Matthew W. Becker, Ph.D. - 4 GW Remediation...Norden Systems Inc. Norwalk, CT ... these questions and the ultimate remediation goal ... Limited by ability to get solution

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Text of Matthew W. Becker, Ph.D. - 4 GW Remediation...Norden Systems Inc. Norwalk, CT ... these questions...

  • MatthewW.Becker,Ph.D.,

    ProfessorandConrey ChairinHydrogeology,DepartmentofGeologicalSciences,CaliforniaStateUniversityLongBeach

    April 4, 2011

  • OutlineRemediationG lGoalsRemediationRemediationMethods

  • ObjectivesforTodayTalkaboutreasonablegoalsforremediationReviewsometechnologiesavailableforReviewsometechnologiesavailableforcleaninggroundwater

    ConsiderthechallengestoremediationConsiderthechallengestoremediationpresentedbybedrocksystems

  • R di iRemediationRemediationmeansRemediationmeansreturninggroundwatertoanacceptablycleantoanacceptablycleanconditionBut hatisacceptabl Butwhatisacceptablyclean?Canweaccomplishthisgoal?

  • AlternativeRemediationGoals CompleteRestoration:returntopriorcondition Nondegradation:cleantodetectablelimits HealthBasedStandards:e.g.MCLs RiskBasedStandards:reducerisktoreceptors TechnologyLimits:cleanasmuchaspossible PartialUse:limitaccess Containment:preventoffsitemigration

    NationalResearchCouncil,1994,AlternativesforGroundWaterCleanup

  • RiskBasedLimits Whoisatrisk?

    Whatisthemostsensitivereceptor? Whenwilltheybeatrisk?y

    Istheriskimmediateandcritical? Cantheriskbereducedatthe

    receptor?receptor? Forexample,switchfromwellsto

    citywater? AretheremultiplepathwaysforAretheremultiplepathwaysfor

    exposure Forexample,airdeposition+

    drinkingwaterg

  • SourceReduction AcommongoalistoreducethesourcemassorthefluxfromthesourceId i l illdi i if i i d Ideaisplumewilldissipateifsourceiscontained.

    EnvironmentalSecurityTechnologyCertificationProgram,2005,FAQaboutChlorinatedSolventsinSoilandGroundwater

  • PotentialforSuccess NationalResearchCouncilPanelcubeindicatespotentialforindicatespotentialfortreatingsolventsourcezones

    Remediationmethodsmustbetailoredfor Hydrogeology CleanupGoal

    NationalResearchCouncil,2005,ContaminantsintheSubsurface,SourceZoneAssessmentandRemediation

  • Focus here on TCE in BedrockFocushereonTCEinBedrock(anationwideproblem)A.I.W.Frank/MidCountyMustang Exton,PAActiveChemicalManufacturingFacility Notprovided,TNActiveDryCleaningFacility centralarea,INActiveManufacturingSite(Article#32) NortheasternAircraftmanufacturingsite NewburyPark,CAAltusAirForceBaseOU1 Altus,OKAltusAirForceBaseSS17 Altus,OK

    ITTNightVision Roanoke,VALehighValleyRailroad LeRoy,NYLetterkenny ArmyDepot:Building37 Chambersburg,PALinemaster SwitchCorporation Woodstock,CTMalloryCapacitorCompany Waynesboro,TNMalvernTCE EastWhitelandTownship,PAManufacturingFacility OconeeCounty,SC

    AndersenAirForceBaseMARBOAnnex Yigo,GUBatteryTech(DuracellLexington) Lexington,NCBostonIndustrialFacility Boston,MACaldwellTrucking FairfieldTownship,NJChlorinatedethene contaminatedsite Unknown,CTClariant Corporation FairLawn,NJClosedMunicipalLandfill Unknown,VACrossley Farm HerefordTownship,PADNAPLSite Boston,MADonaldson'sDrycleaners Neenah,WI

    g y y,Nease ChemicalSite Salem,OHNewJerseyFormerManufacturingFacility Unknown,NJNewarkBasin Unknown,PANewtonCountyWells Joplin,MONorden SystemsInc. Norwalk,CTOrthoClinicalDiagnostics Raritan,NJPortsmouthDOEFacility Portsmouth,OHR&DFacility Chatham,NJRecticon/AlliedSteelCorp. EastCoventryTownship,PAReSolve Inc NorthDartmouth MAy

