John Cotton, 1584-1652
English-born American cleric who was vicar of Saint Botolph's Church in England until he was summoned to court for his Puritanism. He fled to Boston, Massachusetts, where he became a civil and religious leader.
John Cotton, The Devine Right to Occupy the Land (1630)The placing of a people in this or that country is from the appointment of the Lord. In other words, God assigns land to a certain people.God makes room for people in three ways:He casts out enemies of a people before them by lawful war. (Heathens)He gives a foreign people favor or rights to a land through purchaseHe makes available places in a country that are vacant, even if the land it not totally vacant[N]o nation is to drive out another without special commission from Heaven, such as the Israelites had, unless the natives do unjustly wrong them, and will not recompense the wrongs done in a peaceful manner.We (the Puritans) must discern how God appoints us this place.
5. How do a people know if they should emigrate? Sake of knowledge Gain sake Establish a colony Talents are better employed elsewhere To escape bad authorities and avoid evils When some grievous sins overspread a country When escaping over-burdensome debts and miseries When persecutedQuestions:Was North America vacant? Does God really appoint a people land?
John Winthrop1588-1649 English colonial administrator who was the first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, serving seven terms between 1629 and 1649.
John WinthropA Model of Christian Charity
Main Points:God has made different classes of men, and, indeed, of all things. All men are not created equal. The reason hereof:In conformity to the rest of the world, and demonstrating his wisdom, God created a great variety and differences in his creatures for the preservation of the whole.The differences give humans the opportunity to manifest the work of the Spirit within them.The poor should be loyal and honest in their service to their betters and to authorities.The rich and powerful should honestly and loyally dispense with justice and mercy to the poor.God made variety and differences so that all men would have a need of one another. This mutual need knits mankind more nearly together in the Bonds of Brotherly affection. Thus, by serving his fellow mankind, man serves the glory of his creator and the common good of the creature, man.
John Winthrop, A Model of Christian CharityWe have made a covenant with God to form a new colony in a new land and live as God would want us. If We Are Good: If we fulfill our covenant (i.e. do justly, love mercy, and walk humbly with our God) the Lord will be our God, and delight to dwell among us, as his own people, and will command a blessing upon us in all our ways. So that we shall see much more of his wisdom, power, goodness and truth, than formerly we have been acquainted. We shall find that the God of Israel is among us, when ten of us shall be able to resist a thousand of our enemies We will be considered to be a city upon a hill, and the eyes of all peoples will be upon us. If We are Bad: if we shall neglect the observation of these articles which are the ends we have propounded, and, dissembling, with our God, shall fall to embrace the present world and prosecute our carnal intention, seeking great things for ourselves and our posterity, the Lord will surely break out in wrath against us; be revenged of such a [sinful] people and make us know the price of the breach of such a covenant.
Questions: Did the Puritans live up to their ideals?Why was it necessary for them to leave England?Does community negate individualism?
John Winthrop, A Model of Christian CharityQuestions: In this world, does God always punish the wicked and bless the virtuous?Are all men created equal or created different? What does God expect us to do in regard to treating people equally? When should men be considered equal? When should they be considered unequal?What were Winthrops views of equality?Winthrops views of community?What was the Puritan covenant?Were the eyes of the world really on the Puritans? Were they really a city upon a hill?
The Trial of Anne Hutchinson (1637)
Opening main point of Governor Winthrop:Anne Hutchinson has troubled the peace of the commonwealth and the churches here.[Y]ou have maintained a meeting and an assembly in your house that hath been condemned by the general assembly as a thing not tolerable nor comely in the sight of God nor fitting for your sex.
Anne Hutchinson:I hear not things laid to my charge.
The Trial of Anne Hutchinson (1637)
Governor Winthrops accusation toward Hutchinson:You have meetings in which you express opinions different from the word of God that may seduce many simple souls that resort unto you,
Hutchinson in her defense:Now if you do condemn me for speaking what in my conscience I know to be truth I must commit myself unto the Lord.
