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    BASICS OF SCIENCECOURSE

    TEAM 1

    MULHATIM

    UMINAH

    KHUSNUL KHOTIMAH

    20111/29/2012 1

    GRADUATE PROGRAM

    STATE UNIVERSITY OF SURABAYA

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    PLANT CELL

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    PLANT CELL

    Plants including eukaryotes, organisms

    that have a membrane surrounding the

    nucleus and organelles, and can arrangefood

    Plant cells have some special structure,

    namely a rigid cell wall, central vacuole,plasmodesmata, and chloroplasts.

    BY teams 1 3

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    THE FOLLOWING IS A DESCRIPTION

    OF THE PLANT CELL

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    CELL WALL

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNGTIONSThe cell walls

    consist of

    cellulose (the

    majority),

    hemicellulose,

    pectin, lignin,

    chitin, salt,carbonate and

    silicate of Ca

    and Mg

    Give the cell

    shape

    Protects the

    inside andarrange

    transport of

    substances

    Endorsing thetidaka woody

    plants

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    ORGANELLS STRUCTURE FUNGTIONS

    Composed of

    carbohydrate

    proteins and

    fats

    Patron of the cell so

    that cells do not exit

    Regulatory exchange

    out substances that

    enter the cell

    Perform within or

    outside the cell

    selection (selectively

    permeable)

    MEMBRANE PLASM

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    .NUCLEUS

    ORGANELLS STRUCTURE FUNGTIONS

    Chemically

    composed of DNA,

    RNA and proteins(histones)

    In the nucleus

    there is a

    chromosome that

    serves to cell division

    Control of cell

    metabolism

    Place of DNA

    replication and

    transcription

    Regulatory cell

    division and the

    carrier of genetic

    information

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    MITOCHONDRIA

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    Bacteria-like

    elements

    with inner

    membrane

    Contains enzymes

    that perform the

    oxidation of food andenergy to synthesize

    ATP in the cell

    The occurrence of

    cellular respirationproduces energy

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    ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    That is shaped

    structure threads

    which empties into

    the cell nucleus.

    There are two types

    of RE are:

    RE. Granular(Rough E.R)

    RE. Agranuler

    (Smooth E.R)

    Function R.E.

    are: for the

    transport ofsubstances

    within the cell

    itself

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    GOLGI APARATUS

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    The Golgi is

    composed of

    stacks of

    membrane-bound

    structures known

    as cisternae

    (singular: cisterna)

    Modifying the

    protein by adding

    oligosaccharides

    Establish

    lysosomes

    For secretion of

    the mucous

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    PLASTIDAORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    1. Lekoplas

    Amiloplas,proteinop

    las , elailoplas

    2. Kloroplas

    klorofil, pigmen

    karotenoid,

    3. Kromoplas

    karotenoid (karoten

    dan xantofil)

    1. Lekoplas

    (white-colored

    plastids serve as food

    storage),

    2. chloroplastnamely green

    plastids. Plastids

    works generating

    chlorophyll and

    photosynthesis as themeeting place.

    3. Kromoplas

    ie plastids containing

    pigments1/29/2012 12

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    VACUOLA

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    Contains organic

    salts, glycosides,

    tannins (tanningagent), etheric

    oils, alkaloids,

    enzymes, starch

    grains

    As a regulator

    of turgor

    pressure

    Place storing

    food reserves,

    pigments, oils

    and residual

    metabolic astiri

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    PEROXISOM

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    Contains enzymes,

    especially catalase,

    an H2O2 overhaul

    mengkatalisisrdangerous on the

    metabolism

    Changing the fat

    into carbohydrate

    Produce to formH2O2 oxidative

    enzymes to break

    down fat

    Produce the enzymecatalase to convert

    H2O2 into H2O and

    O2

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    CYTOPLASM

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    It is a fluid cell

    in the cell

    (cytosol)

    It poses a

    variety of cell

    organelles

    The function of the

    cytoplasm is to distribute

    oxygen and food

    (nutrients) to other partsof the cell and it

    supports all parts inside

    the cell.

    It has three main

    functions: storage,energy, and

    manufacturing.

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    ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    (RER) in which

    the surface of

    the tubulescontain

    numerous

    granule-like

    structures called

    ribosomes.

    The function of

    the rough

    endoplasmicreticulum is to

    synthesize and

    exports proteins

    and

    glycoproteins.

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    SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    The Smooth ER

    also contains the

    enzyme glucose-

    6-phosphatase,

    which converts

    glucose-6-

    phosphate to

    glucose, a step in

    gluconeogenesis

    The function of the smooth

    endoplasmic reticulum is

    1. to package proteins for

    transport, synthesizemembrane phosolipids, and

    releases calcium

    2. transformation of bile

    pigments, glycogenolysis

    (the breakdown ofglycogen), and detoxification

    of many drugs and chemical

    agents.

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    NUCLEOLUS

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    Containing

    DNA and a

    copy of thegene coding

    RNA

    The nucleolus

    is where

    ribosomes aremade

    And synthesis

    of RNA.

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    NUCLEAR ENVELOP

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    it is the outer

    covering of the

    nucleus

    Function of nuclear

    membran is

    separates the

    cytoplasmic

    contents from the

    nuclear contents

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    PLASMODESMATA

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    Most

    plasmodesmata

    also have the

    structure of the

    hall-like tube

    called

    desmotubul

    The function of

    plasmodesmata are :

    1. connects plant cells

    with each other.