    DryCleanerSite CoastalArea,MADublinTCESite DublinBorough,PAEdwardsAFB Site61 EdwardsAFB,CAEdwardsAirForceBase,OperableUnit1,Site18 EdwardsAirForceBase,CAElectronicComponentManufacturer NortheasternArea,MAElectronicsManufacturingFacility NorthcentralArea,NJFischer&PorterCompany Warminster,PAFmr NavalSurfaceWarfareCenter,WhiteOakOU19 SilverSpring,MDFormerchlorinatedhydrocarbonchemicaltransferf Buffalo,NYFormerCWMLSite(SmithvillePCBSite) Smithville ON Canada

    ReSolve,Inc. NorthDartmouth,MARockyMountainArsenal:NorthofBasinF Unknown,CORodaleManufacturingCompany Emmaus,PASchofieldBarracks Schofield,HISite49OperableUnit1EdwardsAirForceBase LosAngelesCounty,CASolventRecyclingFacility HenryCounty,KYStaminaMills NorthSmithfield,RIStanleyKessler KingofPrussia,PAStringfellow MiraLoma,CATarheel ArmyMissilePlant(TAMP) Burlington,NCT A t ti H t ll GAFormerCWMLSite(SmithvillePCBSite) Smithville,ON,Canada

    FormerDepartmentofDefense(DoD)Facility UnknownFormerGroce Laboratory GreenvilleCounty,SCFormerLandfill Unknown,VAFormerManufacturingFacility KansasCity,MOFormerManufacturingFacility Lancaster,PAFormerMECBuilding Hudson,NHFormerMetalFabricationFacility UnknownFormerNavalAirWarfareCenter WestTrenton,NJFormerPR58NikeMissileBatterySite Davisville,RIF PVCM f t i F ilit N tP id d NJ

    TennecoAutomative Hartwell,GATestAreaNorth INEEL IdahoFalls,IDTinkerAFB OklahomaCity,OKTinkham Garage Londonberry,NHTrichloroethenecontaminatedsiteinNewJersey Notprovided,NJTrichloroethylenecontaminatedsiteinTennessee Unknown,TNUnionChemicalCompanySuperfundSite(Pilotscale Hope,MEUnknownmanufacturingfacility Western,NCUnknownTCEcontaminatedsite UnknownUnknownTCEcontaminatedsite SouthernUnitedStates

    FormerPVCManufacturingFacility NotProvided,NJFormerTennecoPolymers,Inc. Flemington,NJHeleva Landfill NorthWhitehallTownship,PAHuntersPointShipyard:RemedialUnitC4 SanFrancisco,CAIndustrialFacilitylocatedclosetotheSt.Lawre Notprovided,ON,Canada

    ValmontTCE WestHazleton,PAWatervliet Arsenal:Building40 Watervliet,NYWestKingstonTownDump/UriDisposalArea SouthKingstown,RI

    Examples from EPA database CLU-IN.org (not complete)

  • Evolving thinking about solventsEvolvingthinkingaboutsolvents

    EnvironmentalSecurityTechnologyCertificationProgram,2005,FAQaboutChlorinatedSolventsinSoilandGroundwater

  • FirstStep:RemedialInvestigation Beforeyoucanremediate,youneedtoknow

    C d f Compoundsofconcern SourcezonemassandextentT df f Transportandfateofcontaminants

    Chemistryofthegroundwater Chemistryofthegroundwater Hydraulicsofthesubsurface

  • From Allen Shapiro, USGS

  • NowWhat? Giventhisunderstandingoftheproblem Canwecleanitup? Isitpossibletomakeitworse?Whatwillhappenifweleaveitthere?ppHowmuchtimedowehave?

