recovery plan, the numberofinstancesofwhitesharkmortalityinthecommercialfishingsectorappearedtobedecreasing and there have been no reports of incidental white shark take in Commonwealth or statewatersfromtherecreationalfishingsector.Limitedofficialreportingofinteractionsislikelytoreflectthelowencounterratewithwhitesharksbutitmayalsoreflectalackofreportingofinteractions when they do occur. Continuation of efforts to raise awareness of the reporting requirements for protected species interactions is a priority.

  • 13

    Despite modest progress against some of the listed actions, the review concluded that since 2002 there had been no reliable published information suggesting the white shark population in Australian waters was recovering. The review considered the lack of documented recovery was not unexpected given the white shark’s low reproductive rate, ongoing uncertainty about the size of the population, and the relatively short period of time since the original recovery plan was made.

    Considering the lack of evidence supporting a recovery of white shark numbers, the review provided no reason to alter the white shark’s current status as vulnerable under the EPBC Act. The review also concluded that a new recovery plan should be developed for the white shark to remove the completed actions and include new conservation priorities.

    The present (revised) recovery plan builds on the 2002 White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) Recovery Plan (EA 2002) and was developed by the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) in consultation with representatives from Australian and state government agencies, commercial and recreational fishers,environmentnon-governmentorganisationsandresearchagencies.

    An accompanying issues paper has been developed to provide detailed background information on the biology, population status and threats to the white shark, as well as to identify research and management priorities. The 2013 Recovery Plan for the White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) in Australia should therefore be read in conjunction with the 2013 Issues Paper for the White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) (DSEWPaC, 2013), which can be found at: www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/recovery-list-common.html

  • 14 | Recovery Plan for the White Shark

    6 THREATS The principal threats to the white shark in Australia are outlined in the 2013 Issues Paper for the White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) (DSEWPaC, 2013). These threats are similar to thoseidentifiedinthe2002WhiteShark (Carcharodon carcharias) Recovery Plan (EA, 2002) and can be summarised as:

    • Mortality related to being caught accidentally (bycatch) or illegally (targeted) by commercial andrecreationalfisheries,includingissuesofpostreleasemortality.

    • Mortality related to shark control activities such as beach meshing or drumlining (east coast population).

    Other potential threats to the species include the impacts of illegal trade in white shark products;ecosystemeffectsasaresultofhabitatmodificationandclimatechange (includingchangesinseatemperature,oceancurrentsandacidification);andecotourism,including cage diving. The life history characteristics and habitat use of the white shark requires that actions to manage these threats are focused on minimising impacts on survivorship and protecting critical habitat.

  • 15

    7 POPULATIONS THAT REQUIRE PROTECTIVE MEASURES

    The actions described in this recovery plan are designed to provide ongoing protection for the white shark throughout its Australian range.

    There is evidence of genetic structuring within the Australian white shark population. Recent genetic evidence provides support for maternal structuring between the eastern and south-western coastal regions (Blower et al., 2012). It is suggested that this structuring is a result of philopatry, where individuals range widely but return to their birth place for biological purposes, such as breeding (Blower et al., 2012). These results are in accordance with the tracking data, which show individual white sharks moving up and down the east and west coasts but not moving between the regions (Bruce et al., 2006, Bruce & Bradford, 2012). Blower et al., (2012) also found evidence of maternal genetic structuring between the New South Wales and Queensland white shark populations, which may be a result of asyetunidentifiedpuppinggroundsexistinginQueensland.

    The genetically distinct populations on the eastern and south-western coasts of Australia could be exposed to detrimental genetic effects from population declines (Blower et al., 2012). This suggests that the Australian population should be managed as two management units, one on the east coast and one on the south-west coast. Further research is required to better understand population structure, size and diversity (Blower et al., 2012).

  • 16 | Recovery Plan for the White Shark

    8 OBJECTIVESThe overarching objective of this recovery plan is to assist the recovery of the white shark in the wild throughout its range in Australian waters with a view to:

    • improving the population status leading to future removal of the white shark from the threatened species list of the EPBC Act

    • ensuring that anthropogenic activities do not hinder recovery in the near future, or impact on the conservation status of the species in the future.

    Thespecificobjectivesoftheplanarepresentedbelow. The objectives are numbered for ease of reference and are not in order of priority.

    Objective 1: Develop and apply quantitative measures to assess population trends and any recovery of the white shark in Australian waters and monitor population trends.

    Objective 2: Quantifyandminimisetheimpactofcommercialfishing,includingaquaculture, on the white shark through incidental (illegal and/or accidental) take, throughout its range in Australian waters.

    Objective 3: Quantifyandminimisetheimpactofrecreationalfishingonthewhitesharkthroughincidental (illegal and/or accidental) take, throughout its range in Australian waters.

    Objective 4: Where practicable minimise the impact of shark control activities on the white shark.Objective 5: Investigate and manage (and where necessary reduce) the impact of tourism

    on the white shark.Objective 6: Quantify and minimise the impact of international trade in white shark products

    through implementation of CITES provisions.Objective 7: Continue to identify and protect habitat critical to the survival of the white shark

    and minimise the impact of threatening processes within these areas.Objective 8: Continue to develop and implement relevant research programs to support the

    conservation of the white shark.Objective 9: Promote community education and awareness in relation to white shark

    conservation and management.Objective 10: Encourage the development of regional partnerships to enhance the conservation

    and management of the white shark across national and international jurisdictions.

  • 17

    9 ACTIONS TO ACHIEVE THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

    Actionsidentifiedfortherecoveryofthespeciescoveredbythisplanaredescribedbelow. It should be noted that some of the objectives are long-term and may not be achievedpriortothescheduledfive-yearreviewoftherecoveryplan.Prioritiesassignedto actions should be interpreted as follows:

    Priority 1: Taking prompt action is necessary in order to mitigate the key threats to the white shark and also provide valuable information to help identify long-term population trends.

    Priority 2: Action would provide a more informed basis for the long-term management and recovery of the white shark.

    Priority 3: Action is desirable, but not critical to the recovery of the white shark or assessment of trends in that recovery.

  • 18 | Recovery Plan for the White Shark

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    itiat

    ed.

    •Databasemaintained

    an

    d up

    date

    d an

    nual

    ly.

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , sta

    te

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    , re

    sear

    ch a

    genc

    ies

    9.1.2

    Objective2:Quantify

    and

    minimisetheimpactofcom

    mercialfishing,includ

    ingaquacultu

    re,

    onth

    ewhitesharkth

    roug

    hincidental(illegaland

    /ora

    ccidental)take,throu

    ghou

    titsra

    ngein

    Aus

    tral

    ian

    wat

    ers.

