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Lecture 14: Wires

Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

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Page 1: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

Lecture 14: Wires

Page 2: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 2CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

OutlineIntroductionInterconnect Modeling– Wire Resistance– Wire Capacitance

Wire RC DelayCrosstalkWire EngineeringRepeaters

Page 3: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 3CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

IntroductionChips are mostly made of wires called interconnect– In stick diagram, wires set size– Transistors are little things under the wires– Many layers of wires

Wires are as important as transistors– Speed– Power– Noise

Alternating layers run orthogonally

Page 4: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 4CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Wire GeometryPitch = w + sAspect ratio: AR = t/w– Old processes had AR << 1– Modern processes have AR ≈ 2

• Pack in many skinny wires

l

w s

t

h

Page 5: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 5CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Layer StackAMI 0.6 μm process has 3 metal layers– M1 for within-cell routing– M2 for vertical routing between cells– M3 for horizontal routing between cells

Modern processes use 6-10+ metal layers– M1: thin, narrow (< 3λ)

• High density cells– Mid layers

• Thicker and wider, (density vs. speed)– Top layers: thickest

• For VDD, GND, clk

Page 6: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 6CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Example

Intel 90 nm Stack Intel 45 nm Stack[Thompson02] [Moon08]

Page 7: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 7CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Interconnect ModelingCurrent in a wire is analogous to current in a pipe– Resistance: narrow size impedes flow– Capacitance: trough under the leaky pipe must fill first – Inductance: paddle wheel inertia opposes changes in flow rate

• Negligible for mostwires

Page 8: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 8CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Lumped Element ModelsWires are a distributed system– Approximate with lumped element models

3-segment π-model is accurate to 3% in simulationL-model needs 100 segments for same accuracy!Use single segment π-model for Elmore delay

C

R

C/N

R/N

C/N

R/N

C/N

R/N

C/N

R/N

R

C

L-model

R

C/2 C/2

R/2 R/2

C

N segments

π-model T-model

Page 9: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 9CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Wire Resistanceρ = resistivity (Ω*m)

R = sheet resistance (Ω/ )– is a dimensionless unit(!)

Count number of squares– R = R * (# of squares)

l

w

t

1 Rectangular BlockR = R (L/W) Ω

4 Rectangular BlocksR = R (2L/2W) Ω = R (L/W) Ω

t

l

w w

l

l lR Rt w wρ

= =

Page 10: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 10CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Choice of MetalsUntil 180 nm generation, most wires were aluminumContemporary processes normally use copper– Cu atoms diffuse into silicon and damage FETs– Must be surrounded by a diffusion barrier

43.0Titanium (Ti)5.3Tungsten (W)2.8Aluminum (Al)2.2Gold (Au)1.7Copper (Cu)1.6Silver (Ag)Bulk resistivity (μΩ • cm)Metal

Page 11: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 11CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Contacts ResistanceContacts and vias also have 2-20 ΩUse many contacts for lower R– Many small contacts for current crowding around

periphery

Page 12: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 12CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Copper IssuesCopper wires diffusion barrier has high resistanceCopper is also prone to dishing during polishingEffective resistance is higher

( ) ( )dish barrier barrier2lR

t t t w tρ

=− − −

Page 13: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 13CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Example

Compute the sheet resistance of a 0.22 μm thick Cu wire in a 65 nm process. Ignore dishing.

Find the total resistance if the wire is 0.125 μm wide and 1 mm long. Ignore the barrier layer.

8

6

2.2 10 Ω m 0.10 /0.22 10 m

R−

×= = Ω

×i

( ) 1000 m0.10 Ω/ 800 0.125 m

R μμ

= = Ω

Page 14: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 14CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Wire CapacitanceWire has capacitance per unit length– To neighbors– To layers above and below

Ctotal = Ctop + Cbot + 2Cadj

layer n+1

layer n

layer n-1

Cadj

Ctop

Cbot

ws

t

h1

h2

Page 15: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 15CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Capacitance TrendsParallel plate equation: C = εoxA/d– Wires are not parallel plates, but obey trends– Increasing area (W, t) increases capacitance– Increasing distance (s, h) decreases capacitance

Dielectric constant– εox = kε0

• ε0 = 8.85 x 10-14 F/cm• k = 3.9 for SiO2

Processes are starting to use low-k dielectrics– k ≈ 3 (or less) as dielectrics use air pockets

Page 16: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 16CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Capacitance FormulaCapacitance of a line without neighbors can be approximated as

This empirical formula is accurate to 6% for AR < 3.3

0.25 0.5

ox 0.77 1.06 1.06totw w tC lh h h

ε⎡ ⎤⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞= + + +⎢ ⎥⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎢ ⎥⎣ ⎦

Page 17: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 17CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

M2 Capacitance DataTypical dense wires have ~ 0.2 fF/μm– Compare to 1-2 fF/μm for gate capacitance

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

0 500 1000 1500 2000

Cto

tal (

aF/μ

m)

w (nm)

Isolated

M1, M3 planes

s = 320s = 480s = 640s= 8

s = 320s = 480s = 640

s= 8

Page 18: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 18CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Diffusion & PolysiliconDiffusion capacitance is very high (1-2 fF/μm)– Comparable to gate capacitance– Diffusion also has high resistance– Avoid using diffusion runners for wires!

