IoT For smart City

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  1. 1. An Information Framework for Creating a Smart City Through Internet of Things MTECH[NETWORK ENGINEER] VENKATESH 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION What is Smart City?? utilization of information and communications technologies to achieve this objective presents an opportunity for the development of smart cities Why need of Smart City?? It is expected that 70% of the worlds population, over six billion people, will live in cities and surrounding regions How can we create a city into Smart City?? Smartness of a city is driven and enabled technologically by the emergent Internet of Things (IoT). What is Cloud and IoT?? 2
  3. 3. Fig1: Thinking Smart 3
  4. 4. MOTIVATION Better services and quality of life Use of technology in monitoring various environmental parameters Benefits of citizens (health and well-being), transport (mobility, productivity, and pollution), and services (critical community services). Already underway technologies to collect application-specific data. These include public parking monitoring, microclimate monitoring, and access and mobility (pedestrian, cyclists, cars, and freight vehicles), service operations in health services (noise, air, and water quality), strategic planning (mobility), sustainability (energy usage), tourism (visitor services and tourist activity), business and international (city usage and access), city safety. 4
  5. 5. IOT INFRASTRUCTURE FOR SMART CITY Network-Centric IoT Cloud-Centric IoT Data-Centric IoT 5
  6. 6. Fig.2 : IoT infrastructure from three different domains. 6
  7. 7. Network-Centric IoT vision of IoT can be interpreted in two ways: 1) Internet based 2) Object based How Network-Centric IoT works Sensing Paradigm Addressing Scheme Connectivity Model QoS Mechanism 7
  8. 8. Cloud-Centric IoT Analytic tool developers can provide their software tools. Services as infrastructures, platforms, or software. Data generated, tools used, and algorithms developed all disappear into the background. Efficiently model this Smart City framework cost effective. 8
  9. 9. Data-Centric IoT Data-centric IoT emphasizes all aspects of data flow, including collection, processing, storage, and visualization. Data Collection : Fixed and Mobile Sensing Infrastructure as well as continuous and random sampling. Data Processing and Management : Extraction of meaningful information from raw data. Data Interpretation : Visualization is important for data representation in user-understandable form, allowing interpretation by the users. 9
  10. 10. DESIGN OF NETWORK ARCHITECTURE Two main design approaches for network architecture: 1. An evolutionary approach : Incremental changes to current network architecture to reuse as many component as possible 2. A clean-slate approach : Redesign of network without being constrained of current architecture. Four most common network architectures in the smart city domain 1. Autonomous Network Architecture 2. Ubiquitous Network Architecture 3. Application-Layer Overlay Architecture 4. Service-Oriented Architecture 10
  11. 11. Fig.3 : Connectivity model 11
  12. 12. Autonomous Network Architecture 1. Architecture Description: Autonomous networks are not connected to the public networks But they can access internet via gateways in some cases 2. ApplicationAutomatic Parking Management : Sends the availability for available space in parking area to your smart phone. It will also enable the council to apply fine in case of parking infringements. 3. QoS : Requirement in this case is indeed application dependent. For the above automatic parking management, sensor coverage, reliability, and system responsiveness are the major concerns. 12
  13. 13. Ubiquitous Network Architecture 1) Architecture Description: includes smart object networks connected through the Internet gateway Multitier : Wireless multi-access networks and wireless multi-hop networks Multiradio : WLAN, WiMAX, macro-cellular, femto-cellular, or even ad-hoc 13
  14. 14. 14 2) ApplicationStructural Health Monitoring : Monitor the citys stationary structuressome small, some huge, others new, most of them very oldsuch as buildings, dams, or bridges. 3) Application- Traffic Congestion and Impact Monitoring : Sensors available for measuring pollution levels and traffic delays and queuing, either stationary at fixed locations or mobile mounted in vehicles. Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications 4) QoS : Guarantees is challenging and an emergent discipline. The shortage of a standardized end-to-end protocol for establishing QoS, the complexity of network dynamics. Continued
  15. 15. Fig. 4 : Ubiquitous Network Architecture 15