    Actio

    nD

    escr

    iptio

    nPr

    iorit

    yPe

    rform

    ance

    Crit

    eria

    Juris

    dict

    ion

    Indi

    cativ

    e co

    stO

    nly

    Prio

    rity

    1

    actio

    ns a

    re c

    oste

    d2.

    1M

    onito

    r the

    byc

    atch

    and

    mor

    talit

    y of

    whitesharksinrelevantfisheries

    (a

    ll in

    tera

    ctio

    ns a

    re re

    cord

    ed) a

    nd

    repo

    rt an

    nual

    ly to

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    .

    1•B

    ycatchandmortality(including

    post

    rele

    ase

    mor

    talit

    y) n

    umbe

    rs a

    re

    mon

    itore

    d by

    Com

    mon

    wea

    lth a

    nd s

    tate

    go

    vern

    men

    t age

    ncie

    s an

    d re

    porte

    d an

    nual

    ly to

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    .•O

    bserverprogram

    scollectdataon

    whi

    te s

    hark

    inte

    ract

    ions

    and

    repo

    rt an

    nual

    ly to

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    . Ass

    ess

    effe

    ctiv

    enes

    s of

    obs

    erve

    r cov

    erag

    e.•N

    on-lethalinteractionsarerecorded

    and

    repo

    rted

    annu

    ally

    to D

    SE

    WPa

    C.

    •Taggingprogram

    developed,w

    here

    appr

    opria

    te, t

    o ev

    alua

    te p

    ost-r

    elea

    se

    mor

    talit

    y.

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , DA

    FF,

    AFM

    A an

    d st

    ate

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    Cor

    e go

    vern

    men

    t bu

    sine

    ss

    $50–100000forinitial

    proj

    ect a

    nd fo

    r eac

    h su

    bseq

    uent

    yea

    r the

    pr

    ojec

    t ope

    rate

    s.

    2.2

    Whe

    re re

    leva

    nt, w

    ork

    with

    the

    aqua

    cultu

    re

    indu

    stry

    to im

    prov

    e re

    porti

    ng o

    f in

    tera

    ctio

    ns w

    ith w

    hite

    sha

    rks.

    1•W

    hereappropriate,observerprogram

    sco

    llect

    dat

    a on

    whi

    te s

    hark

    inte

    ract

    ions

    an

    d re

    port

    annu

    ally

    to D

    SE

    WPa

    C.

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , sta

    te

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    and

    th

    e aq

    uacu

    lture

    in

    dust

    ry

    Cor

    e go

    vern

    men

    t bu

    sine

    ss

    2.3

    Ensurethatfisheriesmanagem

    ent

    plan

    s th

    at a

    re re

    view

    ed fo

    r acc

    redi

    tatio

    n un

    der t

    he E

    PBC

    Act

    con

    tain

    act

    ions

    that

    ar

    e co

    nsis

    tent

    with

    the

    reco

    very

    of t

    he

    whi

    te s

    hark

    (whe

    re re

    leva

    nt),

    incl

    udin

    g m

    inim

    isin

    g th

    e im

    pact

    s of

    byc

    atch

    and

    re

    cord

    ing

    of a

    ll in

    tera

    ctio

    ns.

    1•R

    elevantfisheriesmanagem

    ent

    plan

    s/st

    rate

    gies

    acc

    redi

    ted

    afte

    r the

    ad

    optio

    n of

    this

    pla

    n in

    clud

    e m

    easu

    res

    to m

    inim

    ise

    the

    impa

    cts

    of b

    ycat

    ch,

    incl

    udin

    g th

    e us

    e of

    bes

    t-han

    dlin

    g pr

    actic

    es, a

    nd a

    ppro

    pria

    te m

    echa

    nism

    s to

    reco

    rd a

    ll in

    tera

    ctio

    ns w

    ith w

    hite

    sh

    arks

    (whe

    re re

    leva

    nt).

    •Bycatchmanagem

    entarrangements

    asse

    ssed

    and

    app

    rove

    d by

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    .

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    and

    A

    FMA

    Cor

    e go

    vern

    men

    t bu

    sine

    ss

  • 20 | Recovery Plan for the White Shark

    Actio

    nD

    escr

    iptio

    nPr

    iorit

    yPe

    rform

    ance

    Crit

    eria

    Juris

    dict

    ion

    Indi

    cativ

    e co

    stO

    nly

    Prio

    rity

    1

    actio

    ns a

    re c

    oste

    d2.

    4En

    sure

    act

    ions

    to re

    duce

    leve

    ls o

    f whi

    te

    shar

    k m

    orta

    lity

    are

    cons

    ider

    ed w

    hen

    relevantstateandterritoryfisheries

    man

    agem

    ent p

    lans

    are

    revi

    ewed

    .

    1•R

    eviewsoffisheriesmanagem

    entplans

    to c

    onsi

    der m

    easu

    res

    to m

    inim

    ise

    leve

    ls

    of w

    hite

    sha

    rk m

    orta

    lity

    unde

    rtake

    n.

    Stat

    e go

    vern

    men

    tsC

    ore

    gove

    rnm

    ent

    busi

    ness

    9.1.3

    Objective3:Quantify

    and

    minimisetheimpactofrecreationalfishingon

    thewhitesharkth

    roug

    hincidental(illegaland

    /or

    accidental)take,th

    roug

    houtitsrang

    einAustralianwaters.

    Actio

    nD

    escr

    iptio

    nPr

    iorit

    yPe

    rform

    ance

    Crit

    eria

    Juris

    dict

    ion

    Indi

    cativ

    e co

    stO

    nly

    Prio

    rity

    1

    actio

    ns a

    re c

    oste

    d3.

    1D

    evel

    op m

    echa

    nism

    s an

    d pr

    otoc

    ols

    that

    facilitatereportingbyrecreationalfishersof

    inte

    ract

    ions

    with

    whi

    te s

    hark

    s. M

    echa

    nism

    s ch

    osen

    sho

    uld

    fost

    er th

    e un

    ders

    tand

    ing

    that

    an

    y re

    porte

    d in

    tera

    ctio

    n w

    ill be

    rece

    ived

    w

    ithou

    t pre

    judi

    ce.

    1•W

    hitesharksightings/interactions

    prog

    ram

    dev

    elop

    ed fo

    r rec

    reat

    iona

    l fishers,includingidentification

    guid

    es a

    nd re

    porti

    ng p

    roto

    cols

    .

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , sta

    te

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    , re

    sear

    ch

    agen

    cies

    , re

    crea

    tiona

    l fishinggroups

    and

    cons

    erva

    tion

    grou

    ps.