Polysilicon has lower C but high R– Use for transistor gates– Occasionally for very short wires between gates

Page 19: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 19CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Wire RC DelayEstimate the delay of a 10x inverter driving a 2x inverter at the end of the 1 mm wire. Assume wire capacitance is 0.2 fF/μm and that a unit-sized inverter has R = 10 KΩ and C = 0.1 fF.

– tpd = (1000 Ω)(100 fF) + (1000 + 800 Ω)(100 + 0.6 fF) = 281 ps

Page 20: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 20CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Wire EnergyEstimate the energy per unit length to send a bit of information (one rising and one falling transition) in a CMOS process.

E = (0.2 pF/mm)(1.0 V)2 = 0.2 pJ/bit/mm= 0.2 mW/Gbps

Page 21: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 21CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

CrosstalkA capacitor does not like to change its voltage instantaneously.A wire has high capacitance to its neighbor.– When the neighbor switches from 1-> 0 or 0->1,

the wire tends to switch too.– Called capacitive coupling or crosstalk.

Crosstalk effects– Noise on nonswitching wires– Increased delay on switching wires

Page 22: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 22CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Crosstalk DelayAssume layers above and below on average are quiet– Second terminal of capacitor can be ignored– Model as Cgnd = Ctop + Cbot

Effective Cadj depends on behavior of neighbors– Miller effect A B

CadjCgnd Cgnd

2Cgnd + 2 Cadj2VDDSwitching opposite A0Cgnd0Switching with A1Cgnd + CadjVDDConstantMCFCeff(A)ΔVB

Page 23: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 23CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Crosstalk NoiseCrosstalk causes noise on nonswitching wiresIf victim is floating:– model as capacitive voltage divider

Cadj

Cgnd-v

Aggressor

Victim

ΔVaggressor

ΔVvictim

adjvictim aggressor

gnd v adj

CV V

C C−

Δ = Δ+

Page 24: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 24CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Driven VictimsUsually victim is driven by a gate that fights noise– Noise depends on relative resistances– Victim driver is in linear region, agg. in saturation– If sizes are same, Raggressor = 2-4 x Rvictim

11

adjvictim aggressor

gnd v adj

CV V

C C k−

Δ = Δ+ +

( )( )

aggressor gnd a adjaggressor

victim victim gnd v adj

R C Ck

R C Cττ

+= =

+

Cadj

Cgnd-v

Aggressor

Victim

ΔVaggressor

ΔVvictim

Raggressor

Rvictim

Cgnd-a

Page 25: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 25CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Coupling WaveformsSimulated coupling for Cadj = Cvictim

Page 26: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 26CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Noise ImplicationsSo what if we have noise?If the noise is less than the noise margin, nothing happensStatic CMOS logic will eventually settle to correct output even if disturbed by large noise spikes– But glitches cause extra delay– Also cause extra power from false transitions

Dynamic logic never recovers from glitchesMemories and other sensitive circuits also can produce the wrong answer

Page 27: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 27CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Wire EngineeringGoal: achieve delay, area, power goals with acceptable noiseDegrees of freedom:– Width – Spacing– Layer– Shielding

Del

ay (n

s): R

C/2

Wire Spacing(nm)

Cou

plin

g: 2C

adj /

(2C

adj+C

gnd)

00.20.40.6

0.81.01.21.4

1.61.82.0

0 500 1000 1500 20000

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0 500 1000 1500 2000

320480640

Pitch (nm)Pitch (nm)

vdd a0a1gnd a2vdd b0 a1 a2 b2vdd a0 a1 gnd a2 a3 vdd gnd a0 b1

Page 28: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 28CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

RepeatersR and C are proportional to lRC delay is proportional to l2

– Unacceptably great for long wiresBreak long wires into N shorter segments– Drive each one with an inverter or buffer

Wire Length: l

Driver Receiver

l/N

Driver

Segment

Repeater

l/N

Repeater

l/N

ReceiverRepeater

N Segments

Page 29: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 29CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Repeater DesignHow many repeaters should we use?How large should each one be?Equivalent Circuit– Wire length l/N

• Wire Capacitance Cw*l/N, Resistance Rw*l/N– Inverter width W (nMOS = W, pMOS = 2W)

• Gate Capacitance C’*W, Resistance R/W

R/W C'WCwl/2N Cwl/2N

RwlN

Page 30: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 30CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Repeater ResultsWrite equation for Elmore Delay– Differentiate with respect to W and N– Set equal to 0, solve

2

w w

l RCN R C

′=

( )2 2pdw w

tRC R C

l′= +

w

w

RCWR C

=′

~40 ps/mm

in 65 nm process

Page 31: Lecture 14: Wires - Harvey Mudd Collegepages.hmc.edu/harris/cmosvlsi/4e/lect/lect14.pdf · 14: Wires CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 5 Layer Stack AMI 0.6 μm process has

14: Wires 31CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Repeater EnergyEnergy / length ≈ 1.87CwVDD

2

– 87% premium over unrepeated wires– The extra power is consumed in the large

repeatersIf the repeaters are downsized for minimum EDP:– Energy premium is only 30%– Delay increases by 14% from min delay