Penyakit Ginjal & Gagal Ginjal

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    Penyakit Ginjal & Gagal Ginjal

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    Causes

    There are many possible causes of

    kidney damage. They include:

    Acute tubular necrosis (ATN)

    Autoimmune kidney disease, including:Acute nephritic syndrome

    Interstitial nephritis

    Decreased blood flow due to very low

    blood pressure, which can result from:

    Burns

    Dehydration

    HemorrhageInjury

    Septic shock

    Serious illness

    Surgery

    Disorders that cause clotting within the

    kidney's blood vessels:

    Hemolytic-uremic syndrome

    Idiopathic thrombocytopenicthrombotic purpura (ITTP)

    Malignant hypertension

    Transfusion reaction

    Scleroderma

    Infections that directly injure the kidney,

    such as:

    Acute pyelonephritisSepticemia

    Pregnancy complications, including:

    Placenta abruptio

    Placenta previa

    Urinary tract obstruction

    Acute kidney failure

    Acute (sudden) kidney failure is the sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to

    remove waste and concentrate urine without losing electrolytes.

    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000512.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000495.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000030.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000982.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000668.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000535.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000535.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000491.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001303.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000429.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001355.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000901.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000900.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000485.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002350.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002350.htmhttp://www.addthis.com/bookmark.php?v=250&username=medlineplus&ui_508_compliant=true&ui_language=enhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000485.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000900.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000900.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000901.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000901.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001355.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000429.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001303.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000491.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000535.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000535.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000535.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000535.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000535.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000668.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000982.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000030.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000495.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000512.htm
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    Symptoms Bloody stools

    Breath odor

    Bruising easily

    Changes in mental statusor mood

    Decreased appetite Decreased sensation, especially in the hands or feet

    Fatigue

    Flank pain(between the ribs and hips)

    Hand tremor

    High blood pressure

    Metallic taste in mouth

    Nausea or vomiting, may last for days

    Nosebleeds

    Persistent hiccups

    Prolonged bleeding

    Seizures

    Slow, sluggish movements

    Swelling - generalized(fluid retention)

    Swelling of the ankle, foot, and leg

    Urination changes:

    Decrease in amount of urine

    Excessive urination at nightUrination stops completely

    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003058.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003205.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003206.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003088.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003113.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003192.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003103.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003104.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003141.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003141.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003104.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003104.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003103.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003103.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003103.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003103.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003103.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003192.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003192.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003113.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003113.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003088.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003088.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003206.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003206.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003205.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003205.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003058.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003058.htm
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    Exams and Tests

    Many patients have generalized swelling caused by fluid retention. The doctor may

    hear a heart murmur, crackles in the lungs, or signs of inflammation of the lining of

    the heart when listening to the heart and lungs with a stethoscope.

    The results of laboratory tests may change suddenly (within a few days to 2 weeks).

    Such tests may include:

    - BUN

    - Creatinine clearance

    - Serum creatinine

    - Serum potassium

    - Urinalysis

    A kidney or abdominal ultrasoundis the preferred test for diagnosing kidney failure,

    but abdominal x-ray, abdominal CT scan, or abdominal MRI can tell if there is ablockage in the urinary tract.

    Blood tests may help reveal the underlying cause of kidney failure. Arterial blood gas

    and blood chemistriesmay show metabolic acidosis.

    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003474.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003611.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003475.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003484.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003579.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003777.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003815.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003789.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003796.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003468.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000335.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000335.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003468.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003796.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003796.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003796.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003789.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003789.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003789.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003789.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003789.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003815.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003815.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003815.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003815.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003815.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003777.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003777.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003777.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003579.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003579.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003579.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003484.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003484.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003484.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003475.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003475.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003475.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003475.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003611.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003611.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003611.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003611.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003611.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003474.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003474.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003474.htm
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    Treatment

    Once the cause is found, the goal of treatment is to restore kidney function and

    prevent fluid and waste from building up in the body while the kidneys heal.

    Usually, you have to stay overnight in the hospital for treatment.

    The amount of liquid you eat (such as soup) or drink will be limited to the amount

    of urine you can produce. You will be told what you may and may not eat to reduce

    the buildup of toxins normally handled by the kidneys.

    Your diet may need to be high in carbohydrates and low in protein, salt, and

    potassium.

    You may need antibiotics to treat or prevent infection. Diuretics ("water pills") may be

    used to help the kidneys lose fluid.

    Calcium or glucose/insulin will be given through a vein to help avoid dangerousincreases in blood potassium levels.

    Dialysis may be needed, and can make you feel better. It is not always necessary,

    but it can save your life if your potassium levels are dangerously high.

    Dialysis will also be used if your mental status changes, you stop urinating, develop

    pericarditis, retain too much fluid, or cannot eliminate nitrogen waste products

    from your body.

    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002469.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002467.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000182.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000182.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002467.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002469.htm
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    Outlook (Prognosis)

    Acute kidney failure is potentially life-threatening and may require intensive

    treatment. However, the kidneys usually start working again within several weeks to

    months after the underlying cause has been treated.

    In some cases, chronic renal failureor end-stage renal diseasemay develop.

    Death is most common when kidney failure is caused by surgery, trauma, or severe

    infection in someone with heart disease, lung disease, or recent stroke.

    Old age, infection, loss of blood from the intestinal tract, and progression of kidney

    failure also increase the risk of death.

    Possible Complications

    - Chronic (long-term) kidney failure

    - Damage to the heart or nervous system

    - End-stage kidney disease

    - High blood pressure

    - Loss of blood in the intestines

    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000471.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000500.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000147.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000066.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000726.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000726.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000066.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000066.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000066.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000147.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000147.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000147.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000500.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000500.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000500.htmhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000471.htm
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    Ginjal yang Rusak

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