ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE, CITIZENSHIP, 2013-09-16¢  ii ABSTRACT Organizational citizenship behavior has

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    ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE, CITIZENSHIP,

    AND EFFECTIVENESS IN A PUBLIC

    LIBERAL ARTS INSTITUTION

    by

    RACHEAL BRANTLEY BANKS

    DAVID E. HARDY, COMMITTEE CHAIR

    BEVERLY DYER MARK LEGGETT C. JOHN TARTER WAYNE J. URBAN

    A DISSERTATION

    Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Educational

    Leadership, Policy, and Technology Studies in the Graduate School of

    The University of Alabama

    TUSCALOOSA, ALABAMA

    2013

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    Copyright Racheal Brantley Banks 2013

    ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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    ABSTRACT

    Organizational citizenship behavior has been studied in various organizational settings,

    but few have examined the construct within the context of higher education. In addition,

    evidence (DiPaola, Tarter, Hoy, 2007), has suggested a relationship between organizational

    citizenship and effectiveness within schools, but has not been fully examined in higher

    education. Thus, this study’s purpose was to gain an understanding of organizational climate,

    specifically citizenship, and organizational effectiveness at a public liberal arts institution. The

    researcher investigated, through survey instrumentation, how full-time faculty, staff and

    administrative professionals perceived the level of engagement in organizational citizenship

    behaviors, perceptions of organizational effectiveness within their work units and the

    relationship between citizenship and effectiveness.

    The results provided insight to the site institution regarding organizational behavior,

    particularly employee perceptions and the potential impact on organizational operations. The

    majority (over 80%) of employees reported high levels of organizational citizenship behavior

    within their institutional division. At the same time, these employees also held high perceptions

    of organizational effectiveness. Data analysis provided further evidence of organizational

    behavior and characteristics through a strong correlation and significant relationship between

    citizenship and effectiveness.

    An ancillary objective of this study was to test the instrumentation for use in higher

    education institutions. A Pearson’s r correlation coefficient and factor analysis established the

    reliability and validity of the instrumentation within the context of higher education.

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    Consequently, these measures have the potential to equip other public liberal arts colleges and

    universities with tools to consider utilizing in both planning and assessment.

    Through increased research efforts, higher education scholars can call attention to the

    importance of employee behavior on overall organizational operations and provide data to

    inform both practitioners and policymakers. Practitioners, particularly institutional leaders,

    should use this information to improve operations and policymakers should utilize the empirical

    evidence to implement valuable programs and encourage effective practices. All parties should

    work together to ensure that colleges and universities are in a position to truly achieve their

    mission of higher education.

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    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS

    ɑ Cronbach’s alpha index of internal consistency β Beta M Mean: the sum of measurements divided by the number of measurements in the set p Probability associated with the occurrence under the null hypothesis of a value as

    extreme as or more extreme than the observed value r Pearson product-moment correlation SD Standard deviation

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    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    Completing a dissertation is a not an individual accomplishment and my family, friends,

    colleagues and former faculty members have been instrumental in this journey. I am grateful to

    have so many supportive and caring people in my life. For all of the encouraging words, advice

    and guidance, I will be forever grateful.

    I want to begin by thanking my husband, Lee. It is difficult to put into writing how much

    it means to me that you stood by my side throughout this process. You sacrificed so much and

    the credit for this dissertation is as much yours as it is mine. To my children, Maddie and

    Brantley, please know that if I had never finished this dissertation I would be perfectly fine

    because you both make my life complete. I do hope, however, that one day this will serve as a

    reminder that you can achieve anything you set your mind to do. Although they are not here to

    celebrate this milestone, I want to acknowledge my parents who laid the foundation for

    everything I have accomplished and will accomplish. To my friends and colleagues, many of you

    knowingly and some unknowingly, inspired me to keep going when all I wanted to do was stop.

    In addition, I am particularly grateful for the guidance of my dissertation chair, Dr. David

    E. Hardy. I would also like to express my gratitude the other members of my committee, Dr.

    Beverly Dyer, Dr. Mark Leggett, Dr. John Tarter and Dr. Wayne Urban. I cannot thank you

    enough for your commitment and willingness to share your wisdom and expertise.

    Finally, I recognize that each and every person I encountered throughout this journey had

    an invaluable impact. However, none of this would have been possible without God. I hope that

    in some way all of the time and effort put into this dissertation will ultimately glorify Him.

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    CONTENTS

    ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................. ii

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS .......................................................................... iv

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................v

    LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................x LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................................... xi CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................1

    Statement of the Problem and Significance of the Study ....................................................2

    Purpose of the Study ............................................................................................................4

    Research Questions ..............................................................................................................4

    Assumptions .........................................................................................................................5

    Delimitations ........................................................................................................................6

    Limitations ...........................................................................................................................6

    Organization of the Study ....................................................................................................6 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ..................................................................................8

    Liberal Arts Colleges and Universities ................................................................................8

    History of Liberal Arts Institutions ......................................................................................9

    Role and Impact of Liberal Arts Education .......................................................................14

    Private vs. Public Institutions ............................................................................................21

    The Role of COPLAC ........................................................................................................22

    Organizational Climate ......................................................................................................25

    Foundations of the Study of Organizational Climate ............................................25

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    Expansion of the Concept ......................................................................................38

    Reconsideration and Re-examination ....................................................................44

    Organizational Climate Research in Educational Settings ....................................48

    Primary and Secondary Education .....................................................................................49

    Higher Education ...............................................................................................................61

    Organizational Citizenship Behavior .................................................................................70

    Definition and Dimensionality ...........................................................................................70

    Predictors and Correlates ....................................................................................