    Cor

    e go

    vern

    men

    t bu

    sine

    ss

    3.2

    Encouragerecreationalfisherstoutilisethe

    sigh

    ting

    prog

    ram

    (lin

    k to

    Act

    ion

    3.1)

    to re

    port

    and

    prov

    ide,

    whe

    re p

    ossi

    ble,

    pho

    togr

    aphi

    c ev

    iden

    ce o

    f sig

    htin

    gs o

    f and

    inte

    ract

    ions

    w

    ith w

    hite

    sha

    rks.

    Req

    uest

    ed in

    form

    atio

    n fro

    mfishersshouldincludeestim

    ated

    num

    ber,

    size

    and

    wei

    ght o

    f sha

    rks,

    as

    wel

    l as

    site

    loca

    tion

    and

    dept

    h.

    2•W

    hitesharksightings/interactions

    prog

    ram

    dev

    elop

    ed a

    nd u

    tilis

    ed b

    y recreationalfishers.

    •Practicalidentificationmaterials

    dist

    ribut

    ed.

    •Reportdetailingcatchlevelsis

    prep

    ared

    on

    an a

    nnua

    l bas

    is.

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , sta

    te

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    , re

    crea

    tiona

    l fishinggroups

    and

    cons

    erva

    tion

    grou

    ps.

    3.3

    Qua

    ntify

    , thr

    ough

    mon

    itorin

    g, re

    ports

    an

    d w

    here

    nec

    essa

    ry e

    stim

    ates

    , of w

    hite

    sh

    ark

    byca

    tch,

    mor

    talit

    y an

    d no

    n-le

    thal

    interactions,inrecreationalfishingsectors

    and

    repo

    rt an

    nual

    ly to

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    .

    2•T

    herateofbycatchandmortality

    of w

    hite

    sha

    rks

    from

    recr

    eatio

    nal

    fishing,asobtainedthroughthe

    whi

    te s

    hark

    sig

    htin

    gs/in

    tera

    ctio

    ns

    prog

    ram

    , are

    mon

    itore

    d an

    d re

    porte

    d an

    nual

    ly.

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    an

    d st

    ate

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    .

  • 21

    Actio

    nD

    escr

    iptio

    nPr

    iorit

    yPe

    rform

    ance

    Crit

    eria

    Juris

    dict

    ion

    Indi

    cativ

    e co

    stO

    nly

    Prio

    rity

    1

    actio

    ns a

    re c

    oste

    d3.

    4Workwithrecreationalfishingassociations

    to e

    nsur

    e th

    ey c

    ontin

    ue to

    pro

    vide

    in

    form

    atio

    n on

    the

    prot

    ectio

    n of

    whi

    te

    shar

    ks to

    thei

    r mem

    bers

    (Lin

    k to

    Act

    ion

    9.2)

    .

    2•W

    hitesharkeducationalm

    aterial

    providedtorecreationalfishers

    an

    d pu

    blis

    hed

    in re

    crea

    tiona

    l fishingmedia.

    Aust

    ralia

    n an

    d st

    ate

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    , re

    crea

    tiona

    l fishinggroups

    and

    cons

    erva

    tion

    grou

    ps.

    9.1.4

    Objective4:W

    herepracticable,m

    inimisetheimpactofsharkcon

    trolactivitiesonthewhiteshark.

    Actio

    nD

    escr

    iptio

    nPr

    iorit

    yPe

    rform

    ance

    Crit

    eria

    Juris

    dict

    ion

    Indi

    cativ

    e co

    stO

    nly

    Prio

    rity

    1

    actio

    ns a

    re c

    oste

    d4.

    1S

    hark

    con

    trol p

    rogr

    ams

    to c

    ontin

    ue to

    re

    port

    catc

    hes

    annu

    ally

    to th

    e N

    ew S

    outh

    W

    ales

    and

    Que

    ensl

    and

    stat

    e go

    vern

    men

    ts.

    1•O

    ngoingcollectionandassessment

    of c

    atch

    dat

    a.

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , New

    S

    outh

    Wal

    es

    (NSW

    ) and

    Q

    ueen

    slan

    d (Q

    ld)

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    .

    Cor

    e go

    vern

    men

    t bu

    sine

    ss

    4.2

    Mai

    ntai

    n th

    e cu

    rren

    t rev

    iew

    pro

    cess

    es

    (by

    the

    NSW

    and

    Qld

    gov

    ernm

    ents

    ) of t

    he

    effe

    ct o

    f sha

    rk c

    ontro

    l pro

    gram

    s on

    the

    whi

    te s

    hark

    .•E

    nsuresimilarreviewofanynew

    shark

    cont

    rol p

    rogr

    ams

    put i

    n pl

    ace

    durin

    g th

    e lif

    e of

    this

    reco

    very

    pla

    n.

    1•L

    evelsofwhitesharkmortality/

    inte

    ract

    ion

    durin

    g sh

    ark

    cont

    rol

    activitiesarequantified.

    •Inareaswherethereisregular

    mor

    talit

    y/in

    tera

    ctio

    n w

    ith w

    hite

    sh

    arks

    dur

    ing

    shar

    k co

    ntro

    l act

    iviti

    es,

    seas

    onal

    tren

    ds a

    nd p

    ost r

    elea

    se

    mor

    talit

    y ha

    ve b

    een

    mon

    itore

    d.•O

    ptionsthatmayfacilita

    teareduction

    in w

    hite

    sha

    rk c

    aptu

    res

    at lo

    catio

    ns

    whe

    re th

    ere

    is re

    gula

    r int

    erac

    tion/

    mor

    talit

    y of

    whi

    te s

    hark

    s du

    ring

    shar

    k controlactivitie

    sareidentified.

    Stat

    e go

    vern

    men

    ts.

    Cor

    e go

    vern

    men

    t bu

    sine

    ss

    4.3

    Whe

    re fe

    asib

    le a

    nd p

    ract

    ical

    , und

    erta

    ke

    biol

    ogic

    al re

    cord

    ing

    and

    sam

    plin

    g of

    whi

    te

    shar

    ks c

    augh

    t in

    shar

    k co

    ntro

    l pro

    gram

    s (L

    ink

    to A

    ctio

    n 4.

    1).

    2•P

    rotocolsforsharkcontrolprogram

    contractorsmodifiedtorequire,w

    here

    feas

    ible

    and

    pra

    ctic

    al, r

    eten

    tion

    and

    deliv

    ery

    to g

    over

    nmen

    ts a

    nd re

    sear

    ch

    agen

    cies

    of w

    hite

    sha

    rks

    kille

    d in

    be

    ach

    safe

    ty p

    rogr

    ams.

    NSW

    and

    Qld

    go

    vern

    men

    ts.

