Industrial application of microalgae in the circular ... Industrial application of microalgae in the

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  • Industrial application of microalgae in the circular bioeconomy Dorinde Kleinegris

    [Applied Biotechnology / Microalgae]

  • Why microalgae?

    • High areal productivity

    • CO2 mitigation

    • No arable land

    • Low water use

    • Seawater and wastewater

    • Can use residual streams for nutrients

    • High diversity, many products

    [Applied Biotechnology / Microalgae]

    CO2

    Nutrients (N, P)

    + O2

  • [Applied Biotechnology / Microalgae]

    Products with algae inside

    Lipids 20 %

    Proteins 50 %

    Carbohydrates 20 %

    Pigments 3 %

    Ashes 7 %

    Nannochloropsis

    https://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CAcQjRxqFQoTCO2l5f7Hg8gCFcqSLAodgvMC3w&url=https://nuts.com/chocolatessweets/m-m/&psig=AFQjCNEnuC73uLxoupkgvUMWAfCZNzILJQ&ust=1442768052038042 http://www.google.nl/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CAcQjRxqFQoTCN6p3cmIhMgCFcbdLAodHA0EzQ&url=http://www.newtrition.basf.com/web/global/newtrition/en_GB/product_portfolio/index&psig=AFQjCNH3jnyJlxhILihCZilFc7uC6AnHEw&ust=1442785366141304

  • There is a large gap

    [Applied Biotechnology / Microalgae]

    CommoditiesMicroalgae

  • Commercial production: challenges

    [Applied Biotechnology / Microalgae]

    Product costs

    Scale

    Production chain analysis

    Market development

  • Biomass Production costs: Model

    Netherlands

    Saudi Arabia

    Canary Islands

    Turkish Riviera

    South Spain

    Curacao

    Culture temperature

    Daily Dilution

    Mixing day/night)

    Operation days per year

    ...

    Light Intensity

    Electricity costs

    Taxes

    Labor € / Kg biomass

    CAPEX & OPEX

    NER

    Sensitivity Analysis

    Areas to focus

    Output

    Location

    Cultivation

    System

    Empirical data

    Specific

    parameters

    Input

  • Product costs - biomass production

    [Applied Biotechnology / Microalgae]

    Projections 100ha

  • Cost breakdown: cultivation costs

    [Applied Biotechnology / Microalgae]

  • Sensitivity analysis

    [Applied Biotechnology / Microalgae]

  • Biomass composition: benchmark on Nannochloropsis

    N-replete N-limited

    Lipids 20% 50%

    S F

    A *

    M U

    F A

    *

    P U

    F A

    *

    S F

    A *

    M U

    F A

    *

    P U

    F A

    *

    Glyco-, Phospho-lipids 12% 35% 30% 35%

    10% 45% 40% 15%

    Triacylglycerides 2% 37.5%

    Waxes 3% 1.25% Sterols 3% 1.25%

    Proteins 50% 30% Water soluble 20% 12%

    Non-water soluble 30% 18%

    Carbohydrates 20% 15%

    Monosaccharides 5% 3% Polysaccharides 15% 12%

    Pigments 3% 1%

    Ashes 7% 4%

  • Microalgae

    Lipids

    Proteins

    Waxes Sterols

    Cosmetic Health care

    Biopolymer

    Surfactants

    Biolubricant

    Paint, Coating

    TAG Glyco-lipids

    Phospho-lipids

    Soluble proteins

    Un-soluble proteins

    Pharma

    Bulk chemicals

    Food additives

    Food/Feed

    Biodiesel Biokerosene Bioethanol Biobutanol Biomethane

    Carbohydrates

    Mono- Oligo- saccharides

    Starch Cellulose

    M a rk

    e t d

    e m

    a n

    d

    S e llin

    g p

    ric e

    Ash/minerals

    Pigments Chlorophyll Carotenoid Phycobilins

    Microalgal biorefinery

  • Microalgal biorefinery design and techno-economical analysis

    Biomass productivity

    Biomass composition

    Utilities cost

    (energy, labour)

