Master's Thesis

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MASTERS PROGRAMME IN URBAN MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

(October 2004 September 2005)

Institutional Capacity to Supply Water and Sanitation Services in Dar es Salaam-Tanzania: A Challenge to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals in Reducing Poverty

Gombo Samandito Tanzania

Supervisor: Jan Fransen

UMD 1 Rotterdam, 12 September 2005

DEDICATION To my uncle (Baba mkubwa), the late Samandito Ntunganija Gombo

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DECLARATION I Gombo Samandito Gombo declare that this thesis is a result of my own efforts and findings, and that to the best of my knowledge it has not been presented as a dissertation for any professional award in any institution of higher learning and or any paper or book anywhere in the world. So any shortcomings or criticism against this dissertation remain my own responsibility. My supervisor is not in anyway answerable in this dissertation.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My first thanks goes to Jan Fransen my supervisor who has been tirelessly giving me moral help, directives, comments and critical reading of the text. Without his assistance the work would have not been conducted well to look as it is now. I give sincere thanks also to the members of IHS staff for their criticism and nice comments they made during presentation. All these offered a good collective shaping of my dissertation. With no doubt, I am extending my thanks to staffs in different institutions I happened to interview in the city of Dar es Salaam. Included in this list are J.L Chidosa (DAWASCO), Abel Bimbiga and Daudi Makamba (Plan International Dar es Salaam), Mrs. Malima (Water Aid Tanzania), Pitio (WATSANET secretary), Eng. Nyakoro (DAWASCO), Alex Poteka of Moshi municipality and Mboya (Health Officer-Ilala). Since I can not thank all people who contributed to my work, I generally thank all those who have contributed in one way or another to the completion of my dissertation

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ABSTRACT Dar es Salaam, the single largest city in Tanzania with the population more than 2.5 million, is growing very fast compared to other cities in the country. One feature of the city is shortage of water and sanitation services which is revealed by young men pushing wheelbarrows with water jerry cans seen on their way through congested traffic, women carrying buckets of water on their heads as they shuttle across the city to and from water points and water tankers sell it to the needy. The city has never witnessed clean water leading the ministry of health to advice people to boil their water before use. Sanitation is even worse since only 10% of the population is served by a sewer, the rest use either on or offsite pit latrines. Low capacity of institutions is an important reason for water shortage and poor sanitation. The capacity of these institutional is reduced by a number of factors, including shortage of funds, poor performance, lack of coordination, poor management practices, poor governance, rapid population growth and lack of organizing capacity. This study assesses the extent of institutional capacity in the city. Attention is paid to know what is really lacking in the actors concerned. The institutional capacity is assessed based on the theory developed by Jerry van Sant that focuses on three aspects. These aspects are institutional resources, institutional performance and institutional sustainability. Case studies are drawn from a broad range of institutions. Included are Ministry of Water, public agencies like Dar es Salaam Water and Sewerage Authority and Dar es Salaam Water and Sewerage Corporation, private companies, Community Based Organisations, Non-Governmental Organisations, municipalities, academic institutions, religious organizations and informal operators. These institutions only supply water at the rate of less than 50% of the total need. According to Household Water Source and Use Survey in July 2005, Dar es Salaam municipalities (Temeke, Ilala and Kinondoni), the main actors in this case, Dar es Salaam Water and Sewerage Authority and Dar es Salaam Water and Sewerage Corporation supply water below 10% of the total need, and they are able to give out sewerage services below 10%. According to the theory used to assess the capacity of institutions, the weaknesses of these institutions in Dar es Salaam is mainly in performance, followed by resources and lastly sustainability, and it is more evident in areas of governance, networking and coordination, program results where they normally dont reach targets, finance, leadership and organisational learning. These institutions have strengths that can be used to improve the situation. These are availability of qualified staff especially in public agencies, readily available donors like the World Bank and IDA, political support and good policy environment. Institutions are far away from meeting Millennium Development Goals in 2015 unless there is an investment in institutional capacity building in the weak areas of actors. Institutions are able to meet targets if facilitated; the economy of the country performs well, and in the Tanzanian context of the National Development Vision of 2025, instead of the 2015 as stated in Millennium Development Goals.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION ....................................................................................................................... i DECLARATION .................................................................................................................. ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ..................................................................................................... iii ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................................ iv ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................................. vii LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................. viii LIST OF IMAGES ............................................................................................................... ix LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................. ix LIST OF CHARTS ............................................................................................................... ix LIST OF ANNEXES ............................................................................................................ ix CHAPTER ONE ................................................................................................................... 1 INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH METHODS ............................................................. 1 1.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 1 1.2. Background/Rationale ............................................................................................. 2 1.3. Definition/Statement of the problem ......................................................................... 2 1.4. Objectives .............................................................................................................. 3 1.5. Research Question .................................................................................................. 3 1.6. Scope of the study ................................................................................................... 4 1.7. Description of the research area ............................................................................... 4 1.8. Research Methodology ............................................................................................ 4 1.8.1. Observation ......................................................................................................... 4 1.8.2. Individual interview.............................................................................................. 4 1.8.3. Expert panels ....................................................................................................... 4 1.8.4. Reading of official reports, documents and literature review.................................... 5 1.9. Thesis Structure ...................................................................................................... 5 CHAPTER TWO................................................................................................................... 6 THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK .................................................... 6 2.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 6 2.2. Water supply and sanitation and poverty reduction .................................................... 7 2.3. Partnership ............................................................................................................. 8 2.3.1. Directed Public Management ................................................................................ 8 2.3.2. Corporate utilities ................................................................................................. 9 2.3.3. Delegated private management: The French Model................................................. 9 2.3.4. Direct private management: The British Model ...................................................... 9 2.3.5. Public Water PLCs (Public Limited Company)....................................................... 9 2.4. Capacity of an institution; determinants and Indicators ............................................ 10 2.4.1. Culture .............................................................................................................. 10 2.4.2. Political environment .......................................................................................... 11 2.4.3. Legal framework/ regulatory environment........