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    A r·esear·ch--r·epor·t-- su-bmitted in partial fulfillment

    of the ~equirements for the de~ree of

    Masten of Business Administration

    School of Management

    U~iversity Science Malaysia

    October 1994

  • Acknowled~ements ____ ,. __

    The preparation of a dissertation requires a great deal of

    concentrated personal assistance by individual faculty

    members. My sincere appreciation lS extended to my

    colleagues. A sp~cial word of gratitude goes to Professor , ..

    Mirza Saiyadain who served as dissertation supervisor and

    who has been generous with his interest and ideas

    th~oughout my career· af University Science Malaysia. I am

    also indebted to Professor Mirza for· his unlimited

    contributions of time, effort and encouragement. -~

  • ___ ... .----




    Abs t


    l.f Introduction 1

    1.2 Literature Review 2

    1 • 3 P u r p o s e o f R e s e a i-"c h f1 .; ..


    2.1 Metholiology 12

    2.1.1 Organizat'ional Commitment 12

    2.1.2 Collectiv:ism 13

    2.t.:J Respect Vor· Elders '


    2.1.4 Harmony 14

    2.2 Population and Sample 15 -,

    2.3 Data Collection 16


    3.1 Results 18

    - 3.1.1 Sample Piofile. 18

    3.1.2 Organizational Commitment 20

    :3.1.3 Values Measures 21

  • •" . ~ ..



    4.1 Discussion

    4 • 2 I rn p I i c

    4 • :l L i m i t a t i o n a n d R e c o 111111 e n d a t i o n s




    Appe11dix B

    qn c s l i on n a i I' e o I' R e s c a I' c h ( Eng- 1 i s h )

    Q ll c s l i ()II II a i I' c () r R c .s (! a I' c h

    tBaiws'a Malaysia)

  • .L.l..S.I QE TABLES

    TABLE Pag

    3. 1 Sample Profile 1

    3.2 Inter-item Correlation -

    (Organizational Commitment) 2

    3.3 Inter-item Correlation

    (Col lccli\1ism) 2

    . ' Inter-item Cor·relat ion

    ( Res r> e c t -f' o-r E-l de r· s ) 2

    :L5 Inter·-i t:em Corndat.ion

    .. ( H a nn on y, ) 2

    3.6 Averages and Standard Deviation Estimates

    (Organiz.ational Commitment Ily Races) 2

    3.7 Analysis; of Variance

    ' (Organiz:ational Commitment By Races) 2

    3.8 Averages and Standard Deviation Estimates

    (Race X :values) 2

    3 . 9 An a l y s i s: o f V a r i an c e

    (Race X Collectivism) 2

    3.10 Analysis of Variance

    (Race X Respect for Elders) 2

    Analysis of Variance

    (Race X Harmony) 2

  • ~---·


    Tu j uiin kajian I 11 I adalah u n l 11 k 111 eng k a j i p e I' h u bung· an d

    an tara nilai Malaysia s epe I' t i kolektiviti

    menghormati orang t na -dan harmon i dengan t anggung j awal

    dalam organisasi di antara tiga bangsa : Melayu~ China ~aJ

    India. Data-:-data telah dikumpulkan da1·ipada 236 Ol'an,

    ~ekerja yang bekerja di beberapa organisasi yang terleta:

    di. kawasan Utara Semenanjung Malaysia. Daripada 236 oran1

    pekerja i n i , t e r· d a p a t H 4 o ,. a n g M e I a y u , 8 5 o r· a n g C h i 1 ,.a' d a J I

    57 orang India. K'eputusan kajian 1111 menunjukkan bahaw:

    pekerja-pekerja India adalah lebih bertanggungjawab kepad:

    organisasi diikuti 1

    oleh orang Mclayu dan China~ Kolektivit

    rnenunjukkan perhub'ungan yang negatif dan tidak berert

    dengan t an g gun g j a w; a b d a l am o I' g an i s a s i . T e t a p i , men g h o r m a t

    orang tua dan harmoni menunjukkan perhubungan yang positi .•

    dan be1·ert i dengan tanggungjawab dalam o1·ganisasi.

    lindakbalas di antara nilai dan bangsa tidak men~~jdkkaJ

    p e I' hub u n g an yang be1·erti dengan tanggungjawab dal ar

    organisasi. Walau bagaimanapun, orang China dalam golonga1

    harmoni yang r e11(rah rnenun j ukkan tanggungjawab dal ar

    o r g- an i s a s i y a n g I' e n d a h s e k a l i .

