Microalgae – a potential fish feed resource? properites in microalgae . Hypotheses: Certain microalgae may have beneficial health effects Soybean meal was used as a model to

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  • Microalgae a potential fish feed resource? Margareth verland

  • Salmonid production, Norwegian and global

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    1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

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    Prod

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    Production and value of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout

    Norway World Value (Norway) Value (World)

    PresenterPresentation Notes

  • Advantages

    Availability and supply Environmental profile Low cost

    Disadvantages

    Low nutrient density Unbalanced AA profile Taste Antinutrients No EPA or DHA

    3

    Potentials and challenges with plant ingredients

  • Fishmeal-free diets for salmonids

    A: P-MIX1.0

    B: C-MIX1.0

    C: S-MIX1.0

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    FCR

    0.780

    0.788

    0.799

    0.8170.832

    0.832

    0.850

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    2 Feeding a combination of pea, potato and rapeseed protein gave similar growth performance as fishmeal

    Feed efficiency

    Source: APC, Zhang, 2012

    Mixed model design Contour plot

    Pea + potato

    Soya Rapeseed +Potato

  • Bacteria Methylococcus capsulatus

    Microbial ingredients in fish feeds Production

    Yeast/Fungus Rhizopus oryzae

    Many possible substrates: Methane or methanol (e.g. natural gas or methane) Co-products from forest industry and agriculture

    - Lignocellulosic biomass Sunlight + CO2

    Microalgae Phaeodactylum, Chlorella,

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Methylococcus_capsulatus.png

  • Methylococcus capsulatus

    Bacterial meal Value chain from natural gas to high-value feed resources for the production of human food

    Bacterial meal (BM) is produced by aerobe fermentation: Methanothroph bacteria and helper bacteria

    Methanol or Methane from natural gas

    Oxygen, ammonia, minerals

    Crude protein (10% nucleic acids)

    70%

    Crude lipids (phospholipids) 10%

    Carbohydrates 12%

    Ash 7%

    (Source: verland et al., 2011)

  • Growth (%/Day) and feed efficiency (Gain/Feed) of Atlantic salmon fed increasing levels of bacterial

    meal

    a

    Level of bacterial meal (%)

    a

    b

    ab

    b

    ab a

    abc

    c

    bc

    Source: Aas et al. 2006

  • Production of yeast from forest industry Lignocellulosic biomass

    Mechanical pretreatment

    Thermo-chemical pretreatment

    Enzymatic hydrolyzes

    Fermentation

    Cellulose

  • Growth (%/day) and feed utilization (feed:gain) of salmon fed 30% yeast

    APC, 2012, verland et al., unpublished

    a

    FM Yeast 1 Yeast 2 Yeast 3

    Gain, %/day Kg feed / kg gain

    PresenterPresentation Notes

  • Microalgae in fish feed Chemical characteristic of microalgae

    Microalgae is produced by: Heterotrophic or autotrophic production

    Freshwater or saltwater

    Lipid, protein and carbohydrate composition varies with production conditions

    Crude protein

    20 - 40%

    Crude lipids 5 - 60%

    Carbohydrates

    Minerals, vitamins, carotenoids

    Microalgae Phaeodactylum, Chlorella

  • Reseach on Microalgae in APC

    1. Evaluation of nutritional value of : Nannochloropsis oceania, produced at UMB Isochtysis galbana from, Reed Mariculture, USA Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Fitoplankton Marino, Spain

    Collaboration among APC; UMB, SINTEF, and Nofima

    2. Evaluation of functional properties of microalgae 3. Chemical profiling of microalga from heterotrophic production Production of Nannochloropsis

    oceania at UMB

    Collaboration between APC and Nofima

  • Source: APC, Skrede et al., unpublished

    Chemical composition of microalgae, % Nannochloropsis

    Oceania Isochrysis galbana

    Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    High-quality fishmeal

    Crude protein, % 47.7 20.1 49.0 74.7 Crude fat, % 8.4 16.2 7.4 9.7 EPA, C20:5 2.3 0.08 2.8 1.5-2.0

