LOS ANGELES RIVER LOS ANGELES RIVER County of Los Angeles Department of Public Works April 2005

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    County of Los Angeles Department of Public Works

    April 2005

  • History of the Los Angeles River 3

    Los Angeles River Vision 5

    Los Angeles River Master Plan Introduction 6

    Los Angeles River Highlights: Reaches 1—6 7

    Los Angeles River Project Implementation 14

  • 3

    Over ten million years ago, the Los Angeles area was submerged in water. The formation of mountain ranges yielded what is now the San Fernando and San Gabriel Valleys. These areas once drained unconstrained run-off into the Los Angeles basin, providing a topography of shrubs, forests, and dense woods. Although Los Angeles County is a semiarid region that re- ceives less than fifteen inches of rain per year, some of the surrounding mountainous areas re- ceive more than forty inches of rain per year. It’s estimated that the earliest human inhabitants occupied the Los Angeles County region over 48,000 years ago and were supported by the waters of the Los Angeles River and its tributaries. The river and its rich plant and animal habitat provided a livelihood for Native American tribes, including the Tongva which have also been referred to as Gabrielino Indians. Over 1000 years ago, the Tongva established a settlement on the banks of the River near where Los Angeles City Hall stands today. They were later designated by missionaries as the Gabrielino for the Mis- sion San Gabriel in Los Angeles County, and included a smaller group, the Fernandeno for the San Fernando Mission in the San Fernando Valley. Gabrielino territory encompassed much of present-day Los Angeles and Orange Counties, including Santa Catalina, as well as parts of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties.

    It wasn’t until 1769 when the first Spanish explorer, Gaspar de Portolá, passed through the region and took note of the “very spacious valley, well grown with cottonwoods and alders, among which ran a beautiful river”, which he named the Rio de Porciun- cula. Gaspar de Portolá estimated that 5,000 to 10,000 Native Ameri- cans were living in the region at the time. By 1781, 45 settlers from Mex- ico founded the Pueblo de Los Ange- les and a water ditch, the Zanja Madre, was constructed to divert wa- ter from the River into the city.

    Los Angeles County was founded due to the water and habitat that the River provided. How- ever, the River was both unpredictable and uncontrollable and posed a threat to the adjacent established communities. The River was known to change course between flowing west into the Santa Monica Bay along the course of the Ballona Creek and flowing south towards San Pedro Bay. In 1815 the Los Angeles River flood washed away the original Pueblo de Los Ange- les. In 1825 a flood caused swamps to be formed between the Pueblo location and the ocean.

    Vision of Rio de Porciuncula in 1769

  • 4

    In 1861 another storm caused the San Fernando Valley to flood, washing away River banks and water distribution systems. The River would mostly flow as an underground stream with shal- low surface streams in the dry season and tremendous flood flows during very wet seasons. Early flood control protection defined the River as a channel, which carried precipitous water and debris from mountain slopes during rain storms. In 1904 William Mulholland, the Superintendent of the Los Angeles City Water Company, an- nounced that the population, which was well over 100,000, had outgrown the water supply from the Los Angeles River and local aquifers. Ten years later, the 1914 flood caused $10 million in damages throughout the developing basin and brought a public outcry for action to address the recurrent flooding problems. As a result, by the following year the Los Angeles County Flood Control District was formed to undertake initial flood control efforts, including the con- struction of major dams and some channelization. Due to flooding disasters, the Los Angeles River’s purpose was shifted from water supply to flood control. After two more de- structive floods in the 1930's, Federal assis- tance was requested and the Army Corps of Engineers took a lead role in channeliz- ing the river. The channelization effort be- gan in 1938 and required three-million bar- rels of concrete and 100,000 workers. By 1960, the project was completed to form a fifty-one mile concrete-lined water course through thirteen cities.