  16. 16. Application-Layer Overlay Network Architecture 1) Architecture Description: Multipoint-to-point nature of data flow Data aggregation, data fusion, or rule-based feature extraction, will greatly help reduce the amount of data transmissions and prolong system lifetime. 2) Application-Compressive Sensing for Environmental Monitoring: 3) QoS: The data traffic for environmental monitoring is elastic in nature. It implies that bandwidth is the primary concern; delay and packet loss are tolerable to some extent. 16
  17. 17. Service-Oriented Network Architecture 1) Architecture Description: Heterogeneity is the most distinguished characteristic of the IoT, which often contains a variety of subnetworks adopting different communication technologies. Revolutionary network architecture, named IDRA (Information Driven Architecture), is developed 2) ApplicationCombined Noise Mapping and Video Monitoring: One immediate IDRA application for smart cities is combined noise mapping and video monitoring. 3) QoS: 17
  18. 18. Fig. 5 : Service-oriented network architecture 18
  19. 19. SMART CITY SERVICES Structural Health of Buildings Waste Management Air Quality Noise Monitoring Traffic Congestion City Energy Consumption Smart Parking Smart Lighting Automation and Salubrity of Public Buildings 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. Fig.6 : Smart City 21
  22. 22. Web Service Approach for IoT Service Architecture Link Layer Technologies Devices 22URBAN IOT ARCHITECTURE
  23. 23. Fig.7 : Conceptual representation of an urban IoT network based on the web 23
  24. 24. IoT domain many different standards are still struggling to be the reference one and the most adopted. What is IETF STd? IETF is to make internet work better by producing high quality relevant document, that influence the way people design use and manage the internet IoT services designed in accordance with the ReST paradigm exhibit very strong similarity with traditional web services 24Web Service Approach for IoT Service Architecture
  25. 25. Web Service Approach for IoT Service Architecture we will distinguish three distinct functional layers 1. Data 2. Application/Transport 3. Network 25Continued
  26. 26. Fig.8 : Protocol stacks for unconstrained (left) and constrained (right) IoT nodes 26
  27. 27. 27 Data layer Data exchange is typically accompanied by a description of the transferred content by means of semantic representation languages, of which the extensible Mark-up Language (XML) is probably the most common. EXI defines two types of encoding Schema less Schema-informed Continued
  28. 28. Data Format In architectures based on web services, data exchange is typically accompanied by a description of the transferred content by means of semantic representation languages, of which the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is probably the most common. EXI defines two types of encoding, namely schema-less and schema-informed. Schema-less encoding from the XML data and can be decoded by any EXI entity, the schema informed encoding assumes that the two EXI processors share an XML Schema before actual encoding and decoding can take place. 28Continued
  29. 29. 29 Application and Transport Layers Most of the traffic that crosses the Internet nowadays is carried at the application layer by HTTP over TCP. WHY COAP? The verbosity and complexity of native HTTP make it unsuitable for a straight deployment on constrained IoT devices. HTTP become limiting factor for IoT node because of excessive large amount of heavily correlated data. Continued
  30. 30. CoAP can easily interoperate with HTTP because: 1. It supports the ReST methods of HTTP (GET, PUT , POST, and DELETE). 2. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the response codes of the two protocols 3. The CoAP options can support a wide range of HTTP usage scenarios Continued Network Layer: IANA, that assigns IP addresses at a global level, has recently announced the exhaustion of IPv4 address blocks. Solution to this problem is offered by the IPv6 standard, which provides a 128-bit address field v4/v6 Port Address Translation (v4/v6 PAT) v4/v6 Domain Name Conversion URI mapping 30
  31. 31. 31 Backend Servers Database management systems Web sites Enterprise resource planning systems (ERP) Gateways IoT Peripheral Nodes Devices
  32. 32. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY: PADOVA SMART CITY The goal of Padova Smart City is to promote the early adoption of open data and ICT solutions in the public administration application consists of collecting environmental data and monitoring the public street lighting Equipped with different kind of Sensors and connecting it to IoT collecting environmental parameters such as CO level, air temperature humidity Vibrations noise, and so on, 32
  33. 33. Padova Smart City Components different hardware and software components of the system are Street Light Constrained link layer technologies WSN gateway HTTP-CoAP proxy Database server Operator mobile device 33
  34. 34. Fig.9 : System architecture of Padova Smart City. 34System architecture of Padova S