Materi dari Teguh Kurniawan - Universitas administrasi, dan (2) menata kembali sistem administrasi negara baik dalam hal struktur, proses, sumber daya manusia (PNS) ...

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  • Materi dariTeguh Kurniawan

  • REFORMASI RE (kembali)

    FORM (bentuk)

    Upaya2/ tindakan2 yang dilakukan secara sengaja untuk melakukan perubahan bentuk dengan tujuan perbaikan dan penyesuaian diri (adaptasi) dengan lingkungan baru dan tuntutan masyarakat.

  • Apakah Reformasi Administrasi Administrative reform has traditionally been understood as

    a formal, planned, and deliberate change in various dimensions (e.g., structure, process, behavior, norms) of the administrative system to improve its efficiency, quality, coordination, motivation, responsiveness, accountability, and so on (Caiden, 1969 and World Bank, 1993 in Haque, 2005)

    More recently, instead of administrative reform, many scholars and experts use the term governance reform, which has much broader connotation, encompassing changes in the civil service, policy process, civil society, and statemarket relations (MDGD, UN 2001 in Haque, 2005)

  • Ruang Lingkup administrative reform covers all major levels of

    government (federal, state, local) and public sectors (agriculture, industry, commerce, finance, transport, education, health) Pereira, 1997 dan Konig, 1982 dalam Haque, 2005

    Internally, it includes various structural, functional, procedural, normative, and attitudinal changes in the administrative system (Haque, 2005)

  • Tipe Reformasi 1/4 Budgetary and Financial Reform

    Structural reforms

    Structural reorganization at the center

    Decentralization and deconcentration

    Privatization and off-loading

    Rightsizing

    Technical Reforms

    Simplification and flexibility

    Pay Flexibility and Pay for Performance

    Relational reforms

    Ingraham, 1996

  • Tipe Reformasi 2/4 Privatization and Coproduction

    Debureaucratization

    Reorganization

    More Effective Public Management

    Value for Money

    Caiden, 2001

  • Tipe Reformasi 3/4 Institutional reform to restructure the public sector based on

    promarket assumptions the streamlining or downsizing of the public sector in line with the current global trend

    Functional reform defines the function of public administration as that of a catalyst or facilitator rather than main actor or leaderthe purpose is to restructure the role or function of the administrative system in such a manner that it can enable (rather than control) the role played by the business sector emphasis on the satisfaction of public sector customers, which represents a shift from the earlier focus on the entitlement of citizens to basic services provided by the state

    Haque, 2005

  • Tipe Reformasi 4/4 Policy reform more promarket policies such as

    privatization, deregulation, outsourcing, and liberalization the deregulation and liberalization of trade, investment, and foreign ownership

    Structural reform reforming the administrative systems based on greater managerial and financial autonomy and flexibility

    Normative-attitudinal reform to inculcate administrative norms and attitudes based on neutrality, equity, representation, and accountability

    Haque, 2005

  • Debirokratisasi 1/4 Improving public policy making and government decisions

    Streamlining the machinery of government

    Deconcentrating power and authority

    Increasing public-sector productivity

    Devising measures of performance and insisting on better performance

    Tackling bureaupathologies, such as fraud, waste, and corruption

    Adopting up-to-date information and administrative technology

    Caiden, 2001

  • Debirokratisasi 2/4 Simplifying and rationalizing administrative

    processes

    Reducing unnecessary red tape, featherbedding, and paperwork

    Devising organizational innovations

    Diversifying public service delivery systems

    Providing and ensuring greater responsibility

    Allocating scarce resources more rationally

    Caiden, 2001

  • Debirokratisasi 3/4 Providing incentives for cost consciousness and public savings