  • 22 | Recovery Plan for the White Shark

    Actio

    nD

    escr

    iptio

    nPr

    iorit

    yPe

    rform

    ance

    Crit

    eria

    Juris

    dict

    ion

    Indi

    cativ

    e co

    stO

    nly

    Prio

    rity

    1

    actio

    ns a

    re c

    oste

    d4.

    4D

    evel

    op a

    tagg

    ing

    prog

    ram

    , whe

    re

    appr

    opria

    te (i

    nclu

    ding

    gen

    etic

    sam

    plin

    g,

    whe

    re p

    ossi

    ble)

    for w

    hite

    sha

    rks

    caug

    ht in

    sh

    ark

    cont

    rol p

    rogr

    ams,

    in c

    onju

    nctio

    n w

    ith

    new

    and

    exi

    stin

    g pr

    ogra

    ms.

    2•Taggingprogram

    developedwhere

    poss

    ible

    /app

    ropr

    iate

    .•R

    eleasedsharkstagged,andgenetic

    sam

    ple

    reta

    ined

    whe

    re p

    ossi

    ble.

    •Post-releasemortalityofreleased

    shar

    ks m

    onito

    red.

    Stat

    e go

    vern

    men

    ts

    and

    rese

    arch

    ag

    enci

    es.

    4.5

    Con

    tinue

    to e

    valu

    ate

    alte

    rnat

    ives

    to b

    each

    m

    eshi

    ng/d

    rum

    linin

    g, in

    clud

    ing

    the

    use

    of

    non-

    leth

    al m

    etho

    ds o

    r alte

    rnat

    ive

    stra

    tegi

    es.

    3•A

    lternativesareevaluatedand

    impl

    emen

    ted

    if ef

    fect

    ive.

    •Theuseofbeachmeshingnetsand

    drum

    lines

    to d

    eclin

    e as

    alte

    rnat

    ives

    ar

    e de

    velo

    ped.

    Stat

    e go

    vern

    men

    ts

    and

    rese

    arch

    ag

    enci

    es.

    9.1.

    5 O

    bjec

    tive

    5: In

    vest

    igat

    e an

    d m

    anag

    e (a

    nd w

    here

    nec

    essa

    ry re

    duce

    ) the

    impa

    ct o

    f tou

    rism

    on

    the

    whi

    te s

    hark

    .

    Actio

    nD

    escr

    iptio

    nPr

    iorit

    yPe

    rform

    ance

    Crit

    eria

    Juris

    dict

    ion

    Indi

    cativ

    e co

    stO

    nly

    Prio

    rity

    1

    actio

    ns a

    re c

    oste

    d5.1

    Inve

    stig

    ate

    the

    impa

    ct o

    f inc

    reas

    ed c

    age

    divi

    ng a

    ctiv

    ity a

    nd d

    evel

    op a

    ppro

    pria

    te

    man

    agem

    ent r

    espo

    nses

    if re

    quire

    d.

    3•Impactofcagedivingactivities

    mea

    sure

    d. A

    dapt

    ive

    man

    agem

    ent

    mea

    sure

    s ap

    plie

    d w

    here

    requ

    ired

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , sta

    te

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    an

    d ca

    ge d

    ive

    oper

    ator

    s.

    5.2

    Req

    uire

    dai

    ly lo

    gboo

    k re

    porti

    ng o

    f whi

    te

    shar

    k in

    tera

    ctio

    ns b

    y ca

    ge d

    ive

    oper

    ator

    s.

    3•C

    agediveoperatorsprovidedwith

    logb

    ooks

    to re

    cord

    whi

    te s

    hark

    in

    tera

    ctio

    ns d

    aily.

    •Annualreportingofwhiteshark

    inte

    ract

    ions

    by

    cage

    div

    e op

    erat

    ors.

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , sta

    te

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    an

    d ca

    ge d

    ive

    oper

    ator

    s.

    5.3

    Enga

    ge c

    age

    dive

    ope

    rato

    rs in

    sha

    rk

    rese

    arch

    and

    edu

    catio

    n pr

    ogra

    ms.

    3

    •Volunteerdivesurveyscontinued.

    •Tourismeducationstrategy

    and

    initi

    ativ

    es d

    evel

    oped

    and

    im

    plem

    ente

    d.

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , sta

    te

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    , re

    sear

    ch

    orga

    nisa

    tions

    an

    d ca

    ge d

    ive

    oper

    ator

    s.

  • 23

    9.1.

    6 O

    bjec

    tive

    6: Q

    uant

    ify a

    nd m

    inim

    ise

    the

    impa

    ct o

    f int

    erna

    tiona

    l tra

    de in

    whi

    te s

    hark

    pro

    duct

    s th

    roug

    h

    impl

    emen

    tatio

    n of

    CIT

    ES p

    rovi

    sion

    s.

    Actio

    nD

    escr

    iptio

    nPr

    iorit

    yPe

    rform

    ance

    Crit

    eria

    Juris

    dict

    ion

    Indi

    cativ

    e co

    stO

    nly

    Prio

    rity

    1

    actio

    ns a

    re c

    oste

    d6.

    1In

    vest

    igat

    e an

    d qu

    antif

    y pr

    otec

    ted

    shar

    k pr

    oduc

    t in

    trade

    .1

    •Investigationunderta

    keninto

    effe

    ctiv

    e w

    ays

    to q

    uant

    ify p

    rote

    cted

    sh

    ark

    prod

    uct t

    rade

    d in

    Aus

    tralia

    . R

    epor

    t to

    also

    pro

    vide

    a c

    urre

    nt b

    est

    estim

    ate

    of th

    e vo

    lum

    e of

    pro

    tect

    ed

    shar

    k pr

    oduc

    ts tr

    aded

    .

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    and

    D

    AFF

    .$20–

    50000forreport.

    6.2

    Refineandim

    plem

    enttechniques(DNAand

    mor

    phol

    ogic

    al) t

    o id

    entif

    y sh

    ark

    prod

    ucts

    .2

    •Researchinitiatedwitha

    view

    torefiningtechniques

    (DN

    A an

    d m

    orph

    olog

    ical

    ) to

    id

    entif

    y sh

    ark

    prod

    ucts

    .

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , DA

    FF

    and

    rese

    arch

    ag

    enci

    es.

    6.3

    Und

    erta

    ke m

    arke

    t pla

    ce te

    stin

    g of

    sha

    rk

    prod

    ucts

    to a

    scer

    tain

    the

    leve

    l of s

    uppl

    y.2

    •Developeffectivewaysofundertakin

    gm

    arke

    t pla

    ce te

    stin

    g of

    sha

    rk p

    rodu

    cts.