    Before channelization of the river, flood control projects and utilization of the river as a source of water changed the system of streams, wetlands, and swamps of the natural lands. Channelization provided flood control for the increasingly devel- oped region and a consistent path for the river course. Today, the banks of the river are almost fully lined along its entire length. Only three portions of the channel bottom remain unpaved: through the Se- pulveda Flood Control Basin in the San Fernando Valley, near Griffith Park through Elysian Valley where ground wa-

    ter levels prevent it from being paved, and at the river estuary in Long Beach where the river empties into the Pacific Ocean.

    Natural Bottom Los Angeles River @ 4th Street, 1936

    Los Angeles River during Channelization, 1941

  • 5

    In less than a century, the once prominent, life-sustaining river developed into a concrete-lined, debris-carrying eyesore. To enhance the aesthetics of the new flood control systems, the Flood Control District designated $550,000 per year budget, in 1972, towards a Landscape Treatment program until Proposition 13 cut flood control funding by two-thirds. However, by 1977, at least 20 miles of recreational bicycle and equestrian trails had been completed along the Los Angeles River and Rio Hondo Channel (LARIO Trail).

    The construction of recreational trails along the River proved to be the first attempt in restoring the river. This restoration interest was fur- thered by the Friends of the Los Angeles River, founded in 1986, who became dedicated to bringing attention to the river and seeking a continuous river greenway from the mountains to the sea. By 1990, wide public interest in the River lead Mayor Tom Bradley to create a Task Force to study ways to increase opportunities along the River and improve the appearance of the River. The Task Force concluded their re- search by recommending that an interagency master plan be prepared for the entire river.

    In 1991, the County of Los Angeles Board of Supervisors directed the Departments of Public Works, Regional Planning, and Recreation and Parks to develop a plan that would “complete an analysis of potential compatible uses for the Los Angeles River, and to develop a proposal to coordinate efforts by all interested public and private parties in the planning, financing, and implementation of the restoration efforts”. During the development of this Los Angeles River Master Plan, the County of Los Angeles and various stakeholders realized that due to the adja- cent urban River developments (including factories, studios, homes, and businesses) it would be nearly impossible to restore the river to its natural state, without compromising the struc- tural integrity of the river and reducing flood protection. Instead of proposing a vision for re- moving the River’s concrete, the Los Angeles River Master Plan Advisory Committee formu- lated a vision comprised of enhancing the river corridor with open space and environmental, recreational, economic development, and educational opportunities. By integrating these goals and encouraging compatible developments, the Master Plan set the framework for enhancing the Los Angeles River and Tujunga Wash with the hopes that the River will be an integral re- source for its surrounding communities, as it once was for Los Angeles’ early inhabitants.

    Over the years, the vision for the Los Angeles River has been strengthened by various interest groups that have developed studies and plans to expand improvements to other areas that are tributary to the River and to identify opportunities for improving these areas. The City of Los Angeles is currently undertaking a prominent role in revitalizing the River for the River’s 30 miles within the City. Their proposed Revitalization Plan will build on the work of existing River efforts to expand revitalization and economic development opportunities along the River’s adjacent communities.

    Los Angeles River Vision, 1996

  • 6

    The Los Angeles River has evolved from an uncontrolled, meandering river producing a valu- able source of water for early inhabitants to a major flood control waterway. Today, in addi- tion to flood amenities for the Los Angeles Basin, it offers significant opportunities for recrea- tion and aesthetic improvement for the Los Angeles Metropolitan area. The County of Los Angeles Department of Public Works and other entities have joined in an effort to develop and maintain these resources. In 1991, after much attention to the River, the County of Los Angeles Board of Supervisors directed the Departments of Public Works, Parks and Recreation, and Regional Planning to develop the Los Angeles River Master Plan. The Master Plan, completed and adopted by the Board of Supervisors in 1996, formulated a multi- objective program for the river while recognizing its primary purpose for flood protection. Overall, the Master Plan advocates environmental enhancement, recreational opportunities, and economic development. The Master Plan is overseen by an Advisory Committee of 50 members representing federal, state, city,