    Reducing public debts

    Improving forecasting and simulation

    Deregulating marketable services

    Consolidating fragmented units

    Emphasizing effective consultation and coordination

    Enforcing financial management controls

    Attracting and retaining better qualified public employees

    Transferring and retraining surplus employees

    Educating public managers to manage

    Caiden, 2001

  • Debirokratisasi 4/4 Retuning public employee skills

    Improving public-sector working conditions

    Demanding higher professional standards and stricter discipline

    Speeding up operations

    Stressing public ethics and norms

    Restoring public confidence in public institutions

    Investigating and ameliorating public complaints

    Allowing greater direct public participation in public administration

    Educating public officials and public on how to behave with one another

    Caiden, 2001

  • Dampak Reformasi 1/3 In terms of positive outcomes: the current

    promarket administrative reform represents a serious challenge to the traditional, centralized, monopolistic, and elitist state bureaucracy This reform is likely to make the public sector more competitive, cost conscious, and performance-oriented and contribute to a greater degree of transparency, decentralization, service quality, and responsiveness to its clients or customers

    Haque, 2005

  • Dampak Reformasi 2/3 In terms of negative outcomes: reform based on neoliberal

    assumptions and marketdriven principles and policies has been largely imposed on developing nations, and it represents a form of ideological hegemony.

    the privatization and restructuring may have diminished state sovereignty and increased foreign ownership.

    deregulation, divestment, welfare cut, and customer focus may not equally benefit all social sections or income groups these reform measures are likely to benefit the business and political elites, overlook the concerns of ordinary citizens, and expand the gap between public officials and common citizens Haque, 2005

  • Dampak Reformasi 3/3 the increasing similarities between public

    administration and business management may pose a challenge to the public nature of public service, perpetuate its identity crisis, and adversely affect the pride and morale of public employees

    the expansion of operational and financial autonomy of public managers and their growing interaction and partnership with business executives may generate new avenues for administrative corruption and thus compromise public service integrity

    Haque, 2005

  • Korea Selatan Melakukan berbagai upaya dalam mereposisi dan merevitalisasi

    birokrasi sejak tahun 1980an

    Upaya yang dilakukan: Civil Servant Ethics Act, 1981

    Civil Servant Property Registration

    Civil Servant Gifts Control

    Civil Servant Consciousness Reform movement

    Social Purification movement

    Deregulation and simplification of procedure

    Restructuring the Central Government

    Strengthening the Commission of Administrative Reform

    Hasilnya administrasi publik yang efisien, profesional, bersih dan baik

    Hwang, 2004 in Prasojo, Kurniawan and Holidin, 2007

  • Strategi Utama Reformasi yang dilakukan(1) merevitalisasi kedudukan, peran dan fungsi

    kelembagaan yang menjadi motor penggerak reformasi administrasi, dan

    (2) menata kembali sistem administrasi negara baik dalam hal struktur, proses, sumber daya manusia (PNS) serta relasi antara negara dan masyarakat

    Prasojo, Kurniawan and Holidin, 2007

  • Upaya-Upaya reformasi Birokrasi 1/2

    Pada level kebijakan, harus diciptakan berbagai kebijakan yang mendorong Birokrasi yang berorientasi pada pemenuhan hak-hak sipil warga (kepastian hukum, batas waktu, prosedur, partisipasi, pengaduan, gugatan)

    Pada level organisational, dilakukan melalui perbaikan proses rekrutmen berbasis kompetensi, pendidikan dan latihan yang sensitif terhadap kepentingan masyarakat, penciptaan Standar Kinerja Individu, Standar Kinerja Tim dan Standar Kinerja Instansi Pemerintah

    Prasojo, 2008

  • Upaya-Upaya reformasi Birokrasi 2/2 Pada level operasional, dilakukan perbaikan melalui

    peningkatan service quality meliputi dimensi tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance dan emphaty.