    •Marketplacetestingunderta

    ken.

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , DA

    FF

    and

    stat

    e an

    d N

    orth

    ern

    Terr

    itory

    go

    vern

    men

    ts

    and

    rese

    arch

    ag

    enci

    es.

    9.1.

    7 O

    bjec

    tive

    7: C

    ontin

    ue to

    iden

    tify

    and

    prot

    ect h

    abita

    t crit

    ical

    to th

    e su

    rviv

    al o

    f the

    whi

    te s

    hark

    and

    min

    imis

    e th

    e im

    pact

    of

    thre

    aten

    ing

    proc

    esse

    s w

    ithin

    thes

    e ar

    eas.

    Actio

    nD

    escr

    iptio

    nPr

    iorit

    yPe

    rform

    ance

    Crit

    eria

    Juris

    dict

    ion

    Indi

    cativ

    e co

    stO

    nly

    Prio

    rity

    1

    actio

    ns a

    re c

    oste

    d7.1

    Con

    tinue

    rese

    arch

    to lo

    cate

    hab

    itat c

    ritic

    al

    to th

    e su

    rviv

    al o

    f the

    whi

    te s

    hark

    , inc

    ludi

    ng

    pupp

    ing,

    nur

    sery

    and

    fora

    ging

    are

    as.

    •Developandapplyasuiteofcriteriato

    char

    acte

    rise

    and

    iden

    tify

    habi

    tats

    crit

    ical

    to

    the

    surv

    ival

    of t

    he w

    hite

    sha

    rk.

    1•Importa

    nthabitats(e.g.pupping,

    nurs

    ery,

    fora

    ging

    , mig

    ratio

    n ar

    eas)

    forthewhitesharkareidentifiedand

    map

    ped

    (e.g

    . Bio

    logi

    cally

    Impo

    rtant

    A

    reas

    ; Lin

    k to

    Act

    ion

    7.2)

    and

    cr

    iteria

    are

    dev

    elop

    ed a

    nd a

    pplie

    d to

    cha

    ract

    eris

    e su

    ch h

    abita

    ts a

    s ha

    bita

    ts c

    ritic

    al to

    the

    surv

    ival

    of

    the

    spec

    ies.

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , st

    ate

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    an

    d re

    sear

    ch

    agen

    cies

    .

    Cor

    e go

    vern

    men

    t bu

    sine

    ss

  • 24 | Recovery Plan for the White Shark

    Actio

    nD

    escr

    iptio

    nPr

    iorit

    yPe

    rform

    ance

    Crit

    eria

    Juris

    dict

    ion

    Indi

    cativ

    e co

    stO

    nly

    Prio

    rity

    1

    actio

    ns a

    re c

    oste

    d7.

    2Updateandrefineinform

    ationonexisting

    Bio

    logi

    cally

    Impo

    rtant

    Are

    as (B

    IAs)

    identifiedaspartofDSEWPa

    C’sMarine

    Bio

    regi

    onal

    Pla

    ns, a

    nd s

    eek

    to id

    entif

    y ne

    w

    BIA

    s as

    info

    rmat

    ion

    from

    rese

    arch

    and

    ot

    her p

    roce

    sses

    bec

    omes

    ava

    ilabl

    e

    (Lin

    k to

    Act

    ion

    7.1).

    1•S

    cientificinform

    ationonwhite

    shar

    k be

    havi

    our a

    nd d

    istri

    butio

    n ar

    e im

    prov

    ed to

    allo

    w n

    ew b

    iolo

    gica

    lly

    importa

    ntareastobedefined,

    parti

    cula

    rly h

    abita

    t crit

    ical

    to th

    e su

    rviv

    al o

    f the

    whi

    te s

    hark

    (L

    ink

    to A

    ctio

    n 7.1

    ).•C

    urrencyofBIAmapsin

    the

    cons

    erva

    tion

    valu

    es

    atla

    s is

    mai

    ntai

    ned.

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , st

    ate

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    an

    d re

    sear

    ch

    agen

    cies

    .

    Cor

    e go

    vern

    men

    t bu

    sine

    ss

    7.3

    Mon

    itor w

    hite

    sha

    rk o

    ccup

    ancy

    and

    ut

    ilisat

    ion

    of B

    IAs,

    par

    ticul

    arly

    hab

    itats

    cr

    itica

    l to

    the

    surv

    ival

    of t

    he s

    peci

    es.

    2•M

    onitoringprogramdevelopedto

    dete

    rmin

    e w

    hite

    sha

    rk o

    ccup

    ancy

    an

    d ut

    ilisat

    ion

    of B

    IAs,

    par

    ticul

    arly

    ha

    bita

    ts c

    ritic

    al to

    the

    surv

    ival

    of

    the

    spec

    ies.

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , st

    ate

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    an

    d re

    sear

    ch

    agen

    cies

    .

    7.4

    Use

    BIA

    map

    s to

    hel

    p in

    form

    the

    deve

    lopm

    ent o

    f app

    ropr

    iate

    con

    serv

    atio

    n m

    easu

    res,

    incl

    udin

    g th

    roug

    h th

    e

    appl

    icat

    ion

    of a

    dvic

    e in

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    ’s

    Mar

    ine

    Bio

    regi

    onal

    Pla

    ns o

    n th

    e ty

    pes

    of

    act

    ions

    that

    are

    like

    ly to

    hav

    e a

    significantim

    pactonthespecies.

    Upd

    ate

    such

    con

    serv

    atio

    n m

    easu

    res

    as

    new

    info

    rmat

    ion

    beco

    mes

    ava

    ilabl

    e.

    1•B

    iologicallyim

    porta

    ntareasfor

    whi

    te s

    hark

    s, p

    artic

    ular

    ly ju

    veni

    le

    aggr

    egat

    ion

    site

    s, p

    uppi

    ng g

    roun

    ds

    and

    fora

    ging

    are

    as a

    re a

    dequ

    atel

    y ta

    ken

    into

    acc

    ount

    whe

    n as

    sess

    ing

    the

    impa

    ct o

    f pro

    pose

    d ac

    tiviti

    es

    in th

    e m

    arin

    e en

    viro

    nmen

    t and

    ad

    equa

    tely

    pro

    tect

    ed.

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , sta

    te

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    .C

    ore

    gove

    rnm

    ent

    busi

    ness

  • 25

    9.1.

    8 O

    bjec

    tive

    8: C

    ontin

    ue to

    dev

    elop

    and

    impl

    emen

    t rel

    evan

    t res

    earc

    h pr

    ogra

    ms

    to s

    uppo

    rt

    the

    cons

    erva

    tion

    of th

    e w

    hite

    sha

    rk.