    DHA, C22:6 - 1.6 0.02 0.7-1.3

    Amino acids, g/16 g N

    Lysine 4.8 3.1 4.2 6.8 Methionine 1.8 2.5 2.0 2.5 Tryptophan 1.7 2.5 1.3 0.7 Threonine 3.6 4.6 3.7 3.5 Valine 4.6 6.1 4.6 4.0 Isoleucine 3.5 5.1 3.8 3.7 Leucine 6.7 9.2 6.2 6.2 Phenylalanine 3.9 5.7 4.2 3.3 Arginine 4.9 4.1 4.4 5.4

  • Apparent crude protein digestibility of the algae products

    Nannochloropsis

    y = -0,5233x + 87,844R2 = 0,9966

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    % C

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    Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    y = -0,0777x + 87,639R2 = 0,9853

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    Isochrysis galbana

    y = -0,69x + 87,806R2 = 0,9928

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    The protein digestibility of the algae when extrapolating to 100% of protein from algae were: Phaeodactylum tricornutum: 79.9% Nannochloropsis oceania : 35.5% Isochrysis galbana : 18.8%

  • Apparent amino acid digestibility of LT fishmeal and the three algae products

    N. Oceania

    P. Tricornutum

    I. galbana

    LT fishmeal

    Arg 41.2 87.4 56.8 93.6

    His 17.2 76.6 37.1 88.9

    Ile 30.3 75.9 63.5 92.4

    Leu 30.9 81.6 68.6 93.0

    Lys 38.1 84.5 12.6 86.8

    Met 35.6 83.4 64.8 93.5

    Trp 38.3 81.7 69.0 85.6

    Phe 31.9 83.2 69.2 90.3

    Thr 50.1 83.0 55.0 85.0

    Val 31.6 82.2 62.5 91.4

  • Apparent crude fat digestibility of the algae products

    Although the algae products represented a minor proportion of total dietary lipids some indications were observed: All algae products gave a reduction in lipid digestibility with increasing inclusion of algae lipids. Calculation of the digestibility of lipids in the algae products would result in negative digestibility.

    Nannochloropsis

    y = -0,5587x2 + 0,2459x + 98,032R2 = 0,9998

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    Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    y = -0,1732x2 - 0,2497x + 98,107R2 = 1

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    Isochrysis galbana

    y = -0,0746x2 - 0,1763x + 98,186R2 = 0,9988

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  • Functional properites in microalgae

    .

    Hypotheses: Certain microalgae may have beneficial health effects Soybean meal was used as a model to study gut health Feeding soybean meal results in: Enteritis in the distal intestine

    Reduced feed intake, growth, and digestibility

    Reduced enzyme activity and bile salt levels in the intestine

    A: Fiskemel

    B: Soyamel

    Normal gut

    Soy-induced enteritis

    Foto: T. Landsverk

    PresenterPresentation Notes

  • Microalgae in feed containing 20% SBM Degree of inflammation in distal intestine

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    SBM (Pos. ctrl.) FM (Neg. ctrl.) ALG (SBM + alga)

    Deg

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    of c

    hang

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    dis

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    Diet

    Leukocytes in Lamina PropriaEpithelial changesAtrophyOedema

    + + +

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    *

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    * = different from SBM at p

  • Conclusion - 1

    Microbes represent very promising feed ingredients

    They are sustainable feed resources - they do not require agricultural land, use little water (or recycling) and can be made from non-food raw materials

    Micro algae have some limitation concerning opening up the cell-walls and low digestibility of nutrients in several species

    Some microbes (both bacteria, yeast and microalgae) contain many interesting bioactive components that can give positive health effects

    The positive health effects are very species (and possibly also strain) specific

  • Conclusion - 2

    To be successful, microbial ingredients must have a high nutritional value (omega 3)/health benefits and be produced economically

    Revisions of EU regulations on microbial protein sources (Regulation (EC) No 767/2009) will facilitate further development and use of such products as feed ingredients

    Slide Number 1Salmonid production, Norwegian and global Slide Number 3Fishmeal-free diets for salmonidsSlide Number 5Slide Number 6Growth (%/Day) and feed efficiency (Gain/Feed) of Atlantic salmon fed increasing levels of bacterial mealProduction of yeast from forest industryLignocellulosic biomassGrowth (%/day) and feed utilization (feed:gain) of salmon fed 30% yeastSlide Number 10Reseach on Microalgae in APCSlide Number 12Apparent crude protein