    Remediationalternativesmustbeselectedwiththesequestionsandtheultimateremediationgoalinmind

  • RemediationAlternativesN tLik l t b Eff ti P t ti ll Eff ti f NotLikelytobeEffectiveforBedrock

    PotentiallyEffectiveforBedrock

    Excavation VaporExtraction/Sparging Excavation PermeableReactiveBarriers

    VaporExtraction/Sparging PumpandTreat PhysicalBarriers/Collectors Ch i lO id i ChemicalOxidation ThermalTreatments Bioaugmentation /StimulationgMonitoredNatural

    Attenuation PerpetualContainmentPerpetualContainment

  • RemediationApproachesExSituTreatment(removeandtreat)

    VaporExtraction/SpargingPumpandTreatPump and TreatPhysicalBarriers/Collectors

    InSituTreatment(treatinplace)h l dChemicalOxidation

    ThermalDestruction/StimulationBioaugmentation /StimulationgMonitoredNaturalAttenuation

    NoTreatment:PerpetualContainmentPerpetualContainment

  • VaporExtraction/AirSparging

  • VaporExtraction/AirSpargingVaporExtraction AirSparging Vacuumvolatileorganic

    b (VOC)f d Airstrippingperformedin

    lcarbon(VOC)fromvadosezone(abovewatertable)

    Vaporisusuallytreatedusing

    place Bubbleairthroughwaterto

    mobilizeVOCgactivatedcarbonstrippingtowers

    Oftencombinedwith

    VOC/Airmustberemovedthroughvaporextraction

    OftencombinedwithOftencombinedwithpneumaticfracturing

    Oftencombinedwithhydraulicfracturing

  • PumpandTreat OldestgroundwaterremediationtechnologySi l f Simplypumpwaterfromwellsandtreatitthenreinject ordisposeoffsitereinject ordisposeoffsite

    Bymid1990sitwasclearitdidntworkwellinbedrock

    Anearlyreductionwassoonfollowedbyareboundin

    i icontaminantconcentration

  • PumpandTreatPerformanceDifficulty ofCleanup

    Number ofSites

    NumberContained

    NumberCleaned

    NumberNotCleaned

    1 2 1 1 11 2 1 1 1

    2 13 8 4 9

    3 19 12 4 15

    4 36 18 0 36

    NationalResearchCouncil,1994,AlternativesforGroundWaterCleanup

  • Pump&TreatofImmisciblePhase TryingtoflushNAPLfromfractureleavesresidualganglia

    Before Flushing

    residual ganglia Gangliacannotbeforcedfromfracturebutmustfromfracturebutmustbedissolved

    DissolutionisslowAfter Flushing

    becausesurfaceareaisslow

    Bergslien, E., Fountain, J., 2006. The effect of changes in surface wettability on two-phase saturated flow in horizontal replicas of single natural fractures. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 88(3-4): 153-180.

  • Pump&TreatofDissolvePhase

    Seehttp://web.mit.edu/harveylab/Reactive_Transport.html

  • PhysicalBarriers/Collectors Typicallyusedtoincreaseefficiencyofanothertreatmenttechnology

    Barriers: Fracturescanbegroutedtoreducepermeability(typicallydonefortunnelseepage)

    Collectors: Fracturescanbehydrofractured orblastedtoincreaseflow

  • HydraulicFracturing:Before

  • HydraulicFracturing:After

  • Bl t T hi t E hBlastTrenchingtoEnhancePump and TreatPumpandTreat

    Ground-Water Remediation Technologies Analysis Center, Technology Status Report Number TS-00-01

  • PneumaticFracturingtoEnhance Vapor ExtractionEnhanceVaporExtraction

    Ground-Water Remediation Technologies Analysis Center, Technology Status Report Number TS-00-01

  • ChemicalOxidation Ozone:gascanoxidizecontaminantsdirectlyorthroughtheformationofhydroxylradicals(OH)

    Peroxide:Liquidhydrogenperoxide(H2O2)yieldsfreehydroxylradicals(OH)

    FentonsReagent:H2O2withferrousiron(Fe+2) Permangate:liquidorsolidKMnO4,manganese(M ) i i i i(Mn)canparticipateinnumerousreactions

  • Example:AlleganyBallisticsLab TCEcontaminationinshalebedrock

    1 0 f

    CH2MHill

    150 ft

  • ThermalTreatment Heatingrock/watercausesvolatilizationoforganiccontaminant