    Actio

    nD

    escr

    iptio

    nPr

    iorit

    yPe

    rform

    ance

    Crit

    eria

    Juris

    dict

    ion

    Indi

    cativ

    e co

    stO

    nly

    Prio

    rity

    1

    actio

    ns a

    re c

    oste

    d8.

    1C

    olle

    ct, a

    naly

    se a

    nd d

    isse

    min

    ate

    age,

    gr

    owth

    , rep

    rodu

    ctio

    n, s

    urvi

    val,

    mor

    talit

    y an

    d di

    et in

    form

    atio

    n to

    impr

    ove

    unde

    rsta

    ndin

    g of

    the

    popu

    latio

    n dy

    nam

    ics,

    hab

    itat

    requ

    irem

    ents

    and

    the

    role

    of t

    he w

    hite

    sha

    rk

    as a

    n ap

    ex p

    reda

    tor.

    1•K

    nowledgeofreproductivebiology

    of w

    hite

    sha

    rks

    impr

    oved

    .•M

    ethodologyforfieldmeasurement

    ofwhitesharksidentified.

    •Agesestim

    atedforthemajority

    of in

    cide

    ntal

    ly c

    augh

    t and

    kille

    d w

    hite

    sha

    rks.

    •Dietarypreferencesestablished.

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , sta

    te

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    an

    d re

    sear

    ch

    agen

    cies

    .

    $100

    –500000per

    annu

    m to

    sup

    port

    rese

    arch

    .

    8.2

    Con

    tinue

    to c

    olle

    ct a

    nd a

    naly

    se b

    iolo

    gica

    l m

    ater

    ial f

    or to

    xico

    logy

    rese

    arch

    and

    gen

    etic

    an

    alys

    is (f

    or e

    xam

    ple

    to d

    eter

    min

    e th

    e st

    ock

    stru

    ctur

    e, in

    bree

    ding

    dep

    ress

    ion,

    pop

    ulat

    ion

    boun

    darie

    s an

    d ab

    unda

    nce)

    ; im

    prov

    e co

    ordi

    natio

    n of

    repo

    rting

    and

    sam

    plin

    g pr

    ogra

    ms;

    and

    coo

    rdin

    ate

    the

    colla

    tion

    of

    resu

    lts a

    nd th

    e st

    orag

    e of

    col

    lect

    ed g

    enet

    ic

    and

    biol

    ogic

    al m

    ater

    ial.

    1•G

    eneticandbiologicalm

    aterial

    colle

    cted

    and

    pro

    cess

    ed.

    •Populationgeneticsclarifiedby

    anal

    ysis

    of d

    ata.

    •Theuseofclose-kingenetics

    is e

    xplo

    red

    (and

    util

    ised

    whe

    re

    appr

    opria

    te) t

    o de

    term

    ine

    popu

    latio

    n ab

    unda

    nce.

    •Coordinationofreportingand

    sam

    plin

    g pr

    ogra

    ms

    impr

    oved

    .

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , sta

    te

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    an

    d re

    sear

    ch

    agen

    cies

    .

    $100

    –500000per

    annu

    m to

    sup

    port

    rese

    arch

    . (S

    ome

    over

    lap

    and

    cost

    sa

    ving

    s w

    ill oc

    cur i

    f do

    ne in

    con

    junc

    tion

    with

    act

    iviti

    es o

    utlin

    ed

    in 1

    .1 a

    nd 8

    .1)

    8.3

    Exa

    min

    e ha

    bita

    t use

    (with

    a fo

    cus

    on

    iden

    tifyi

    ng b

    reed

    ing

    area

    s, p

    uppi

    ng

    grou

    nds

    and

    juve

    nile

    agg

    rega

    tion

    site

    s)

    and

    regi

    onal

    con

    nect

    ivity

    acr

    oss

    life

    hist

    ory

    stag

    es th

    roug

    h th

    e us

    e of

    con

    vent

    iona

    l and

    el

    ectro

    nic

    tagg

    ing

    tech

    nolo

    gies

    incl

    udin

    g ac

    oust

    ic li

    sten

    ing

    stat

    ion

    netw

    orks

    and

    sa

    tellit

    e ta

    ggin

    g.

    2•Taggingprogram

    developedand

    impl

    emen

    ted

    usin

    g ap

    prop

    riate

    ta

    ggin

    g m

    etho

    ds to

    min

    imis

    e im

    pact

    s to

    tagg

    ed s

    hark

    s.

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , sta

    te

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    an

    d re

    sear

    ch

    agen

    cies

    .

    8.4

    Inve

    stig

    ate

    post

    -rel

    ease

    mor

    talit

    y is

    sues

    . 2

    •Appropriatemethodologies

    to u

    nder

    take

    an

    inve

    stig

    atio

    n

    into

    pos

    t-rel

    ease

    mor

    talit

    y

    issu

    es d

    evel

    oped

    .

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , sta

    te

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    an

    d re

    sear

    ch

    agen

    cies

    .

  • 26 | Recovery Plan for the White Shark

    9.1.

    9 O

    bjec

    tive

    9: P

    rom

    ote

    com

    mun

    ity e

    duca

    tion

    and

    awar

    enes

    s in

    rela

    tion

    to w

    hite

    sh

    ark

    cons

    erva

    tion

    and

    man

    agem

    ent.

    Actio

    nD

    escr

    iptio

    nPr

    iorit

    yPe

    rform

    ance

    Crit

    eria

    Juris

    dict

    ion

    Indi

    cativ

    e co

    stO

    nly

    Prio

    rity

    1

    actio

    ns a

    re c

    oste

    d9.

    1Pr

    omot

    e co

    mm

    unity

    edu

    catio

    n on

    the

    thre

    aten

    ed s

    tatu

    s of

    whi

    te s

    hark

    s.

    1•C

    ommunityeducationstrategy

    and

    initi

    ativ

    es d

    evel

    oped

    and

    im

    plem

    ente

    d.

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    , sta

    te

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    , re

    sear

    ch

    agen

    cies

    and

    no

    n-go

    vern

    men

    t or

    gani

    satio

    ns

    $20–

    50000per

    annu

    m, d

    epen

    ding

    on

    the

    size

    of t

    he

    prog

    ram

    .

    9.2

    Stre

    ngth

    en a

    war

    enes

    s of

    , and

    com

    plia

    nce

    with

    , the

    requ

    irem

    ent t

    o re

    port

    whi

    te s

    hark

    by

    catc

    h an

    d m

    orta

    lity

    in c

    omm

    erci

    al

    fisheries,aquacultureoperationsand

    recreationalandcharte

    rfishingoperations

    (Lin

    k to

    Act

    ion

    3.4)

    .