    2. connecting channel

    enables transport of

    materials and

    allows

    communication

    between the cells

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    CYTOSKELETON

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    Mikrofilamen

    mikrotubulus

    filamenintermediar

    Structural

    support; cell

    movement

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    ANIMAL CELL

    The structure and function

    of components ororganelles of animal cells

    as follows:

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    ANIMAL CELL

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    MEMBRANE PLASM

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNGTIONS

    Composed of

    carbohydrates,

    proteins andfats

    Patron of the cell so

    that cells do not exit

    Regulatory exchangeout substances that

    enter the cell

    Perform within or

    outside the cell selection

    (selectively permeable)

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    NUCLEUS

    ORGANELLS STRUCTURE FUNGTIONS

    Chemically

    composed of DNA,

    RNA and proteins

    (histones)

    In the nucleus

    there is a

    chromosome that

    serves to cell

    division

    Control of cell

    metabolism

    Place of DNA

    replication and

    transcription

    Regulatory cell

    division and the

    carrier of genetic

    information

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    MITOCHONDRIA

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    Bacteria-like

    elements with

    innermembrane

    Contains enzymes that

    perform the oxidation of

    food and energy to

    synthesize ATP in the

    cell

    Th

    e occurrence ofcellular respiration

    produces energy

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    RETICULUM ENDOPLASMA

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    That is shaped structure

    threads which empties into

    the cell nucleus.There are two types of RE are:

    RE. Granular (Rough E.R)

    RE. Agranuler (Smooth E.R)

    Function

    R.E. are:

    for thetransport

    of

    substance

    s withinthe cell

    itself

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    GOLGI APARATUS

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    The Golgi is

    composed of

    stacks ofmembrane-

    bound

    structures

    known ascisternae

    (singular:

    cisterna)

    Modifying the

    protein by adding

    oligosaccharides

    Establish

    lysosomes

    For secretion of

    the mucous

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    RIBOSOM

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    This structure

    consists of two

    sph

    erical particlesof large and small,

    there are inherent

    throughout the RE

    and some aresolitary

    synthesise

    proteins, new

    protein synthesisis packaged in a

    single membrane

    bounded

    organelles

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    LYSOSOM

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    Having the

    hydrolytic enzymes for

    the digestion of

    polysaccharides,lipids, nucleic acids &

    proteins

    One enzyme that is

    Lisozym

    Plays an important role in

    cell death

    Digesting macromolecules

    intracellularly

    As a producer of digestiveenzymes and cellular

    storage

    Digesting the material

    taken up by endocytosis

    Destroying other cellorganelles that are not

    working

    Destroying the cell itself

    (autolysis)

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    CENTROSOME

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    There is in the cytoplasm

    to the outer surface of the

    nucleus, which consists of

    a row of cylinders as much

    as 9 mikrotubuli

    Before a cell divides,

    centrioles will berduplikasi

    to form basal bodies, cilia

    and flagella

    star-shaped structurethat functions in cell

    division (mitosis and

    meiosis)

    Set cell division and

    chromosome

    separation during cell

    division in animals Synthesize

    microtubule cilia and

    flagella

    Generate a spindle

    in animal cells

    As an object poles in

    mitosis and meiosis

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    CYTOPLASM

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    It is a fluid cell

    in the cell

    (cytosol)

    It poses a

    variety of cell

    organelles

    The function of the

    cytoplasm is to distribute

    oxygen and food

    (nutrients) to other partsof the cell and it

    supports all parts inside

    the cell.

    It has three main

    functions: storage,

    energy, and

    manufacturing.

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    PEROCSISOM

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    Contains enzymes,

    especially catalase,

    an H2O2 overhaulmengkatalisisr

    dangerous on the

    metabolism

    Changing the fat

    into carbohydrate

    Produce to form

    H2O2 oxidativeenzymes to break

    down fat

    Produce the enzyme

    catalase to convertH2O2 into H2O and

    O2

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    NUCLEOLUS

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    Containing

    DNA and a

    copy of thegene coding

    RNAs

    The nucleolus is

    where ribosomes

    are madeAnd synthesis of

    RNA.

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    SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    The Smooth ER

    also contains the

    enzyme glucose-

    6-phosphatase,which converts

    glucose-6-

    phosphate to

    glucose, a step in

    gluconeogenesis

    The function of the smooth

    endoplasmic reticulum is

    1. to package proteins for

    transport, synthesizemembrane phosolipids, and

    releases calcium

    2. transformation of bile

    pigments, glycogenolysis

    (the breakdown ofglycogen), and detoxification

    of many drugs and chemical

    agents.

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    ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    (RER) in which

    the surface of

    the tubulescontain

    numerous

    granule-like

    structures calledribosomes.

    The function of

    the rough

    endoplasmicreticulum is to

    synthesize and

    exports proteins

    andglycoproteins.

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    NUCLEAR ENVELOP

    ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

    it is the outer

    covering of the

    nucleus

    Function of nuclear

    membran is

    separates the

    cytoplasmic

    contents from the

    nuclear contents

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    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ANIMAL AND PLANT CELLS

    ANIMAL CELL PLANT CELL

    DO NOT HAVE A CELL WALL HAVE CELL WALLS AND CELL

    MEMBRANES

    DO NOT HAVE PLASTIDS GENERALLY HAVE PLASTIDS

    HAVE LYSOSOMES DO NOT HAVE LYSOSOMES

    HAVE THE CENTROSOME NO CENTROSOME

    DEPOSITS OF FATTY SUBSTANCES AND

    GLYCOGEN

    SUBSTANCE DEPOSITS IN THE FORM OF

    STARCH

    FORM IS NOT FIXED FIXED FORM

    IN CERTAIN PLANT HAVE VACUOLES,

    SMALL SIZE, LITTLE

    HAS A LARGE VACUOLE, MANY

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    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PLANT AND

    ANIMAL CELLS IN FUTURE

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    THE END

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