Introduction to Uva Province (Sri Lanka) - to Uva Province (Sri Lanka) Monaragala District Badulla District Waste Quantification and Characterization – Sri Lanka (2009) ...

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  • Waste Quantification and Characterization Sri Lanka (2009) ________________________________________________________________________________________________

    ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Extracted from Project on Converting Waste Agricultural Biomass to Energy/Material Resource Report

    II: Waste Biomass Quantification and Characterisation

    Uva Province

    The areas selected for the WAB project are the Monaragala and Buttala DS Divisions of

    the Monaragala District of the Uva Province, as shown in Figure A.

    Figure A: Sri Lanka Map - Uva Provincial Council

    Introduction to Uva Province (Sri Lanka)

    Monaragala District

    Badulla District

  • Waste Quantification and Characterization Sri Lanka (2009) ________________________________________________________________________________________________

    ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Extracted from Project on Converting Waste Agricultural Biomass to Energy/Material Resource Report

    II: Waste Biomass Quantification and Characterisation

    Uva is Sri Lanka's largest province and second least populated province, with 1,187,335

    people. It was created in 1896 and consists of two districts: Badulla (2,818 km) and

    Monaragala (5,545.6 km). The provincial capital of the province is Badulla. Uva is

    bordered by Eastern, Southern and Central provinces. It is a major tourist attraction with

    several well known waterfalls situated within its boundaries. The Gal Oya hills and the

    Central Mountains are the main uplands, while the Mahaweli and Menik rivers and the

    huge Senanayake Samudraya and Maduru Oya Reservoirs are the major waterways.

    The Monaragala administrative district (AD), which is situated in the Uva Province and

    administered under that Uva Provincial Council, is considered the second largest AD in

    the country with 8.6% of the total land area. It is made up of eleven (11) DS Divisions,

    and situated around 288 km from the capital Colombo.

    The total land area of the district is 5545.6 km2 and the total population is reported to be

    about 400,000 (population census of 1991) with the majority being of Sinhalese origin.

    The population density for the district is 58/km2.

    Monaragala is located in a transitional zone between the central highlands and the

    lowlands towards the south, East and Northeast. Situated in the Arid Zone of Sri Lanka,

    Monaragala has an average annual temperature, ranging from 22.5 - 27.5 oC. The District

    receives around 2,200 mm of rainfall in average annually. This is usually limited to 4-5

    months of the year. However one sixth of the district receives less than 1750 mm of

    rainfall per year. The variation in rainfall in the area has had adverse effects on its human

    population. The south, south-eastern and eastern parts of the district are relatively drier

    than the higher north-western parts.

    The soil conditions in the district vary according to the topography and the climate.

    However two distinguish soil groups can be identified from the area; the reddish brown

    soil and the red yellow podzolic soil. Both soil varieties are suitable for cultivation.

  • Waste Quantification and Characterization Sri Lanka (2009) ________________________________________________________________________________________________

    ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Extracted from Project on Converting Waste Agricultural Biomass to Energy/Material Resource Report

    II: Waste Biomass Quantification and Characterisation

    Figure B: Monaragala District Map

  • Waste Quantification and Characterization Sri Lanka (2009) ________________________________________________________________________________________________

    ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Extracted from Project on Converting Waste Agricultural Biomass to Energy/Material Resource Report

    II: Waste Biomass Quantification and Characterisation

    Monaragala has a complex agrarian society which has evolved around paddy cultivation.

    More than 90% of the population in the region has agriculture based livelihoods.

    Historically Monaragala has been a major paddy producer and agriculture has remained

    the backbone of the economy. In addition to paddy the region is also famous for the

    cultivation of vegetables, pulses and fruits mostly grown under Chena (Slash and Burn)

    cultivation methods. Plantation crops such as tea, rubber, cocoa, sugar cane, tobacco and

    coconut, were later introduced to this region and now exist and thrive side by side with

    the long-established crops.

    The cultivation in Monaragala can be separated into two seasons; the Maha (October-

    March) season which is the major cultivation season and the Yala (April-September)

    season. The total extent cultivated in the district is around 258.3 km2 during the Maha

    season and 137.16km2 during the Yala season an annual harvest of (according to

    Department of Census and Statistics 2007/2008) 99,446 Tons and 56,987 Tons

    respectively for Maha season and Yala season.

    The district was an ideal candidate for such a project as it is essentially an

    underdeveloped region and is considered the second poorest district in Sri Lanka. This is

    further highlighted by the fact that around 70% of households receive Samurdhi

    support, a scheme introduced as a monthly allowance system, similar to welfare,

    provided by the government for low or no income generating households in the country.

    This high level of rural poverty can be attributed to the inadequate economic activity. The

    problem is further worsened as no investment is brought into the region due to lack of

    infrastructure and basic necessities, electricity being one among them.

    However Monaragala has many untapped natural resources, some of them being

    agricultural crops and wastes. During surplus season much of the vegetable and fruit

    harvest is wasted as the farmers are unable to secure a good price for the crops in the

    market. In addition to this WABs generated in the area is currently not being utilized in a

    proper manner and is therefore causing damage to the environment. Traditionally, the

    agricultural waste is burned in open fields or dumped into abandoned lands and

  • Waste Quantification and Characterization Sri Lanka (2009) ________________________________________________________________________________________________

    ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Extracted from Project on Converting Waste Agricultural Biomass to Energy/Material Resource Report

    II: Waste Biomass Quantification and Characterisation

    waterways causing pollution to the air and water. In addition to this the burning and

    decomposing of agricultural waste gives rise to GHGs.

