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- Qualitative and Quantitative Methods The use of a theory varies between qualitative and quantitative methods Quantitative methods: Theories are presented.

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- Qualitative and Quantitative Methods The use of a theory varies between qualitative and quantitative methods Quantitative methods: Theories are presented then tested to explain, predict, or establish causal relations between variables Qualitative methods: Theories are presented to serve as a lens which then guides what is looked at and how questions are developed. Theories can also be generated as seen in grounded theory approaches
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- Definition of a Theory Theory Interrelated set of constructs formed into propositions that specify the relationships among variables Describes how and why variables are related Variables = Constructs Sometimes referred to as: Theoretical Perspective Theoretical Framework Conceptual Framework A visual framework of a theoretical perspective/framework
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- Independent Variables Independent Variables that are inferred to cause outcomes Factor, Program, Treatment (variable), Predictor (variable), Intervention Dependent The outcome that depends on the independent variable Outcome (variable), criterion Intervening or mediating Variables that stand between the independent and dependent variables Moderating New variables that measure the joint impact of two variables Confounding Variables that could also affect the dependent variables, but cannot or will not be measured. Confounding variables can be moderating or intervening variables Variables in Quantitative Methods
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- Dependent Variables Independent Variables that are inferred to cause outcomes Factor, Program, Treatment (variable), Predictor (variable), Intervention Dependent The outcome that depends on the independent variable Outcome (variable), criterion Intervening or mediating Variables that stand between the independent and dependent variables Moderating New variables that measure the joint impact of two variables Confounding Variables that could also affect the dependent variables, but cannot or will not be measured. Confounding variables can be moderating or intervening variables Variables in Quantitative Methods
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- Intervening or Mediating Variables Independent Variables that are inferred to cause outcomes Factor, Program, Treatment (variable), Predictor (variable), Intervention Dependent The outcome that depends on the independent variable Outcome (variable), criterion Intervening or mediating Variables that stand between the independent and dependent variables Moderating New variables that measure the joint impact of two variables Confounding Variables that could also affect the dependent variables, but cannot or will not be measured. Confounding variables can be moderating or intervening variables Variables in Quantitative Methods
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- Moderating Variables Independent Variables that are inferred to cause outcomes Factor, Program, Treatment (variable), Predictor (variable), Intervention Dependent The outcome that depends on the independent variable Outcome (variable), criterion Intervening or mediating Variables that stand between the independent and dependent variables Moderating New variables that measure the joint impact of two variables Confounding Variables that could also affect the dependent variables, but cannot or will not be measured. Confounding variables can be moderating or intervening variables Variables in Quantitative Methods
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- Confounding Variables Independent Variables that are inferred to cause outcomes Factor, Program, Treatment (variable), Predictor (variable), Intervention Dependent The outcome that depends on the independent variable Outcome (variable), criterion Intervening or mediating Variables that stand between the independent and dependent variables Moderating New variables that measure the joint impact of two variables Confounding Variables that could also affect the dependent variables, but cannot or will not be measured. Confounding variables can be moderating or intervening variables Variables in Quantitative Methods
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- Theory Operating as a Bridge Independent Variable Dependent Variable
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- Social Learning Theory Confidence Test Performance Theory Operating as a Bridge
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- Examples of Theories Attribution Theory by Heider The Health Belief Model by Hochbaum et al. Learning Theories Behavioral perspective Cognitive perspective Social Interaction Instructional approach
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- Deductive Technique for the Quantitative Method Data is collected, analyzed, and interpreted The Variables in the Research Questions are defined and operationalized Research Questions are developed based on the Theory (and supported literature) A Literature Review is developed A discussion is presented to support or refute the Theory The Theory is Introduced
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- Theory Is Introduced \ The Theory is Introduced Deductive Technique for the Quantitative Method
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- Lit Review Is Developed A Literature Review is developed The Theory is Introduced Deductive Technique for the Quantitative Method
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- RQs Are Developed \ Research Questions are developed based on the Theory (and supported literature) A Literature Review is developed The Theory is Introduced Deductive Technique for the Quantitative Method
