# Lecture 10: Circuit Families - Harvey Mudd Circuit Families CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed. 4 Pseudo-nMOS In the old days, nMOS processes had no pMOS – Instead, use pull-up

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### Text of Lecture 10: Circuit Families - Harvey Mudd Circuit Families CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed....

• Lecture 10: Circuit Families

• 10: Circuit Families 2CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

OutlinePseudo-nMOS LogicDynamic LogicPass Transistor Logic

• 10: Circuit Families 3CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

IntroductionWhat makes a circuit fast? I = C dV/dt -> tpd (C/I) V low capacitance high current small swing

Logical effort is proportional to C/IpMOS are the enemy! High capacitance for a given current

Can we take the pMOS capacitance off the input?Various circuit families try to do this

BA

11

4

4

Y

• 10: Circuit Families 4CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Pseudo-nMOSIn the old days, nMOS processes had no pMOS Instead, use pull-up transistor that is always ON

In CMOS, use a pMOS that is always ON Ratio issue Make pMOS about effective strength of

pulldown network

Vout

Vin16/2

P/2

Ids

0 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.80

0.3

0.6

0.9

1.2

1.5

1.8

P = 24

P = 4

P = 14

Vin

Vout

• 10: Circuit Families 5CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Pseudo-nMOS GatesDesign for unit current on outputto compare with unit inverter.pMOS fights nMOS

Inverter NAND2 NOR2

AY

B

AY

A B

gu =gd =gavg =pu =pd =pavg =

Y

gu =gd =gavg =pu =pd =pavg =

gu =gd =gavg =pu =pd =pavg =

finputs

Y

• 10: Circuit Families 6CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Pseudo-nMOS GatesDesign for unit current on outputto compare with unit inverter.pMOS fights nMOS

Inverter NAND2 NOR2

4/3

2/3

AY

8/3

8/3

2/3

B

AY

A B 4/34/3

2/3

gu = 4/3gd = 4/9gavg = 8/9pu = 6/3pd = 6/9pavg = 12/9

Y

gu = 8/3gd = 8/9gavg = 16/9pu = 10/3pd = 10/9pavg = 20/9

gu = 4/3gd = 4/9gavg = 8/9pu = 10/3pd = 10/9pavg = 20/9

finputs

Y

• 10: Circuit Families 7CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Pseudo-nMOS DesignEx: Design a k-input AND gate using pseudo-nMOS. Estimate the delay driving a fanout of H

G = 1 * 8/9 = 8/9F = GBH = 8H/9P = 1 + (4+8k)/9 = (8k+13)/9N = 2D = NF1/N + P =

In1

Ink

Y

Pseudo-nMOS1

1 H

4 2 8 133 9

H k ++

• 10: Circuit Families 8CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Pseudo-nMOS PowerPseudo-nMOS draws power whenever Y = 0 Called static power P = IDDVDD A few mA / gate * 1M gates would be a problem Explains why nMOS went extinct

Use pseudo-nMOS sparingly for wide NORsTurn off pMOS when not in use

A BY

C

en

• 10: Circuit Families 9CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Ratio ExampleThe chip contains a 32 word x 48 bit ROM Uses pseudo-nMOS decoder and bitline pullups On average, one wordline and 24 bitlines are high

Find static power drawn by the ROM Ion-p = 36 A

Solution:pull-up pull-up

static pull-up

36 W

(31 24) 1.98 mWDDP V I

P P

= =

= + =

• 10: Circuit Families 10CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Dynamic LogicDynamic gates uses a clocked pMOS pullupTwo modes: precharge and evaluate

1

2A Y

4/3

2/3

AY

1

1

AY

Static Pseudo-nMOS Dynamic

Precharge Evaluate

Y

Precharge

• 10: Circuit Families 11CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

The FootWhat if pulldown network is ON during precharge?Use series evaluation transistor to prevent fight.

AY

foot

precharge transistor Y

inputs

Y

inputs

footed unfooted

f f

• 10: Circuit Families 12CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Logical EffortInverter NAND2 NOR2

1

1

AY

2

2

1

B

AY

A B 11

1

gd = 1/3pd = 2/3

gd = 2/3pd = 3/3

gd = 1/3pd = 3/3

Y

2

1

AY

3

3

1

B

AY

A B 22

1

gd = 2/3pd = 3/3

gd = 3/3pd = 4/3

gd = 2/3pd = 5/3

Y

footed

unfooted

32 2

• 10: Circuit Families 13CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

MonotonicityDynamic gates require monotonically rising inputs during evaluation 0 -> 0 0 -> 1 1 -> 1 But not 1 -> 0

Precharge Evaluate

Y

Precharge

A

Output should rise but does not

violates monotonicity during evaluation

A

• 10: Circuit Families 14CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Monotonicity WoesBut dynamic gates produce monotonically falling outputs during evaluationIllegal for one dynamic gate to drive another!