    2•W

    hitesharkeducationalm

    aterial

    providedtocom

    mercialfishersand

    recreationalfishersandpublished

    inrecreationalfishingmedia.

    Aust

    ralia

    n, s

    tate

    an

    d N

    orth

    ern

    Terr

    itory

    go

    vern

    men

    ts

    and

    com

    mer

    cial

    an

    d re

    crea

    tiona

    l fishinggroups.

    9.3

    Ensu

    re e

    ffect

    ive

    com

    mun

    icat

    ion

    by th

    e C

    omm

    onw

    ealth

    with

    rele

    vant

    sta

    keho

    lder

    s in

    rega

    rds

    to a

    ny c

    hang

    es in

    legi

    slat

    ive

    arra

    ngem

    ents

    con

    cern

    ing

    whi

    te s

    hark

    s.

    2•A

    sappropriate,com

    munity

    educ

    atio

    n st

    rate

    gy a

    nd in

    itiat

    ives

    de

    velo

    ped

    and

    impl

    emen

    ted.

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    .

    9.4

    Upd

    ate

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    ’s w

    hite

    sha

    rk re

    cove

    ry

    planwebpagetoreflectthemost

    curr

    ent i

    nfor

    mat

    ion

    on th

    e w

    hite

    sha

    rk,

    whi

    ch c

    an th

    ereb

    y be

    use

    d as

    a p

    rimar

    y so

    urce

    of i

    nfor

    mat

    ion.

    Ens

    ure

    the

    web

    pa

    ge is

    pre

    sent

    ed in

    a fo

    rm th

    at is

    eas

    ily

    unde

    rsto

    od b

    y th

    e pu

    blic

    and

    is li

    nked

    to th

    e re

    leva

    nt w

    ebsi

    te o

    f oth

    er ju

    risdi

    ctio

    ns w

    ith

    an in

    tere

    st in

    con

    serv

    atio

    n of

    whi

    te s

    hark

    s.

    2•D

    SEWPA

    C’swebsiteisuptodate

    and

    linke

    d to

    ava

    ilabl

    e in

    form

    atio

    n on

    impo

    rtant

    web

    site

    s.•Informationavailableon

    gove

    rnm

    ent w

    ebsi

    tes

    is

    cons

    iste

    nt a

    nd k

    ept u

    p to

    dat

    e.

    DS

    EW

    PaC

    an

    d st

    ate

    and

    Nor

    ther

    n Te

    rrito

    ry

    gove

    rnm

    ents

    .

  • 27

    9.1.

    9 O

    bjec

    tive

    9: P

    rom

    ote

    com

    mun

    ity e

    duca

    tion

    and

    awar

    enes

    s in

    rela

    tion

    to w

    hite

    sh

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  • 28 | Recovery Plan for the White Shark

    10 CURRENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Management practices and measures, other than those contained in this plan, have been developed and are being implemented through a number of agencies and programs. These include Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA) procedures and protocols, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) policies and programs, and state government programs. Measures include the compulsory use of logbooks by commercial fisherstorecordincidentalcaptureofwhitesharksinCommonwealthfisheries;mechanismstoencouragerecreationalfisherstoreportinteractionsandobserverprogramsdesignedtoprovidefisheriesindependentmeasuresofthreatenedspecies,suchaswhiteshark,mortalityin state and Commonwealth waters.

    In July 2012, Senator the Hon. Joe Ludwig, Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry released Australia’s second National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks 2012 (Shark-plan 2). Shark-plan 2 outlines how Australia will manage and conserve sharks, and ensure that Australia meets international conservation and management obligations.TheplanidentifiesresearchandmanagementactionsacrossAustraliaforthelong-termsustainabilityofsharks,includingactionstohelpminimisetheimpactsoffishingonsharks.Shark-plan2canbedownloadedfromtheDAFFwebsiteat:www.daff.gov.au/fisheries/environment/sharks/sharkplan2

    Shark-plan 2 was developed in conjunction with state, Northern Territory and Australian government agencies, and has been endorsed by the Shark-plan Implementation and Review Committee and the Australian Fisheries Management Forum.

    The white shark is protected under the EPBC Act. As such, it is an offence to kill, injure, take, trade, keep, or move any individual without a permit in Commonwealth waters. However, the EPBC Act does contain certain provisions that allow an action that is reasonably necessary to prevent a risk to human health or to deal with an emergency involving a serious threat to human life. In addition, all listed threatened species are considered matters of national environmentalsignificance,andanyactionthatmayhaveanimpactonamatterofnationalenvironmentalsignificancemustbereferredtotheministerresponsiblefortheenvironment for assessment and approval.

  • 29

    The environmental performance of Commonwealth, state and the Northern Territory-managed wildharvestfisheriesisassessedundertheEPBCAct.TheEPBCActrequiresthat:

    • allCommonwealth-managedandstatewildcapturemarinefisherieswithanexportcomponent be assessed to ensure they are being managed in an ecologically sustainable way

    • allCommonwealth-managedfisheriesarealsoassessedtodeterminetheimpactofactionstakenunderafisherymanagementplanonmattersofnationalenvironmentalsignificance

    • allCommonwealth-managedfisheriesandanystate-managedfisheriesthatoperateinCommonwealthwatersmustalsobeassessedtodeterminetheimpactsoffishingoperations on cetaceans, listed threatened species and ecological communities, migratory species, and listed marine species under the EPBC Act.

    Theassessmentsconsidertheimpactsoftherelevantfisheryontargetandnon-targetspeciescaught,andtheimpactsoffishingactivitiesonthebroadermarineenvironment.Asalistedthreatenedspecies,whitesharkscannotbetakeninfisheriesinCommonwealthorstatewaters. Interactions are required to be recorded in threatened species interaction logbooks inCommonwealthfisheriesandinWesternAustralian,SouthAustralian,VictorianandNewSouthWalesstatefisheries.Interactionswithwhitesharksaswellasthelifestatusoftheanimal when it is captured (e.g. whether it is released alive) are considered in the assessment offisheriesoperatinginCommonwealthwaters.

    Other relevant management practices include management planning processes for areas that contain breeding and/or aggregation sites for white sharks, and the incorporation of important sites into marine reserves, both at the Commonwealth (e.g. through the marine bioregional planning process) and state level. The white shark is also protected across its range in state waters. Details of the legislation under which white sharks are protected in Australian waters are provided in the 2013 Issues Paper for the White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) (DSEWPaC, 2013).

