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  • Yl:1 Say:1 Bahar 2014 s.57 - 69

    AR

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    AN OUTLINE OF QUNAWIS REFLECTIONS ON

    DIVINE NAMES IN TERMS OF ONENESS OF THE

    BEING/WAHDAT AL-WUJD

    Ali Fahri DOAN*

    ZET

    Vahdet-i Vcd Asndan Ana Hatlaryla Konevnin Esm Anlay Vahdet-i Vcd teorisyenleri arasndaki en nemli ahsiyetlerden biri olan Konev,

    selefi ibn Arab gibi ilh isimlere ciddi nem vermitir. Klasik tasavvuf dnemi mel-liflerinin aksine Konev, ilh isimler meselesini sadece zikir asndan ele almam, ayn zamanda ontolojik adan da meseleyi deerlendirmitir. Tasavvuf ontolojisini aklarken ilh isimleri merkez bir noktaya yerletirmitir. Ona gre Cenab- Haktan ilk taayyn ya da tezahr eden varlklar, ilh isimler ve sfatlardr. Ayrca fi-zik lemdeki her bir nesne ilh bir ismin tecellsi veya mazhardr. Bu isimler Ko-nevnin fikirlerinde ylesine n plandadr ki onun esmya dair grnn, varlk g-ryle neredeyse ayn anlama geldiini dnmek mmkndr. Bu almada Ko-nevnin varlk grnn byk lde ilh isimlere istinad ettii fikrinden hareket-le, onun esml-hsn anlaynn ana hatlar ele alnmtr.

    Anahtar Kelimeler: lh simler, Konev, Vahdet-i Vcd

    ABSTRACT

    Being one of the most important figures among the wahdat al-wujd(oneness of the being) theoreticians, Qunawi paid a significant attention to the Divine Names,

    like his predecessor ibn Arab. Unlike the authors of classical period of su fism, Qunawi tackled the issue of Divine Names not only with regard to the

    Dhikr/rememberance/repitition of the divine names but also to ontological con-

    cerns. He placed the Divine Names in a central position while describing his Sufistic

    ontology. According to him, the first things manifested/disclosured from the God are

    His names and attributes. Everything in the physical world is the self-disclosure of a

    divine name, or the loci of manifestation/madhar of that name. These divine names

    have got such an eminent position in Qunawi's ideas that it is almost possible to

    consider his reflections on the divine names paramount to his ontological views.

    From the point of view that Qunawis ontology is mainly based on Divine Names, an outline of his reflections on divine names has been introduced in this study.

    Key Words: Divine Names, Qunawi, Wahdat al-Wujd

  • 58 Ali Fahri DOAN

    Mtefekkir Yl : 1

    INTRODUCTION

    Sadr al-Dn al-Qunawi (d. 673/1274) is one of the eminent figures in the dis-

    semination of ibn Arabs (d. 638/1240) teaching, which is named Wahdat al-

    Wujd after his life-time, though it is not enough to denote the teaching of ibn

    Arab. Being both a disciple and a step-son of ibn Arab, Qunawi grew up spiritually

    and physically under the influence of his master and step-father. As a result, his

    sufistic views were moulded by Sheikh al-Akbar ibn Arab. Qunawi internalised and

    then reflected ibn Arab-style of philosophical Sufism to such an extent that his fol-

    lowers, who regarded ibn Arab as the greatest master/Sheikh al-Akbar, consid-

    ered him as the Great Master/Sheikh al-Kabeer. This means that Qunawi is not a

    mere interpreter to ibn Arab; on the contrary, he re-designed and systematised

    the teaching of his master. Besides, he raised very important disciples including

    Sa'd al-Dn Sa'd Farghn (d. 699/1300), Mu'ayyad al-Dn Jand (d. 691/1292 [?])

    and Fakhr al-Dn 'Irq (d. 688/1289), all of whom played an important role in the

    conveyance of the theory of wahdat al-wujd to various centers of Islam as of

    13th century.

    Featuring such an eminent position, Qunawi placed the Divine Names at the

    center of his ontology. Before examining his views about the Divine Names, we

    had better briefly check the position of Divine Names among Muslims in general.

    In Islamic literature, Divine Names have always been of high importance within

    the works and ideas of Muslim scholars, with a wide variety of diciplines ranging

    from Kalm (theology) to Tasawwuf (mysticism/sufism), from Fiqh (Islamic law) to

    Sunnah (tradition). The preliminary source of Islam, the Qur'an, attributes the

    beautiful names to God: "All the beautiful names are His."1 The general view of the

    scholars about the divine names depends on the prophetic saying reported by

    Ab Hurairah: God has got 99 names (1 less from 100). He who memoris-

    es/counts them enters into the Heaven. Ibn Majah and Tirmidhi added a list of

    99 Divine Names at the end of this report.2 The Divine Names that we recite are

    in these lists.