A X

Y Precharge Evaluate

X

Precharge

A = 1

Y should rise but cannot

Y

X monotonically falls during evaluation

A X

Y Precharge Evaluate

X

Precharge

A = 1

Y

• 10: Circuit Families 15CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Domino GatesFollow dynamic stage with inverting static gate Dynamic / static pair is called domino gate Produces monotonic outputs

Precharge Evaluate

W

Precharge

X

Y

Z

A

B C

C

AB

W X Y Z =X

ZH H

A

W

B C

X Y Z

domino AND

dynamicNAND

staticinverter

• 10: Circuit Families 16CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Domino OptimizationsEach domino gate triggers next one, like a string of dominos toppling overGates evaluate sequentially but precharge in parallelThus evaluation is more critical than prechargeHI-skewed static stages can perform logic

S0

D0

S1

D1

S2

D2

S3

D3

S4

D4

S5

D5

S6

D6

S7

D7

YH

• 10: Circuit Families 17CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Dual-Rail DominoDomino only performs noninverting functions: AND, OR but not NAND, NOR, or XOR

Dual-rail domino solves this problem Takes true and complementary inputs Produces true and complementary outputs

invalid11101010Precharged00Meaningsig_lsig_h

Y_h

f

inputs

Y_l

f

• 10: Circuit Families 18CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Example: AND/NANDGiven A_h, A_l, B_h, B_lCompute Y_h = AB, Y_l = ABPulldown networks are conduction complements

Y_h

Y_lA_h

B_hB_lA_l

= A*B= A*B

• 10: Circuit Families 19CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Example: XOR/XNORSometimes possible to share transistors

Y_h

Y_lA_l

B_h

= A xor B

B_l

A_hA_lA_h= A xnor B

• 10: Circuit Families 20CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

LeakageDynamic node floats high during evaluation Transistors are leaky (IOFF 0) Dynamic value will leak away over time Formerly miliseconds, now nanoseconds

Use keeper to hold dynamic node Must be weak enough not to fight evaluation

A

H

2

2

1 kX Y

weak keeper

• 10: Circuit Families 21CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Charge SharingDynamic gates suffer from charge sharing

B = 0

AY

x

Cx

CYA

x

Y

Charge sharing noise

Yx Y DD

x Y

CV V VC C

= =+

A

x

Y

• 10: Circuit Families 22CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Secondary PrechargeSolution: add secondary precharge transistors Typically need to precharge every other node

Big load capacitance CY helps as well

B

AY

x

secondaryprechargetransistor

• 10: Circuit Families 23CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Noise SensitivityDynamic gates are very sensitive to noise Inputs: VIH Vtn Outputs: floating output susceptible noise

Noise sources Capacitive crosstalk Charge sharing Power supply noise Feedthrough noise And more!

• 10: Circuit Families 24CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

PowerDomino gates have high activity factors Output evaluates and precharges

If output probability = 0.5, = 0.5 Output rises and falls on half the cycles

Clocked transistors have = 1Leads to very high power consumption

• 10: Circuit Families 25CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Domino SummaryDomino logic is attractive for high-speed circuits 1.3 2x faster than static CMOS But many challenges:

Monotonicity, leakage, charge sharing, noiseWidely used in high-performance microprocessors in 1990s when speed was kingLargely displaced by static CMOS now that power is the limiterStill used in memories for area efficiency

• 10: Circuit Families 26CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

Pass Transistor CircuitsUse pass transistors like switches to do logicInputs drive diffusion terminals as well as gates

CMOS + Transmission Gates: 2-input multiplexer Gates should be restoring

A

B

S

S

S

Y

A

B

S

S

S

Y

• 10: Circuit Families 27CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

LEAPLEAn integration with Pass transistorsGet rid of pMOS transistors Use weak pMOS feedback to pull fully high Ratio constraint

B

S

SA

YL

• 10: Circuit Families 28CMOS VLSI DesignCMOS VLSI Design 4th Ed.

CPLComplementary Pass-transistor Logic Dual-rail form of pass transistor logic Avoids need for ratioed feedback Optional cross-coupling for rail-to-rail swing

B

S

S

S

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