Question from Mr. Nowel: How do you know that that was the spirit?
Hutchinsons eventual reply:by an immediate revelation.
Governor Winthrops conclusion:[T]he ground work of her revelations is the immediate revelation of the spirit and not by the ministry of the word and that is the means by which she hath very much abused the country.
The Trial of Anne Hutchinson (1637)
Mrs. Hutchinson, the sentence of the court you hear is that you are banished from out of our jurisdiction as being a woman not fit for our society, and are to be imprisoned till the court shall send you away.
John WinthropLittle Speech on LibertyMain Points:The question addressed: how does the authority of the magistrates stand in relation to the liberty of the people?When you see weakness in the leaders (magistrates) you have chosen, you should reflect upon your own weaknesses since you chose them.
The magistrates try to govern and judge as best as can according to Gods laws, as well as our own.
If the magistrates error is clearly out of wickedness, he must be held accountable for his transgressions. However, if it is not clear that his error was due to evil intentions, then the people, who have a covenant with their leaders, need to bear the consequences of the error.
4. There are two kinds of liberty:a. Natural liberty: This is a liberty man shares in common with beasts. Man, as he stands in relation to man, has the liberty to do good or evil. The exercise of [natural] liberty makes men grow more evil, and in time to be worse than brute beasts. This is that great enemy of truth and peace, that wild beast, which all the ordinances [authorities] of God are bend against, to restrain and subdue it. b. Civil or federal liberty: This liberty is in reference to the covenant between God and man, in the moral law, and the politic covenants and constitutions, amongst men themselves. This liberty is the proper end and object of authority, it is a liberty to that only which is good, just, and honest. This liberty is maintained and exercised in a way of subjection to authority; it is of the same kind of liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free.Analogy: womens subjection to her husbands authority makes her free.
Conclusion: The best way to preserve our civil liberties is to uphold and honor the power of authority. If we quietly and cheerfully subject ourselves to civil liberty, such as Christ allows us, it will be for our own good. If the magistrates fail honestly at any time, you should advise them. Since they are doing their best to follow Gods laws, the magistrates will hearken good advice. In this way, upholding and honoring the power of authority will preserve your liberties. Remember to study the questions at the beginning of each document.
Natural Rights of the Colonists as Men:
Right to lifeRight to LibertyRight to Property with support to defend itRight to enter or leave a society Samuel Adams, The Rights of the Colonists (1772)
Those are evident Branches ofthe first Law of NatureAll men have a Right to remain in a State of Nature as long as they please: And in case of intollerable Oppression, Civil or Religious, to leave the Society they belong to, and enter into another.All positive and civil laws, should conform as far as possible, to the law of natural reason and equity.
Samuel JohnsonTaxation No Tyranny (1775)Main Points:1. Americans are able to bear taxation.Every adult pays taxes:Of every empire all the subordinate communities are liable to taxation, because they all share the benefits of government, and, therefore, ought to all furnish their proportion of the expense. As all are born the subjects of some state or other, we may be said to have been all born contenting to some system of government.Humanity is very uniform. The Americans have this resemblance to Europeans, that they do not always know when they are well.
Samuel JohnsonTaxation No Tyranny (1775)3. Americans have no proof that parliament ever ceded to them exemption from obedience.Now there are only two choices: to allow their claim to independence or to reduce them, by force, to submission and allegiance. If the subject refuses to obey, it is the duty of authority to use compulsion. Society cannot subsist but by the power, first of making laws, and then of enforcing them.4. The American rebels are hypocrites.If slavery be thus fatally contagious, how is it that we hear the loudest yelps for liberty among the drivers of negroes?
Historical ContextAbout The Author:Born on January 29, 1737 in England to an impoverished Quaker family.Had many different jobs including a corset maker, merchant seaman, a school teacher, even a job as tax collector.With the advise and help from Benjamin Franklin, Pain Immigrat