Agenda Warm- up Definition: Peer teaching Collaborative learning Specific Strategies: TTYPA Paired Partners: Think Aloud Co-Operative Learning PALS Program Teaching students to be collaborate Pros & Cons Activity
What is peer assistive learning? The BIG idea = Peers working together
What is peer teaching? Students learn from students that are more experienced and knowledgeable about the subject material. Peer teaching can be used in many ways to engage students. Enables students with exceptionalities to take the role as tutor sometimes (with lower grades) which increases self- confidence
Levels of student responsibility can vary considerably, ranging from a think-pair-share situation to actually teaching another student new content. Peers may also serve as tutors, check the work of other students, or serve as a mentor to other students in the class or program. Peer-to-peer learning is learning from each other.
What is collaborative learning? Collaborative learning is where students work in small groups to discuss concepts and find solutions to problems. Collaborative learning is learning with each other. Defined as co-operative learning and problem solving in pairs and groups
Groups involve students of varying abilities and skills The purpose of collaborative learning is the construction of shared meanings for conversations, concepts, and experiences
When do you plan for collaboration? Use collaboration when you want to promote: positive peer support Social acceptance Social competence And when knowledge can be best learned through the contributions of many learners. Figure 10.8 (Ch. 10, pg. 331): Planning decisions in designing collaborative learning
TTYPA Can be a whole class to small group collaboration Making connections and prepares students up for more complex collaboration activities.
Paired Partners: Think Aloud Modelled This strategy consist of two students: Student One = problem solver This student thinks aloud throughout the task Student Two = monitor This student monitors the self-talk of the solver by asking questions such as, What is your goal? Does this make sense? Why? It is important to note that once discussion is complete, students switch roles.
Co-Operative Learning Most often used in promoting interdependence in an inclusive classroom. MUST include: A sense of sink or swim TOGETHER Tasks that require EVERYONES efforts for groups success Open communication, trust, leadership, decision making, and conflict resolution (SAFE PLACE) Face-to-face Reflection: feedback
Peer Assisted Learning Strategies What is Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS)? Developed by researchers at Vanderbilt University Helps teachers accommodate diverse learners and promote their academic success PALS is divided into 2 sections: PALS Reading and PALS Math. PALS Reading is an instructional strategy developed to enhance students literacy development and beliefs about reading within a peer mediated framework PALS Math has two basic coaching procedures: coaching and practice
PALS cont What is the format for using PALS? Through structured activities, students work in tutor-tutee pairs. The activities require frequent verbal interaction and feedback between tutors and tutees, as well as reciprocity of tutoring roles. In what type of settings should PALS be used? PALS may be used within the regular classroom with all students participating.
PALS cont To what extent has research shown PALS to be useful? Research has shown PALS to be an effective reading intervention program. Improvements in students reading fluency and comprehension have been noted for learning disabled low achieving, and average achieving students. With regards to the PALS extensions, High School PALS has shown to effectively promote literacy among seriously reading delayed adolescents. Kindergarten PALS research has shown positive improvements in phonological awareness and significant increases in the childrens reading competence overall. Research on the First Grade PALS is pending.
PALS cont What materials are needed to implement PALS? No special reading materials library books or short stories can be used. Other materials are needed according to specific grade levels. What is the cost of PALS materials? Materials vary in price from $15 to $44. Large print lessons are recommended for using PALS in reading instruction for Kindergarten. Materials for 1 st Grade consist of scripted lessons to teach students the PALS procedures, teacher-directed decodable worksheets, and decoding lesson worksheets that student pairs use during tutoring. Materials for 2 nd Grade and above consist of a teachers manual with scripted lessons to instruct students in the PALS program. Students can use classroom reading materials to implement the program. How can you get the materials? Materials can be ordered from the following website: http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/pals
PALS cont What is the time commitment for PALS? The time commitment to implement PALS differs slightly depending on the grade level and flexibility in scheduling. Kindergarten: 3-4 times/week30 minutes/session 1 st Grade: 3-4 times/week35 minutes/session 2 nd -6 th Grade: 3 times/week35 minutes/session High School: 5 times every 2 weeks35 minutes/session
The collaboration process: In order to teach students how to collaborate, teachers need to do the following: Teach students how to work together (assume nothing) Make sure each group member is accountable for contributing to completion and quality Observe and mediate (but dont control students) Make observational notes that can be used to inform instructional decisions
Evaluate students progress and increasingly integrate co-operative learning across the curriculum Begin with simple, short activities that provide frequent opportunities for participation Try participation in pairs through TTYPA, think- pair-share, and think aloud pairs By practicing with short, simple collaborative activities, teachers can learn to form groups and intervene effectively
Pros of peer assistive learning Students receive more time for individualized learning. Direct interaction between students promotes active learning. Peer teachers reinforce their own learning by instructing others. Students feel more comfortable and open when interacting with a peer. Peers share a similar discourse, allowing for greater understanding. Team-building spirit More supportive relationships Greater psychological well-being Social competence, Communication skills Self-esteem Higher achievement and greater productivity Development of reading, writing skills and language development Improvement in attendance Opportunities for leadership and social responsibility Safe learning environment
Cons of peer assistive learning Assessment (same grade for students who did not contribute) Dependency (gifted) Group composition Cover the curriculum (not always being able to make learning clear or explicit enough) Low tolerance for diversity Attendance
Activity: a peer teaching example Lynn is a grade 11 student and meets regularly with Suzanne, a grade 12 peer tutor. Lynn has severe difficulty with written expression and meets with Suzanne to revise and edit her written work for English 11-3. Lynn is very self-conscious about her difficulty in writing and doesnt want her peers to know. Therefore, she and Suzanne meet in the resource room during period 3, the class that Suzanne is available.
The pro: Suzanne sees growth in Lynns confidence in her writing skills and talks to her English teacher about pushing her to stay in the class a little more and try to revise on her own first. How should Suzanne and the teacher proceed?
The con: Lynn had done well on her latest assignment in English that she worked on with Suzanne. Now, even with the smallest of assignments, Lynn wants to rush to the resource room to work with Suzanne, but she is not always available. Then Lynn shuts down and doesnt want to do any English work at all. What does the teacher do now?