    1- General Approach to Divine Names in Sufism

    Among the Islamic Disciplines, Sufism is the mostly-interested one in the Di-

    vine Names. During the classical period of sufism, Divine Names found an im-

    portant room for themselves in a sufi's life with the help of Dhikr. Dhikr is a sufis-

    tic concept derived from the Arabic root "" which means to remember or to

    * N.Erbakan niversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstits, Tasavvuf Anabilim Dal Doktora rencisi. 1 Surah al-Hashr, 59/24 2 Tirmidhi, Daawt, 82; Ibn Mjah, Du, 10.

  • An Outline of Qunawis Reflection on Divine Names 59

    Say : 2 Gz 2014

    recite. The most common and well-known way of Dhikr3 is carried out by repeat-

    ing the Divine Names in definite numbers, mostly calculated through Abjad.4

    From the time of al-Ghazzl, Sufism started to gain a new dimension, later

    called "Philosophical Sufism". Ibn Arabi was the most influential figure in this type

    of Sufism. This new type of Sufism not only dealt with the traditional sufi practises

    like dhikr and mujhadah, but it also handled ontological and epistemological

    problems. The representatives of this type produced ideas about the creation of

    the universe and the sources of knowledge. Named as Wahdat al-wujd later, this

    type of Sufism gave a great importance to the Divine Names in the process of

    Creation of the Universe. As a result, Divine names acquired one more dimension

    in Islamic literature in addition to dhikr: a role in the creation of the universe.

    In order to understand the Qunawi's view of Divine Names and their role in his

    ontological ideas, we had better look briefly at ibn Arab's approach to Divine

    names. It is possible to say that, the Divine Names help us know the God, whom

    we cant understand and know without His names and attributes. On the other

    hand, considering the Divine Names as the principles which provide the necessary

    knowledge about the God cannot be possible without seeing their dual function.

    One of these functions is that the Divine Names are the origin of the existence.

    With this point of view, divine names are underlying causes of the universe. The

    second function of the Divine Names is that they are the source of the knowledge.

    Inasmuch as knowledge is about existence, the Divine Names, being the primary

    source of the existence, are also the main reference of knowledge.5 We must ex-

    amine ibn Arabs teaching about the Divine Names with this perspective. To start

    with, according to ibn Arab, the Divine Names that we know and that have a defi-

    nite number are not the real names of God. They're the worldly names of God's

    actual names that exist in His Supreme Realm.6 Besides, God created the whole

    universe in order to observe the essences of His Names.7 We shouldn't forget

    that, although we talk about 99 Divine Names, the number of real Names of God

    is infinite.8 Pointing out the relation between the Divine Names and the Universe

    in ibn Arabi's Teaching, Chittick states that Islamic theology commonly calls crea-

    tures the acts (af`l) of God. He also reports that, according to ibn Arabi, these

    3 For details and types of Dhikr see Ethem Cebeciolu, Tasavvuf Terimleri ve Deyimleri Szl,

    stanbul: Aa Yay., 2009 5th edition , pp. 728-730 4 According to abjad calculating system, letters in the Arabic alphabet have certain numerical values.

    For example the letter " " has the value of 1, the letter " " has the value of 60, the letter " " has the value of 800 etc. If you want to calculate the abjad value of a word, you add the numeric values

    of the letters that word consists of. For example, the abjad value of the word " " is 700 + 20 + 200 = 920. For the details about abjad see Mustafa Uzun, "Ebced", DA, X, pp. 69-70

    5 Kartal, Abdullah, lahi simler Teorisi, stanbul: Hayy Kitap, 2009, pp. 139-141. 6 Kl, Mahmut Erol, ibn Arab Dncesine Giri, stanbul: Sufi Yay., 2009, p. 312. 7 bn Arab, Fosoos al-Hekam, edt. Ab al-Al Afeefy, Beirut: Dr a'l-kitb al-Arab p. 48. 8 bn Arab, ibid, p. 65

  • 60 Ali Fahri DOAN

    Mtefekkir Yl : 1

    acts are nothing but the traces (athar) of Gods names, the Vestigia Dei. The

    Dht (the Essence of God) is the ultimate source of all names and all realities. In

    Himself, God knows everything that will appear in the universe for all eternity, be-

    cause all things are simply the traces of His knowledge of His Essence, which is

    Infinite and Absolute Being. So, God knows not only His own names, but also the

    names of all things. If He calls Himself by many names both in the Quran and in

    other scriptures, it is because the traces of the names are infinitely diverse.9

    The relation between wujud and the nonexistent things is described with re-

    gard to the divine names in ibn Arabis works. Some of these names point to the

    wujud's perfections/kaml; such as life, knowledge, desire, and power. The traces

    of these perfections can be seen in the universe; nevertheless, the names them-