    Mass and energy balances

    CAPEX

    OPEX

  • Microalgal biomass

    Disrupted Biomass

    Hexane

    Isopropanol

    Polar lipids

    TAG

    Pigments

    Waxes

    50 C

    1 bar

    Hexane

    Isopropanol

    Water

    Water

    Ash

    non water soluble proteins

    proteins

    carbohydrates

    0.4 bar

    I.1) BEADM ILLING

    III.1) LIPID EXTRACTOR III.2) DISTILLATION COLUM N

    FOR SOLVENT RECOVERY III.3) DECANTER FOR

    WAXES REM OVAL

    2 C

    III.4b) BLEACHING FOR PIGM ENT REM OVAL

    IV.1) DIAFILTRATION FOR

    PROTEINS WASHING

    IV.2) SPARY DRIER

    FOR PROTEINS/CARBOHYDRATES

    Waxes

    Steam

    Pigment

    Polar lipids

    TAG

    III.0) SPRAY DRIER

    Proteins

    Carbohydrates

    Ash

    Microalgal biorefinery design and techno-economical analysis

    Food/feed

  • Microalgal biorefinery design and techno-economical analysis

    Biofuel

    P-14 / R-101

    Stoich. Reaction

    Microalgal biomass

    Disrupted Biomass

    Hexane

    Isopropanol

    Polar lipids

    TAG

    Pigments

    Waxes

    50 C

    1 bar

    Hexane

    Isopropanol

    FAME

    Glycerol

    Pigments

    Sterols

    NaOH

    Methanol

    Methanol

    NaOH

    Water

    Water

    Ash

    non water soluble proteins

    Proteins

    Carbohydrates

    Ash

    2 bar

    60 C

    30 min

    0.4 bar 0.4 bar

    Water FAME

    Sterols

    Pigments

    Glycerol

    H3PO4 Na3PO4

    I.1) BEADM ILLING

    III.1) LIPID EXTRACTOR III.2) DISTILLATION COLUM N

    FOR SOLVENT RECOVERY III.3) DECANTER FOR

    WAXES REM OVAL

    2 C

    III.4) BATCH REACTOR

    FOR TRANSESTERIFICATION

    III.5) EVAPORATION/CONDENSATION

    FOR M ETHANOL RECOVERY

    III.6) EXTRACTOR FOR

    GLYCEROL WASHING

    IV.1) DIAFILTRATION FOR

    PROTEINS WASHING

    IV.2) SPRAY DRIER

    FOR PROTEINS/CARBOHYDRATES

    Waxes

    III.0) SPRAY DRIER

    Proteins

    Carbohydrates

  • Microalgal biorefinery design and techno-economical analysis

    P-14 / R-101

    Stoich. Reaction

    Microalgal biomass

    Disrupted Biomass

    PEG

    PEG

    water soluble Proteins

    Polysaccharides

    Monosaccharides

    Phosphate

    PEG

    Hexane

    Isopropanol

    Polar lipids

    TAG

    Pigments

    Waxes

    50 C

    1 bar

    Hexane

    Isopropanol

    FAME

    Glycerol

    Pigments

    Sterols

    NaOH

    Methanol

    Methanol

    NaOH

    Water

    Water

    Ash

    non water soluble proteins

    non water soluble proteins

    non water soluble proteins

    Ash

    2 bar

    60 C

    30 min

    0.4 bar

    0.4 bar

    water soluble Proteins

    Polysaccharides

    Monosaccharides

    Phosphate

    PBS buffer

    Monosaccharides

    water soluble Proteins

    Water FAME

    Sterols

    Pigments

    Glycerol

    H3PO4 Na3PO4

    1 kDa

    Phosphate

    II.1) DIRECT PROTEIN

    EXTRACTOR

    I.1) BEADM ILLING

    II.2) BACKWARD PROTEIN

    EXTRACTOR II.7) DIAFILTRATION UNIT FOR

    PROTEINS/POLYSACCHARIDES

    FRACTIONATION II.3) ULTRAFILTRATION UNIT FOR

    PROTEIN/POLYSACCHARIDES

    CONCENTRATION

    II.9) SPRAY DRIER FOR POLYSACCHARIDES

    Polysaccharides

    II.4) ULTRAFILTRATION UNIT

    FOR PHOSPHATE RECOVERY

    II.6) SPRAY DRIER

    FOR PHOSPHATE CONCENTRATION

    III.1) LIPID EXTRACTOR III.2) DISTILLATION COLUM N

    FOR SOLVENT RECOVERY III.3) DECANTER FOR

    WAXES REM OVAL

    2 C

    III.4) BATCH REACTOR

    FOR TRANSESTERIFICATION

    III.5) EVAPORATION/CONDENSATION

    FOR M ETHANOL RECOVERY

    III.6) EXTRACTOR FOR

    GLYCEROL WASHING

    IV.1) DIAFILTRATION FOR

    PROTEINS WASHING

    IV.2) SPRAY DRIER

    FOR PROTEINS

    1 kDa 300 kDa

    Waxes

    10 kDa

    Water

    II.10) SPRAY DRIER FOR WATER SOLUBLE PROTEIN

    II.8) DIAFILTRATION UNIT FOR

    PROTEINS/M ONOSACCHARIDES

    FRACTIONATION

    Complete biorefinery

  • Biorefinery costs

  • Cost breakdown

    Biorefinery costs

  • Market value of biomass

  • Market value of biomass

    € 3.4

    +

    € 0.9

    € 4.3

    € 3.4

    +

    € 1.1

    € 5.5

    € 3.4

    +

    € 0.9

    € 4.3

    € 3.4

    +

    € 2.9

    €6.3

    € 3.4

    +

    € 2.9

    € 6.3

    € 3.4

    +

    € 3.0

    € 6.4

    Cultivation costs

    South of Spain

    Biorefinery costs

    Total costs

  • Market value of biomass

    € 3.4

    +

    € 0.9

    € 4.3

    € 0.5

    +

    € 1.1

    € 1.6

    € 0.5

    +

    € 0.9

    € 1.4

    € 3.4

    +

    € 2.9

    €6.3

    € 3.4

    +

    € 2.9

    € 6.3

    € 3.4

    +

    € 3.0

    € 6.4

    Cultivation costs