Sargon of Akkad- c. 2300 B.C. King Naram-Sim- c. 2230 B.C. Celebrates military victory
Cuneiform; Writing with wedge-shaped characters. The earliest known written language
Code of Hammurabi- 1772 BC a list of common sense laws etched in stone Ex. Law #196. "If a man destroy the eye of another man, they shall destroy his eye. If one break a man's bone, they shall break his bone. If one destroy the eye of a freeman or break the bone of a freeman he shall pay one mana of silver. If one destroy the eye of a man's slave or break a bone of a man's slave he shall pay one half his price.
Human-headed winged bull and winged lion. ca. 883859 B.C
King Nebuchadnezzar- 605 BC 562 BC
Audience Hall of Darius and Xerxes 500 B.C.
The Growth of Egyptian Civilization Three major Periods of Egyptian History The Pyramids Temple of Amun Sculpture and Painting The Great Sphinx Hieroglyphics False Door Stela
7,000 years ago people first settled in the Nile River Valley. They are the direct ancestors of most Egyptian people. Because of the Nile River soil deposits they became a society of producers instead of hunters and gatherers. They started to build more permanent homes of mud, wood and reeds.
The settled existence brought increased population in villages and towns. Towns took over villages and formed kingdoms. End of the prehistoric period there were only two kingdoms in Egypt: Lower Egypt delta region on the Mediterranean Sea Upper Egypt Valley in the desert
The Egyptian civilization emerged more than 3,000 years before the birth of Christ. Pharaoh or ruler, governed with complete authority. Commerce grew, art flourished and majestic monuments were constructed.
Each kingdom is divided into dynasties. Dynasty -was a period during which a single family provided a succession of rulers. One reign ended with the death of a Pharaoh and another began with the crowning of a successor from the same royal family. Important to keep the family blood pure.
Started around 3100 B.C. Ruled by a powerful pharaoh named Menes. Capitol established at Memphis and founded the first 31 Egyptian dynasties Lasted 500 years when a strong centralized government was established. Civil war caused the power of the pharaoh to collapse.
Lasted about 250 years Order and prosperity Followed by foreign invasion and turmoil Hyksos invasion and take over Restored independence Pharaoh still present but power was diminished.
Began in 1570 B.C. Aka Empire Amenhotep III reached the peak of power and influence. Thebes became on of the most magnificent royal cities in the world. Went from a multiple god society to that of one: Aton Egypt began to be whittled away by enemies.
The new religion died with its founding pharaoh; Akheneton. The old religion was restored although Egypts power was dwindling. Finally in 30 B.C. Egypt was made a province of Rome
Resurrection of the soul of ka The ka (spirit or soul) was born with the body and remained there until death. Upon the death the ka would leave temporarily but late return to the body and travel to the next life. The body would be embalmed, wrapped and stored in the pyramids until the ka returned. Assurance against final death
Ra- the sun god, represented by the falcon, Osiris- the god of the Nile and ruler of the underworld Isis- The great mother god
Most impressive were built for Pharaohs The people saw them as gods and expected to be united with other gods His body was sealed in a sarcophagus or stone coffin. Placed with treasures in the center of the pyramid. To an Egyptian the destruction of the body was the most horrible for of vengeance
In the Prehistoric Egypt, bodies were buried in deserts because they would naturally be preserved by dehydration. this old man from 5000 years ago was not mummified, and yet he is perfectly preserved because he was buried in dry sand The main process of mummification was preserving the body by dehydrating it using natron, a natural material found in Wadi Natrun which is like a combination of baking soda and salt This process took 40 days
The body is drained of any liquids and left with the skin, hair and muscles preserved.   This process was available for anyone who could afford it. It was believed that even those who could not afford this process could still enjoy the afterlife with the right reciting of spells. The most classic and common method of mummification dates back to the 18th Dynasty. The first step was to remove the internal organs and liquid so that the body would not decay. The embalmers took out the brain by inserting a sharp object in the nostril, breaking through it into the brain and then liquefying it. They threw out the brain because they thought that the heart did all the thinking. The next step was to remove the internal organs, the lungs, liver, stomach, and intestines, and place them in canopic jars with lids shaped like the heads of the protective deities, the four sons of Horus. The heart stayed in the body, because in the hall of judgment it would be weighed against the feather of Maat. After the body was washed with wine, it was stuffed with bags of natron. The dehydration process took 40 days. The second part of the process took 30 days. This was the time where the deceased turned into a semi divine being, and all that was left in the body from the first part was removed, followed by applying first wine and then oils. The oils were for ritual purposes, as well as preventing the limbs and bones from breaking while being wrapped. The body was sometimes colored with a golden resin. This protected the body from bacteria and insects. This was also based on the belief that divine beings had flesh of gold. The body was wrapped in bandages with amulets while a priest recited prayers and burned incense. The dressing provided physical protection and the wealthier even had a burial mask of their head. The 70 days are connected to Osiris and the length the star Sothis was absent from the sky. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egyptian_burial_customs
Mastaba a low flat tomb made of sun- dried bricks. Step pyramid- Several mastaba stacked on top of each other. Step Pyramid of King Zoser: 2680 b.c. Pyramids, built without steps from limestone blocks weighing over a ton each. Evolution of the Pyramid Shape
The largest Pyramid in the World. Covers almost 13 acres 5 of the worlds largest cathedrals could be placed inside its base with room to spare. 2.3 million blocks of stone 480 feet high Equal to a 48 story building Almost perfectly square http://www.nationalgeographic.com/pyramids/khufu. html http://www.nationalgeographic.com/pyramids/khufu. html
Temple of the all powerful chief god of Thebes. Entranceway flanked by obelisks, four sided pointed stone shafts. Statues of the pharaohs and huge banners opened onto an uncovered courtyard. Great halls lie behind the courtyard Sanctuary was a small, dark, mysterious chamber where only the pharaoh and certain priests were allowed to enter Built in new kingdom as proof of the genius of the architects http://www.eyelid.co.uk/karnakb.htm
The Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak was begun during the reign of King Seti I (c.1290-1279 B.C.E.) and was completed by his son, Ramesses II (c.1279-1213 B.C.E.). The central row of 12 columns on the east-west axis are 69 feet/21 meters in height, about 33 feet/10 meters in circumference, and have open papyrus capitals.
Egypts most impressive achievements in the field of art were the publicly visible pyramids and temples. Within the pyramids were sculptures and paintings. Most have survived over the centuries.
Pyramids were robbed despite all the precautions taken. Pharaohs bodies were sometimes mutilated. Carved likenesses were placed within the tomb to insure that the ka would still have a body to reunite with.
4 th Dynasty pharaoh Khafres head placed on the body of a reclining lion. Massive size was intended to demonstrate the power of the pharaoh. Carved from rock at the site. Why do you think the pharaohs head was placed on the body of a lion. http://www.ancient-egypt-online.com/the-great- sphinx.html http://www.a