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- Variables Are Defined The Variables in the Research Questions are defined and operationalized Research Questions are developed based on the Theory (and supported literature) A Literature Review is developed The Theory is Introduced Deductive Technique for the Quantitative Method
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- Data Collected, Analyzed, Interpreted Data is collected, analyzed, and interpreted The Variables in the Research Questions are defined and operationalized Research Questions are developed based on the Theory (and supported literature) A Literature Review is developed \ The Theory is Introduced Deductive Technique for the Quantitative Method
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- Discussion Supports or Refutes Theory Data is collected, analyzed, and interpreted The Variables in the Research Questions are defined and operationalized Research Questions are developed based on the Theory (and supported literature) A Literature Review is developed A discussion is presented to support or refute the Theory The Theory is Introduced Deductive Technique for the Quantitative Method
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- Theory Placement: Introduction PlacementAdvantagesDisadvantages In the introductionCommon approach; familiar to readers; conveys a deductive approach Difficult for a reader to isolate theory base from other components of the research process In the literature review Including theories in a literature review is a logical extension or part of the literature Difficult for a reader to see the theory in isolation from the larger literature After hypotheses or research questions The theory discussion explains how and why variables are related May leave out an extended discussion about the origin and use of the theory In a separate sectionClearly separates the theory from other components of the research process, enables a reader to better identify and to understand the theory base The theory discussion is isolated and may not easily connect with other components of the research process Theory Placement
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- Placed in Lit Review PlacementAdvantagesDisadvantages In the introductionCommon approach; familiar to readers; conveys a deductive approach Difficult for a reader to isolate theory base from other components of the research process In the literature review Including theories in a literature review is a logical extension or part of the literature Difficult for a reader to see the theory in isolation from the larger literature After hypotheses or research questions The theory discussion explains how and why variables are related May leave out an extended discussion about the origin and use of the theory In a separate sectionClearly separates the theory from other components of the research process, enables a reader to better identify and to understand the theory base The theory discussion is isolated and may not easily connect with other components of the research process Theory Placement
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- Placed After RQs PlacementAdvantagesDisadvantages In the introductionCommon approach; familiar to readers; conveys a deductive approach Difficult for a reader to isolate theory base from other components of the research process In the literature review Including theories in a literature review is a logical extension or part of the literature Difficult for a reader to see the theory in isolation from the larger literature After hypotheses or research questions The theory discussion explains how and why variables are related May leave out an extended discussion about the origin and use of the theory In a separate sectionClearly separates the theory from other components of the research process, enables a reader to better identify and to understand the theory base The theory discussion is isolated and may not easily connect with other components of the research process Theory Placement
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- Placed in Separate Section PlacementAdvantagesDisadvantages In the introductionCommon approach; familiar to readers; conveys a deductive approach Difficult for a reader to isolate theory base from other components of the research process In the literature review Including theories in a literature review is a logical extension or part of the literature Difficult for a reader to see the theory in isolation from the larger literature After hypotheses or research questions The theory discussion explains how and why variables are related May leave out an extended discussion about the origin and use of the theory In a separate sectionClearly separates the theory from other components of the research process, enables a reader to better identify and to understand the theory base The theory discussion is isolated and may not easily connect with other components of the research process Theory Placement
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- Theory Use in Qualitative Methods The definition of Theory remains the same but is typically applied differently in Qualitative Methods: The Theory provides a broad explanation of behavior and attitudes Establish a theoretical lens (i.e., orienting lens) Feminist perspective Racialized discourse Critical theory Starts with an endpoint - a theory that is generated (inductive) No theory is employed (the inquiry is developed explicitly from participants as seen in phenomenological approaches)
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- Sometimes referred to as: Paradigms of Social Science Theoretical Lens Foundational Theory (same as theoretical lens) Conflict theory Marxist theory Structural functionalism Symbolic interaction Feminist perspective Racialized discourse Critical theory Queer theory Disability inquiry Paradigms, Theoretical Lens, Foundational Theory Theory Use in Qualitative Methods
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- Applications Theoretical Lens or Foundational Theory Grounded Theory Does Not include initial a priori presentation of one of the big foundational theories Critical-reflexive Theory Theory Use in Qualitative Methods (cont.)
