Bab 3 Memodelkan Data Base

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    Introduction to Databases

    Bab 3:

    Memodelkan Data

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    Desain Database

    Tiga bagian proses: Conceptual design: Identifikasi kebutuhan

    stakeholder dan persyaratan data,

    Logical design:Mengidentifikasi jenis aplikasi

    database yang diperlukan; pemodelan data (mengidentifikasi entitas, atribut, hubungan)

    Physical design: Implementasi; desain hardwaresecara fisik dan platform; instalasi dan konfigurasiserver dan pembuatan database

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    Desain Database

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    Jenis Database

    Transactional Mendukung transaksi bisnis

    contoh, sales, Online TransactionProcessing (OLTP)

    Lingkungan client/server sederhana

    Concerns : Concurrency, throughput

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    Database Types

    Decision support system (DSS) Mendukung Keputusan Bisnis

    Types: Data warehouses, reporting databases, datamarts

    Tujuan Utama:Pemanggilan dan Evaluasi Data

    Bulk loading used to add data

    Concerns: Access speeds, throughput

    Hybrid

    Mixture of transactional and DSS types

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    Modeling Goals

    Design with understanding that:

    All applications written for database aredependent on database structure

    If database is altered, applications may needto be altered or rewritten

    Support business objectives

    Simple, easy-to-read, easy-to-

    comprehend structure Scalability

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    Business Rules

    Business rules: Processes and flows used in organizations daily

    work, including:

    Organizational policies

    Calculations and formulas

    Rules and regulations

    Database systems should supportbusiness rules

    Some rules may be better enforced by databasedesign

    Others may be better handled through databaseapplication

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    Entity-Relationship (E-R) Modeling

    Entities: Things to track in database

    Physical objects (people or products)

    Conceptual entities (loan balances orinterest rates)

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    Entity-Relationship (E-R) Modeling

    Attributes:

    Information tracked about entity

    Each entity has attributes

    For example: Entity: Employees

    Attributes: Hire Date, Pay Rate, Social Security ID,Employee Number, Home Address

    One attribute used as unique identifier or

    primary key

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    Entity-Relationship (E-R) Modeling

    Relationships: When one entity references information from

    another entity

    For example:

    Time Card entity must reference an Employeeentity

    Time Card entity is referencing entity

    Employee entity is referenced entity

    Primary keys ensure referential integrity

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    Entity-Relationship (E-R) Modeling

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    Basic Database Objects

    Tables: Store unique instances of entity Columns (fields) represent attributes

    Rows (records) represent individual occurrences ofthat entity

    Views: Customized representations of table information

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    Basic Database Objects

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    Basic Database Objects

    Index: Organizes and sorts data

    Provides pointer to specific physical location

    of data on storage media May be:

    Primary or secondary

    Clustered or nonclustered

    Balanced-tree index (b-tree, or binary treeindex):

    Most common type of index in modern databases

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    B-Tree Index

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    Relationship Types

    Three basic types:

    Binary relationship:

    Relationship between two types of entities

    Unary relationship: Relationship with another occurrence

    within same entity

    Ternary relationship:

    Relationship directly involving three entitytypes

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    Relationship Types

    Cardinality:

    Sets maximum number of entities inrelationship

    One-to-one

    One-to-many

    Many-to-many

    Modality:

    Sets minimum number of entities inrelationship

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    Binary Relationships

    Simplest type of relationship

    Majority of relationships in most relationaldatabases are binary relationships

    Entity can have separate binaryrelationships with any number of otherentities in database

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    Binary Relationships

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    Binary Relationships

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    Binary Relationships

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    Unary Relationships

    Occurrences of an entity type areassociated with other occurrences ofsame entity type

    Relate data in a table to itself For example:

    Entity (table) Salesperson

    One salesperson may act as a backup or

    stand-in for another

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    Unary Relationships

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    Unary Relationships

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    Unary Relationships

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    Ternary Relationships

    Involve three different entities

    Can be considered sets of binaryrelationships

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    Ternary Relationships

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    Many-to-Many Relationships

    Help minimize wasted space and optimizeperformance

    Intersection data:

    Data that is part of many-to-many relationshipand associated with specific, unique instanceof related entities

    Associative entities:

    Entity designed to associate key values fromtwo entities in many-to-many relationship

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    Many-to-Many Relationships

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    Associative Entities

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    Creating Data Models

    To create data model: Identify entities

    Identify attributes for each entity

    Identify associations between entities

    Modeling tools include: Manual (pencil and paper)

    Generic draw program (e.g. Visio)

    Custom modeling program

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    Visio Database Diagrams

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    Example: General Hardware Company

    Wholesaler and distributor of variousmanufacturers tools and other hardwareproducts

    Customers: Hardware and home improvement stores,

    which in turn sell products at retail to individualconsumers

    Acts as middleman: Buys goods from manufacturers and sells to

    retail stores

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    Example: General Hardware Company

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    Example: General Hardware Company

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    Contoh: Good Reading Bookstores

    Chain of bookstores

    Needs to track data for: Books

    Publishers Authors

    Customers

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    Contoh: Good Reading Bookstores

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    Proses Desain Database: Conceptual, logicaldan design

    Jenis-jenis database: Transactional, decisionsupport (DSS) dan hybrid

    Tujuan Modeling Data: membuat modeldatabase yang strukturnya baik yang sederhana,mudah untuk dibaca dan dipahami serta terukur

    Obyek Database: Tabel dan indeks

    Tabel: Mendeskripsikan entiti; yang terdiri darikolom (field) dan baris (record), dengan primarykey digunakan sebagai identitas unik dari suaturecord

    Ringkasan

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    Komponen yang menjadi kunci dari suatuDatabase relasional adalah: Entiti danrelationship

    Relationships mungkin berupa binary, unary,

    atau ternary, dan memiliki kardinalitas danmodalitas yang berbeda

    Relasionship Many-to-many mendukungpersimpangan data dan asosiasi entiti

    dalam membuat model data, tahapnya yaitu1. mengidentifikasi entiti,

    2. mengidentifikasi atributnya, selanjutnya

    3. mengidentifikasi hubungan antar entiti

    Ringkasan

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    Kata Kunci

    Associative entity

    Balanced tree index

    Base object

    Binary relationship

    Binary tree index

    B-tree index

    Bulk loading

    Business rules Cardinality

    Clustered index

    Conceptual design

    Concurrency

    Database object

    Data diagram

    Data mart

    Data model

    Data warehouse Decision support

    system (DSS)

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    Kata Kunci

    Entity-Relationshipdiagram (ERD)

    Entity-Relationship(E-R) modeling

    Field

    Hybrid database

    Identifier

    Index

    Intersection data

    Large object (LOB)data

    Leaf node

    Logical design

    Many-to-many (M-M)binary relationship

    Modality

    Node

    Nonclustered index

    Object-relation model(ORM)

    One-to-many (1-M)binary relationship

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    Kata Kunci

    One-to-one (1-1)binary relationship

    Online transactionprocessing (OLTP)

    Physical design

    Primary index

    Primary key Record

    Referenced entity

    Referencing entity

    Referential integrity

    Reporting database

    Scalable

    Secondary index

    Stakeholder

    Ternary relationship

    Transactionaldatabase

    Throughput

    Unary relationship

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    Copyright Notice

    Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation ofthis work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the1976 United States Copyright Act without express

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