    Instansi Pemerintah secara periodik melakukan pengukuran kepuasan pelanggan dan melakukan perbaikan

    Prasojo, 2008

  • Issu dan Agenda yang berkembang (1) Modernisasi Manajemen Kepegawaian, (2) Restrukturisasi, downsizing dan rightsizing,

    perubahan manajemen dan organisasi (3) Rekayasa Proses Administrasi Pemerintahan; (4) Anggaran berbasis kinerja dan proses perencanaan

    yang partisipatif, (5) serta hubungan-hubungan baru antara pemerintah

    dan masyarakat dalam pembangunan dan pemerintahan

    Prasojo, 2006

  • Sepuluh Langkah Antisipasi Birokrasi Pemangkasan Struktur Birokrasi (streaming and downsizing)

    Penyederhanaan proses pelayanan dan pemerintahan (simplifying process)

    Perbaikan kebijakan publik (improving public policy)

    Menerapkan manajemen inovasi (innovative public management)

    Konsolidasi dan koordinasi unit (consolidating fragmented unit)

    Memperkuat kontrol manajemen keuangan (financial management control)

    Menyeleksi program dan aktivitas pemerintahan (selecting government activities)

    Meningkatkan public enterpreneur dalam birokrasi

    Membangun sistem merit dalam birokrasi (bureaucratic merit system)

    Penguatan pengawasan norma dan etika (public ethics and norms)Prasojo, 2009

  • Tujuh Pilihan Kebijakan 1/2 (1) membangun kesepakatan nasional untuk menegakkan merit sistem

    dalam rekrutmen dan seleksi, termasuk menegakkan netralitas pegawai dan penataan kelembagaan;

    (2) membangun manajemen kepegawaian yang terintegrasi secara nasional, yakni dengan memberikan porsi peran dan kewenangan yang lebih besar kepada pemerintah untuk menata dan mengelola kepegawaian dalam hal rekrutmen, penempatan, tour of duty dan keputusan mengangkat pejabat struktural tertinggi di daerah, sementara daerah hanya berwenang untuk memanfaatkan dan mengembangkan karir pegawai di lingkup pemerintahannya masing-masing;

    (3) menghentikan kebijakan yang dapat menimbulkan dampak pembunuhan karakter bagi para pegawai secara individual ataupun kelompok dengan memberikan kepastian hukum dan jaminan hak pegawai secara professional melalui sistem reward dan punishmenttermasuk kesempatan berkarir;

    Depdagri, 2009

  • Tujuh Pilihan Kebijakan2/2 (4) meningkatkan kesejahteraan pegawai dan memberikan kehidupan

    yang layak dengan memperbaiki sistem penggajian dan pemberian imbalan lain secara memadai serta adil dalam rangka meningkatkan kinerja dan loyalitas pegawai serta dalam menghindarkan praktek-praktek penyimpangan keuangan sehingga pegawai dapat memfokuskan perhatiannya pada pelayanan masyarakat dan tugas-tugas lain yang menjadi tanggungjawabnya;

    (5) menata manajemen pemerintahan yang lebih profesional, efisien dan berdayaguna;

    (6) menata struktur kelembagaan untuk menghindari tumpang tindih diantara berbagai instansi atau unit kerja; serta

    (7) mendorong pendirian Komisi Kepegawaian Negara

    Depdagri, 2009

  • Hal yang Harus diperhatikan Jangan sampai terjadi kerancuan ideologis antara

    kondisi sistem administrasi publik kita dengan bangunan teoritis yang digunakan dan menjadi dasar dalam reformasi birokrasi

    Reformasi birokrasi merupakan bagian tak terpisahkan dari reformasi lainnya: hukum, politik, ekonomi dan sosial

    Hadna, 2009

  • Kunci Reformasi Birokrasi

    Strong Political Leadership

    De-kooptasi/Netralisasi Birokrasi oleh Politik

    RUU Administrasi Pemerintahan

    Rekrutmen yang independen dan profesional

    Sistem Penggajian yang layak

    Sistem Pengukuran Kinerja

    Promosi berbasi Kinerja

    Pengawasan yang independenPrasojo, 2008

  • Langkah Kedepan Tentukan tujuan dari reformasi birokrasi

    Petakan kondisi yang ada dari birokrasi yang ada dari berbagai aspek

    Sesuaikan tujuan dan kondisi tersebut dengan metode yang tersedia

    Penguatan komitmen dari berbagai pemangku kepentingan untuk melakukan reformasi

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