    Shark control activities are undertaken by the Queensland and New South Wales governments to protect bathers from shark attack. These states have mechanisms in place to monitor the impacts of these activities on protected species and, where possible and without compromising bather safety, reduce those impacts. Evidence from both the Queensland and New South Wales shark control programs indicates a long-term decline in the capture of white sharks, atleastduringtheperiodsincetheidentificationofsharkspecieswasrecorded.IntheNewSouth Wales Shark Meshing (Bather Protection) Program (SMP), there is an indication of an

  • 30 | Recovery Plan for the White Shark

    increaseincatchnumbersfrom2000−2008fromthepreviousdecade(1990−2000)butitisuncertainwhetherthisreflectsanactualincreaseinwhitesharknumbersorisaresultofnatural variability. Recorded catches (1980s, 1990s, and 2000s) in the shark meshing program areonlyathirdofthosefromthe1950sand1970s(Table2).Inaddition,catch-per-unit-effortfellfromabout3.5to<1shark(s)per1000nets(>70percentdecrease)inthesameperiod(Malcolm et al., 2001).

    Table2:ReportedcatchesofwhitesharksintheNSWSMP,1950/51–2010/11 (NSWDPI,2009,2011,2012).

    Year 1950/ 51–59/60

    1960/ 61–69/70

    1970/ 71–79/80

    1980/ 81–89/90

    1990/ 91–99/00

    2000/ 01–09/10

    2010/2011

    Number of white sharks

    151 106 161 59 44 69 6

    The Queensland Shark Control Program has been in existence since 1962 and had caught 631 sharks in nets and on drumlines by 1998 (Malcolm et al., 2001). Catch-per-unit-effort is highlyvariablebuthassubstantiallydecreasedovertimebyabout60-75percent.Dataonwhitesharkscaughtperyearareavailablefrom1985.Therewere63whitesharkscaughtfrom1985−1990,101caughtfrom1990−2000,and62caughtfrom2000−2010.In2011,sixwhitesharks were caught (QOESR, 2012).

    The actions set out in this recovery plan in regard to shark control activities focus on maximising the useful data the programs can provide on white shark biology and ecology and minimising the mortalities on non-target species, without reducing the effectiveness of the programs in maintaining bather safety. Shark control activities for bather protection largely occur in state waters and are therefore subject to state legislation. In Commonwealth waters it is an offence under the EPBC Act to kill a white shark, although the Act does allow for some actions that are reasonably necessary to prevent a risk to human health or to deal with an emergency involving a serious threat to human life.

    10.1 Marine bioregional plansMarine bioregional plans have been prepared under section 176 of the EPBC Act for the South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East marine regions in Commonwealth waters around Australia. Each marine bioregional plan describes the conservation values of the region, identifiesandcharacterisesthepressuresaffectingtheseconservationvalues,andidentifiesregional priorities and outlines strategies to address them. As part of the marine bioregional

  • 31

    planningprocess,thewhitesharkhasbeenidentifiedasaregionalpriorityintheSouth-westMarine Region and the Temperate East Marine Region. The pressures affecting the white shark havebeenidentifiedandcharacterisedfortheseregions.Inaddition,Schedule2ofboththeSouth-west and Temperate East marine bioregional plans include guidance for people planning to undertake actions that have the potential to impact on white sharks within these regions. Further information on marine bioregional planning is available on the department’s website at: www.environment.gov.au/coasts/marineplans/index.html

    DSEWPaC, as the Australian Government department responsible for administering the EPBC Act,maintainsasuiteofinteractivetoolsthatallowuserstosearch,findandgeneratereportsoninformationanddatadescribingmattersofnationalenvironmentalsignificanceincludingthewhite shark. The conservation values atlas shows the location and spatial extent of conservation values(wheresufficientinformationexists)andisavailableat:www.environment.gov.au/coasts/marineplans/cva/index.html Further information about the white shark is available on the Species ProfileandThreatsDatabase(SPRAT)at:www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/sprat.pl This database includes links to conservation value report cards, which were developed to support the information provided in each marine bioregional plan.

    As part of the marine bioregional planning process biologically important areas have been identifiedforanumberofspecies,includingthewhiteshark.Biologicallyimportantareasareareas that are particularly important for the conservation of protected species and where aggregations of individuals display biologically important behaviour such as breeding, foraging, resting or migration. The presence of the observed behaviour is assumed to indicate that the habitat required for the behaviour is also present. Biologically important areas have been identifiedusingexpertscientificknowledgeaboutspecies’distribution,abundanceandbehaviourin the region, and biologically important area maps and descriptions for the white shark are available in the conservation values atlas at: www.environment.gov.au/coasts/marineplans/cva/index.html

  • 32 | Recovery Plan for the White Shark

    10.2 Commonwealth marine reservesMarine reserves (also known as marine protected areas or marine parks) are parts of the ocean that are managed primarily for the conservation of their ecosystems, habitats and the marine life they support. Forty new Commonwealth marine reserves were declared around Australia in November 2012. The new Commonwealth marine reserves network includes examples of all of Australia’s different marine ecosystems and habitats. Commonwealth marine reserves are managed according to management plans made under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). A single management plan is being developed for each regional marine reserves network and for the Coral Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve. Draft management plans are available at: www.environment.gov.au/marinereserves/index.html. Transitional management arrangements are in place until management plans come into effect in July 2014.

    The Commonwealth marine reserves network protects habitats important for threatened species, including the white shark. For example, many of the Commonwealth marine reservesintersectwithbiologicallyimportantareasforthewhitesharkidentifiedinthemarine bioregional plans. In particular, the important juvenile aggregation site at Port Stephens intersects with the Hunter Commonwealth Marine Reserve in the Temperate East Commonwealth Marine Reserve Network. In addition, nine of the 14 Commonwealth Marine Reserves in the South-west Commonwealth Marine Reserve Network overlap with biologically important areas for foraging for the white shark. More information is available at: www.environment.gov.au/coasts/marineplans/cva/index.html.. Three of the 14 Commonwealth Marine Reserves in the South East Commonwealth Marine Reserve Network overlap with biologically important areas for foraging for the white shark (Figure 1) and an additional seven of these Commonwealth marine reserves potentially provide further important foraging habitat because they intersect fur seal haul out sites.

  • 33

    11 EFFECTS ON OTHER NATIVE SPECIES OR ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES

    Reducinganthropogenicimpactsfromactivitiessuchasfisheriesactivitiesorencounters withsharkprotectiondevicesmaybenefitotherthreatenedmarinespecies,suchasothershark species, marine turtles, seabirds and marine mammals. The consequences for other native species, should white shark numbers increase substantially as a result of this plan, is unknownanddifficulttopredict.Possiblenegativeimpactsincludeincreasedmortalitiesofthe Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea), a listed threatened species, and impacts on other marine mammals and other large marine v