  • ---------


    The objective of tl1is study was to exami11c Mala,ysian val1

    of Collectivism, Respect for Elders and Harmony and th1

    r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o r g an i z a t i on a l co mm i t m en t among s t t h 1

    races Malay, Cfiincsc and Indians. Data was col lee

    . ' f I'Oill 23G employees working in several organizati1

    oper·a t i ng- Peninsular Malays

    Of these 23G r·es:pondents, !J4 wct·e Malay, HS Chinese and

    Indian. The r es1u I t s of t.he study showed that Ind

    employees at'e more committed to organizati'

    followed by Mala,Y and Chinese respectively. Collectiv

    showed negative1 but i ·n s i g n i f i can t t' elations hip w

    organizational commitment. On the other hand, Respect

    Elders and Harmony were found to be positively correlil.

    with organizational commitment beyond the ~ c o-11 vent i o

    levels of significance. Values in interaction with r

    fa i led to show any significant variation by and lar


    though Chinese low on Harmony showed lowest organizatio


  • Chapter 1



    The culture of a country moulds, directs and sanctions th

    way people b(~have.-.... It also plays a significant role i:

    ,,_determining and developing the culture of an organizat:ion

    As Malaysia has often 'been described as a "minefield o

    multicultural sen~itivities'' (Abdullah, A. 1992c) due ;


    its diverse racial 'and eth11ic composition, organizations

    Malaysia e 111 p I o y i r~ v a r y i n 14 p r· o p o r· l i o 11 s l h e d i f f c r e n t r a c e

    and ethnic gToups i

    (Malays, Chinese and l nd i ans). Eac

    e l h n i c g 1-'o-u p s b r i H gi s l o o r g an i z a t i on s i t s r i c h and d i s t i n c

    culture which has ~een handed down from one generation t~

    the next tluough the age-old beliefs, traditions

    pra~tices. The cultural tradi lions of all the ma-jor· ethni

    gr·oups have woven their intricate threads into th

    Mal~ysian management fabric.

    In a multi-racial society like Malaysia, culture has

    str~ng influence on the way work is done by employees. I

    is demonstr:.ated by thei1· behavior·. Employees tning into th

    workplace differ·ing syst'ems of values whCch have a bearin1

    on their mot ivai ion and needs, and how they per-form thei

    daily work. As a corollary, i t is believed tha

  • .. o r ~an i z a t i on a l ~ c o mm i t men t: i s a f f e c t e d by. d i v e r s e c u 1 t u r a 1

    f a c t or s s u c h as a t t i t u d e s and v a 1 11 e s , p e r s on a 1 b c 1 i e f s and

    aspirations, interpersonal relationships and social

    s t l'tl c t ur e . T IH~ p r i 111 a r .Y c~_b j c c t i v e of t h i s ~~ t u d y t here fore i !

    to examine if differeuc

  • accepted model of organizational commitment has yet . ~-·


    A large numbers of studies

  • aud1ori tarianism. Levels of interpersonal trust, f'c

    example, r·eveal the extent to which individuals see the:

    social envi ronrnent ·a!o>'- benign, cooperative or friend

    (Hrebiniak, 1971). The less an o1·ganizafion l s seen

    these lel'lns, tlw less one is likely to be committed to

    .Other studies have sug-gested that interpersonal trust

    important fo1· the st1·ucture of social systems and tl

    attitudes and behavio1·s of participants within them. (Nedc

    1 9 'i' 1 ; A 1m o n d a n d V e r b a , I B () :~ ) • A s f a I' as a u t h o r i t a ·r i a n i :

    is concerned. res ea I' ch shows no 1·elationship

    authoritarianism ~nd organizational commitment (Hrebiniak

    A Lu t to , 1 U 7 2 ) •

    Studies o n b a c k g r o u 11 d f a c t o I' s s u c h a s f a' t h e r· ' s occupatic

    have shown t o a f' f e c t p r o f' e s s i on a 1 co mm i t men t (We r t s , 1 9 6 8

    Colomboto's finding (19G2) of a dir·ccl •·elationship.betwe1

    the socioeconomic status and commitment to profession;

    norms, for example, suggests that commitment to

    employing organiz~at-·ion

  • ''

    state of existence is personally or socially preferable

    an opposite or con..,et--se mode of conduct or end-state

    ex i s t en c e • " ( R o k each , 1 9 7 3 ) • V a I u e s a r e be li e f s p eo p l e 'h a'

    abo u t w h a t they cons i d c r l o be r i ~ h t o I' w I' on g , good or b a<

    desirable or undesirable. Values ar·e in I e I' na l to t I

    individual and develop from f ami 1 y, ft·icnds, school:

    rcl igion and wot·~· Values typically I'CPI'esent. ideai. modi '

    of b e h a v i o r o r i cl e a l t e I' m i n a I g- o a I s . A s s u c h • aJ

    impo1·tant because they SPI'Ve as stand;u·ds and as expressii

    i of human needs. Values, have a great influen~e on the w:

    we· think,