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- Types of Theories Theories can be broken down into types: Grand Theory Mid-range Theory Micro-level Theory
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- Examples of Types of Theories Theories can be broken down into types: Grand Theory Mid-range Theory Micro-level Theory TypePsychologySocial/Educational Grand TheoryPsychodynamic theory Social Construction Mid-range TheoryFive stage theorySocial Interaction Micro-level TheoryIndividual formation theory Phenomenology Types of Theories
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- More Examples of Theories Used for Qualitative Methods Professionalisation Theory by Elliot Freidson Labelling Theory by Scheff Negotiated Order Theory by Strauss
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- The Inductive Logic of Research in Qualitative Methods Researcher asks open-ended questions of participants or records fieldnotes Researcher analyzes data to form themes or categories Researcher looks for broad patterns, generalizations, or theories from themes or categories Researcher poses generalizations, or theories, and compares to past experiences and literature Researcher gathers information
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- Researcher Gathers Information Researcher gathers information The Inductive Logic of Research in Qualitative Methods
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- Open-Ended Questions and Fieldnotes Researcher asks open-ended questions of participants or records fieldnotes Researcher gathers information The Inductive Logic of Research in Qualitative Methods
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- Analyze Data to Form Themes Researcher asks open-ended questions of participants or records fieldnotes Researcher analyzes data to form themes or categories Researcher gathers information The Inductive Logic of Research in Qualitative Methods
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- Look for Broad Patterns Researcher asks open-ended questions of participants or records fieldnotes Researcher looks for broad patterns, generalizations, or theories from themes or categories Researcher gathers information The Inductive Logic of Research in Qualitative Methods
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- Pose Generalizations or Theories Researcher asks open-ended questions of participants or records fieldnotes Researcher analyzes data to form themes or categories Researcher looks for broad patterns, generalizations, or theories from themes or categories Researcher poses generalizations, or theories, and compares to past experiences and literature Researcher gathers information The Inductive Logic of Research in Qualitative Methods
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- Use of Theory in Mixed Methods Mixed methods studies may: Include theory deductively (theory testing) Quantitatively oriented Include theory inductively (an emerging pattern) Qualitatively oriented Use a theoretical lens and framework to guide the study Emphasis is equal between QUAL and QUAN
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- Examples Qualitative example with a theoretical lens: Haldenby, A. M., Berman, H., & Forchuk, C. (2007). Homelessness and health in adolescents. Qualitative Health Research, 17(9), 12321244. Discussion of theory on p. 1235. Qualitative example with a theoretical lens: Haldenby, A. M., Berman, H., & Forchuk, C. (2007). Homelessness and health in adolescents. Qualitative Health Research, 17(9), 12321244. Qualitative example that generates a theory: Harley, A. E., Buckworth, J., Katz, M. L., Willis, S. K., Odoms-Young, & Heaney, C. A. (2007). Developing long-term physical activity participation: A grounded theory study with African American women. Health Education & Behavior. Generated theory on pp. 514. Qualitative example that generates a theory: Harley, A. E., Buckworth, J., Katz, M. L., Willis, S. K., Odoms-Young, & Heaney, C. A. (2007). Developing long-term physical activity participation: A grounded theory study with African American women. Health Education & Behavior. Quantitative example: Frankenberger, K. D. (2004). Adolescent egocentrism, risk perceptions, and sensation seeking among smoking and nonsmoking youth. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19(5), 576590. Literature review and theory on pp. 577580. Quantitative example: Frankenberger, K. D. (2004). Adolescent egocentrism, risk perceptions, and sensation seeking among smoking and nonsmoking youth. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19(5), 576590. Mixed methods example: Parmelee, J. H., Perkins, S. C., & Sayre, J. J. (2007). What about people our age? Applying qualitative and quantitative methods to uncover how political ads alienate college students. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2), 183199. Literature review and theoretical perspective on pp. 184187. Mixed methods example: Parmelee, J. H., Perkins, S. C., & Sayre, J. J. (2007). What about people our age? Applying qualitative and quantitative methods to uncover how political ads alienate college students. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2), 183199
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- Selected References Anfara, V., & Mertz, N. T. (2006). Theoretical frameworks in qualitative research. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed method approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Reeves, S., et al. (2008). Why use theories in qualitative research? BMJ(337:a949), 631-634. Scott, G., & Garner, R. (2013). Doing qualitative research: Designs, methods, and techniques. Boston, MA: Pearson.