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PEMODELAN PERANGKAT LUNAK Sequence Diagram. Merupakan suatu diagram interaksi yang memodelkan suatu skenario tunggal yang dijalankan pada sistem Digunakan

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PEMODELAN PERANGKAT LUNAK Sequence Diagram Slide 2 Merupakan suatu diagram interaksi yang memodelkan suatu skenario tunggal yang dijalankan pada sistem Digunakan untuk memperlihatkan interaksi antar obyek dalam perintah yang berurut. Tujuan utama adalah mendefinisikan urutan kejadian yang dapat menghasilkan output yang diinginkan Slide 3 Sequence Diagram Partisipan : obyek atau entitas yang bertindak dalam sequence diagram Message : komunikasi antar obyek partisipan Terdapat 2 tipe garis yaitu vertikal dan horisontal Vertikal : waktu maju berdasarkan waktu Horisontal : obyek mana yang beraksi Slide 4 Elemen Notasi Didefinisikan pada UML 2.0 Digambarkan dalam bentuk frame Bersifat optional untuk menggambarkan batas grafis suatu diagram. Slide 5 Elemen Notasi (cont.) A sequence diagram that has incoming and outgoing messages Slide 6 Elemen Notasi (Labeling) The UML specification provides specific text values for diagram types sd = Sequence Diagram, activity = Activity Diagram, use case = Use Case Diagram DiagramType DiagramName Slide 7 Types of Interaction Creation Menunjukkan pesan yang menyebabkan terjadinya pembentukan instan obyek. Synchronous Pesan yang dikirim oleh 1 obyek ke obyek lain dan obyek pertama menunggu sampai hasil aksi selesai. Asynchronous Pesan yang dikirim oleh 1 obyek ke obyek lain dan obyek pertama tidak menunggu sampai hasil aksi selesai. Reply Menunjukkan nilai kembali dari obyek ke obyek yang megirim pesan Sumber : schaum outline Slide 8 Guidelines for Building a UML Sequence Diagram 1. Set the context (i.e. scope the system) 2. Identify participating objects 3. Draw arbitrary lifelines for each class 4. Draw the duration of the objects on the class lifeline 5. Insert the object messages from top to bottom of diagram (time-based) 6. Check the diagram for completeness Slide 9 Lifelines Elemen notasi lifeline terletak pada posisi atas diagram Represent either roles or object instances that participate in the sequence being modeled Standar penamaan lifeline : Instance Name : Class Name Slide 10 Messages The first message of a sequence diagram always starts at the top and is typically located on the left side of the diagram for readability. Subsequent messages are then added to the diagram slightly lower then the previous message. Slide 11 Message (cont.) the analyst object makes a call to the system object which is an instance of the ReportingSystem class. The analyst object is calling the system object's getAvailableReports method. The system object then calls the getSecurityClearance method with the argument of userId on the secSystem object, which is of the class type SecuritySystem the secSystem object returns userClearance to the system object when the getSecurityClearance method is called. The system object returns availableReports when the getAvailableReports method is called. Slide 12 Message (cont.) the system object calling its determineAvailableReports method. Slide 13 Message (cont.) Asynchronous Messages : digunakan pada proses konkurensi Slide 14 Guards When modeling object interactions, there will be times when a condition must be met for a message to be sent to the object. the guard is the text "[pastDueBalance = 0]." By having the guard on this message, the addStudent message will only be sent if the accounts receivable system returns a past due balance of zero Slide 15 Combined fragments (alternatives, options, and loops) A combined fragment is used to group sets of messages together to show conditional flow in a sequence diagram. The UML 2 specification identifies 11 interaction types for combined fragments. Slide 16 Alternatives Alternatives are used to designate a mutually exclusive choice between two or more message sequences. Alternatives allow the modeling of the classic "if then else" logic e.g. if I buy three items, then I get 20% off my purchase; else I get 10% off my purchase. Slide 17 Alternatives (cont.) Slide 18 Option The option combination fragment is used to model a sequence that, given a certain condition, will occur; otherwise, the sequence does not occur. An option is used to model a simple "if then" statement (i.e., if there are fewer than five donuts on the shelf, then make two dozen more donuts). Slide 19 Option (Cont.) if a student's past due balance equals zero, then the addStudent, getCostOfClass, and chargeForClass messages are sent. If the student's past due balance does not equal zero, then the sequence skips sending any of the messages in the option combination fragment. Slide 20 Loops Occasionally you will need to model a repetitive sequence. In UML 2, modeling a repeating sequence has been improved with the addition of the loop combination fragment. Slide 21 Loops (cont.) Slide 22 Referencing another sequence diagram Starting in UML 2, the "Interaction Occurrence" element was introduced. Interaction occurrences add the ability to compose primitive sequence diagrams into complex sequence diagrams. The text "ref" is placed inside the frame's namebox, and the name of the sequence diagram being referenced is placed inside the frame's content area along with any parameters to the sequence diagram. Slide 23 Interaction Occurrence Slide 24 Interaction Occurrence (cont.) Slide 25 Gates Gates can be an easy way to model the passing of information between a sequence diagram and its context. A gate is merely a message that is illustrated with one end connected to the sequence diagram's frame's edge and the other end connected to a lifeline Slide 26 Gates (cont.) Slide 27 Slide 28 Break almost identical in every way to the option combined fragment, with two exceptions. a break's frame has a namebox with the text "break" instead of "option." when a break combined fragment's message is to be executed, the enclosing interaction's remainder messages will not be executed because the sequence breaks out of the enclosing interaction break combined fragment is much like the break keyword in a programming language like C++ or Java Breaks are most commonly used to model exception handling Slide 29 Slide 30 Parallel When the processing time required to complete portions of a complex task is longer than desired, some systems handle parts of the processing in parallel The parallel combination fragment is drawn using a frame, and you place the text "par" in the frame's namebox break up the frame's content section into horizontal operands separated by a dashed line. Each operand in the frame represents a thread of execution done in parallel. Slide 31 Parallel (cont.) A microwave is an example of an object that does two tasks in parallel Slide 32 Summary The sequence diagram is a good diagram to use to document a system's requirements and to flush out a system's design. The reason the sequence diagram is so useful is because it shows the interaction logic between the objects in the system in the time order that the interactions take place. Slide 33 References UML 2.0 Superstructure Final Adopted Specification UML 2 Sequence Diagram Overview UML 2 Tutorial Slide 34 Try this yourself Draw up a sequence diagram modelling the case when an advert campaign manager retrieves the details of a particular clients advertising campaign and lists the details of a particular advert from the campaign. The sequence diagram should also show the case when a new advert is created. Only call messages (synchronous) should be used in this example and use any iteration conditions as you deem necessary. Objects to use: CampainManager, Client, Campaign, and Advert Slide 35 A Solution to Previous Slide Slide 36 Try this too Create a sequence diagram modelling the behaviour of a PCB drilling machine. The machine will drill holes in a PCB of given dimensions at a set of given co-ordinates. Co-ordinates are given as a list, which must contain at least one set of co- ordinates. Drilling stops when the end of the list is reached or when a user interrupts the process. Slide 37 A Solution to Previous Slide Slide 38 Question