Master's Thesis Klinkenberg

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  • Characterising groundwater-surface water interaction

    using fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing and

    validating techniques in Whakaipo Bay, Lake Taupo,

    New Zealand

    Masters thesis

    Jelmer Klinkenberg

    MSc. Water Science & Management

    Faculty of Geosciences

    Utrecht University

    November 2015

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    Characterising groundwater-surface water interaction using fibre-

    optic distributed temperature sensing and validating techniques in

    Whakaipo Bay, Lake Taupo, New Zealand

    In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree

    Master of Science in Water Science and Management

    Final masters thesis Author: Jelmer R. Klinkenberg Student number: 4044843 University: Utrecht University Faculty: Faculty of Geosciences Study: MSc. Water Science and Management Course code: GEO4-6004 Credits: 45 ECTS Internship: Royal HaskoningDHV Email: jelmerklinkenberg@gmail.com / j.r.klinkenberg@students.uu.nl Phone number: +31 6 17183596 University supervisor: prof. dr. ir. Marc F.P. Bierkens Chair of Department of Physical Geography at Utrecht m.f.p.bierkens@uu.nl Supervisor Royal Haskoning: ir. Floris Verhagen

    Senior Consultant (geo-) hydrology at Royal HaskoningDHV floris.verhagen@rhdhv.com

    Supervisor GNS Science dr. Stewart Cameron Senior Scientist, Head of Department of Hydrogeology of GNS Science, New Zealand s.cameron@gns.cri.nz

    mailto:jelmerklinkenberg@gmail.commailto:j.r.klinkenberg@students.uu.nlmailto:m.f.p.bierkens@uu.nlmailto:floris.verhagen@rhdhv.commailto:s.cameron@gns.cri.nz

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    ABSTRACT

    Lake Taupo, the largest lake of New Zealand, is blessed with good water quality.

    However, over the last decades the natural system is under pressure from increased

    dairy-farming. These agricultural activities primarily export nutrients to the groundwater

    system, which transports it to the lake. This can possibly have detrimental effects on lake

    ecology, tourism and animal and human health. Since the sources of nutrients around the

    lake are numerous and diffuse, some of the methods that have been developed under the

    SMART Aquifer Characterisation Programme are possibly suitable for developing rapid

    and cost-effective characterization of the groundwater systems around the lake.

    This thesis is a follow-up study of Meijer (2014) and will characterize groundwater-surface

    water interaction using fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing and validating

    techniques in Whakaipo Bay, Lake Taupo. To map and quantify the seepage flows into

    the bay, high-resolution spatial and temporal temperature measurements were conducted

    and linked to direct seepage measurements and a heat transport model. The seepage

    areas detected by horizontal distributed temperature sensing were validated using

    seepage flow calculation by vertical temperature sensing. These flows were extrapolated

    across the shallow part of the bay and the total seepage flow was compared to water

    balance studies. Ultimately, a direct way was investigated to detect seepage areas and

    calculate seepage flows by horizontal distributed temperature sensing.

    Temperatures on the sediment-water interface near the shore of Whakaipo Bay vary

    between 15 and 22 C. The cold spots are characterised by high seepage flows and rates

    differ notably throughout the bay. The seepage rates measured by vertical DTS range

    vary between 0.253 cm/m/s and 0.736 cm/m/s, whereas the rates by the seepage

    meter are factor 4 smaller at high-flow seepage locations and almost similar at low-flow

    locations. Although the seepage meter might underestimate the high-seepage flows, the

    heat flux modelling results approximate the vertical DTS flow rates. The average flow for

    the area shallower than 6.5 meter depth is 0.141 m/s, which is 41% of the seepage

    component in the water balance. However, it is unlikely that the seepage areas examined

    in this research are the only major source of seepage. Seasonal variability might affect the

    seepage as well.

    Key words: Groundwater surface water interaction; Fibre optic distributed temperature

    sensing; DTS; SMART; seepage flow; seepage meter; heat transport models; spatial

    variability; water balance; Whakaipo Bay; Lake Taupo; New Zealand

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    This report presents this research done on groundwater-surface water interaction, in order

    to obtain the degree of Master in Water Science and Management at the faculty of

    Geosciences of Utrecht University. The research was conducted at GNS Science in

    Wairakei, New Zealand. I would like to thank everyone from the Hydrogeology

    Department for their help and other GNS staff who answered questions and helped me

    with practical aspects. I would like to thank the Head of the Hydrogeology Department, my

    supervisor Stewart Cameron, for his guidance, tips and feedback. Further I would

    especially like to thank Abigail Lovett, Katherine Aurisch, Kolja Schaller, Kuini Dewes,

    Marc Reidi and Rogier Westerhoff for their support in the field and in the office. I would

    like to thank my supervisor Floris Verhagen from engineering consultancy Royal

    HaskoningDHV for his valuable suggestions, feedback and help with practical matters.

    Also, I would like to thank my university supervisor Marc Bierkens, for his ideas and

    feedback throughout the thesis period. Also, I would like to thank NIWA groundwater

    scientist Max Gibbs for helping me with the equipment for the seepage meters. Lastly, I

    would like to thank my friends in New-Zealand and my parents and friends in the

    Netherlands, who supported me where possible.

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................................ 7

    LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................................. 8

    LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................................. 10

    1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................ 11

    1.1 Background ................................................................................................................................... 11

    1.2 Research questions ..................................................................................................................... 14

    1.3 Aims ................................................................................................................................................ 14

    2 THEORY ..................................................................................................................................... 16

    2.1 Groundwater-surface water interaction ..................................................................................... 16

    2.2 Research on groundwater-surface water interaction .............................................................. 17

    2.2.1 Fibre-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing ................................................................. 17

    2.2.2 Loggers .................................................................................................................................. 19

    2.2.3 Seepage meters ................................................................................................................... 19

    2.3 Modelling ....................................................................................................................................... 20

    2.4 Water balance ............................................................................................................................... 20

    2.5 Spatial variability........................................................................................................................... 21

    3 SITE DESCRIPTION .................................................................................................................. 22

    3.1 Topography ................................................................................................................................... 22

    3.2 Geology .......................................................................................................................................... 22

    3.3 Hydro-geology............................................................................................................................... 24

    3.4 Water quality ................................................................................................................................. 25

    3.5 Earlier research ............................................................................................................................ 25

    4 MATERIALS AND METHODS .................................................................................................. 27

    4.1 General approach......................................................................................................................... 27

    4.2 Data collection .............................................................................................................................. 27

    4.2.1 Fibre-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing ................................................................. 27

    4.2.2 Horizontal DTS measurement .....