    The project is focussed on two of the DS divisions of the district; Monaragala and Buttala

    (see Figure B). Monaragala DS is situated in the centre of the Monaragala District in an

    area of 255 km2 and the main Administrative Centre for the District. The Buttala DS is

    situated south of the Monaragala DS and is 685 km2 in area. The population for

    Monaragala and Buttala DS divisions is 50,018 and 44,874 respectively. These DS

    divisions were selected for the project as there are considerable quantities of waste

    agriculture biomass being generated in the form of paddy straw, paddy husk, saw dust,

    sugarcane Barbojo, corn (maize) cobs and stalks etc.

    The Buttala D.S. Division is divided into 29 Gramaniladhari (G.N) Divisions, while the

    Monaragala D.S. Division has 26 G.N. Divisions. G.N. Divisions are the smallest

    administrative areas. Waste generation points and addresses of processing mills are based

    on this G.N. Division and therefore they are required for the mapping of resource

  • Waste Quantification and Characterization Sri Lanka (2009) ________________________________________________________________________________________________

    ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Extracted from Project on Converting Waste Agricultural Biomass to Energy/Material Resource Report

    II: Waste Biomass Quantification and Characterisation

    1. Methodology

    The Roadmap below lays out the procedure for data collection from setting up of the

    boundaries and planning the data collection and analysis procedures before hand to the

    actual collection and analysis of WAB related data. It can be categorized basically into

    two main stages,

    Setting up of boundaries in terms of geographical and administrative coverage with

    respect to various waste streams: Clearly defining and demarcating the geo-political

    and administrative boundaries, types of crops and sources of WAB such as

    agricultural farms and processing facilities.

    Setting procedures for data collection, analysis and presentation: Identifying methods

    for data collection such as direct and indirect methods, selecting the number and

    places from which samples should be collected. Furthermore procedures for

    analyzing the samples and presenting these findings will be selected.

    Figure 1.1: Flowchart for Data Collection & Analysis

    1 Baseline Data (2009)

  • Waste Quantification and Characterization Sri Lanka (2009) ________________________________________________________________________________________________

    ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Extracted from Project on Converting Waste Agricultural Biomass to Energy/Material Resource Report

    II: Waste Biomass Quantification and Characterisation

    1.1 Defining Geo Administrative Boundaries

    This includes the clear definition and demarcation of geo-political and administrative

    boundaries, types of crops, various agricultural farms and processing facilities and types

    of wastes generated. The information required is the following:

    Agricultural Farm Size and Distribution and Growth within the project area(s)

    Socio-Economic Patterns within the project area(s)

    Size and Number and Distribution of Processing facilities

    Administrative Boundaries and Responsibilities

    Sources of Waste Streams: Farms, Processing facilities, Commercial facilities

    1.2 Geographical Size of the Area and Zoning

    In order to facilitate the collection of required data for a particular region, appropriate

    formats were selected, for example, as:

    Maps from local authorities identifying the geographical and administrative

    boundaries.

    Maps for land-use/zoning plans.

    Farm population size and growth: Time-series data with future projections,

    distribution of population among various zones, number of single-family owned

    farms, cooperative farms and corporate farms.

    Size and number of processing facilities and commercial undertakings as per

    national or local classification.

    Regulations concerning various waste streams.

    Primary data on waste, if already available.

    1.3 Setting the procedures for data collection, analysis and presentation:

    Once the boundaries of the project are established, procedures for data collection,

    analysis and presentation are set as given below.

    Compilation of list of WAB generated by various sectors

    Quantification of total waste agricultural biomass generated

    Quantification of alternative uses of waste agricultural biomass

  • Waste Quantification and Characterization Sri Lanka (2009) ________________________________________________________________________________________________

    ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Extracted from Project on Converting Waste Agricultural Biomass to Energy/Material Resource Report

    II: Waste Biomass Quantification and Characterisation

    Characterization of different types of waste agricultural biomass generated from

    different sectors.

    Future projections incorporating possible changes in farming practices, socio-

    economic growth, and technological development.

    With relation to the quantification of waste agricultural biomass, two methods can be

    used to gather information

    Direct measurements: Measurements and at the point of generation such as

    sample material balances, onsite measurements etc.

    Indirect measurements: When direct measurement is not feasible, indirect

    measurements such as examination of records at the point of generation and

    disposal, vehicle surveys (waste transportation), interviews and surveys.

    1.5 Waste Characterization

    Another important element in collecting data on WAB is to characterize each of the waste

    types. The characterization includes identifying the properties of the waste through visual

    characterization, bulk density measurement, analysing moisture content, heating values

    and other specific characterization parameters (e.g. composition of ash after combustion)

    and distinguishing the composition (e.g. proximate analysis/ultimate analysis).

    In addition to the above information cost data related to the WAB such as cost of waste

    agricultural biomass, cost of pre-processing, cost of transportation, other costs (such as

    disposal fees, taxes/levies etc.) must also be gathered.

    1.6 Presentation of Data

    The data collected through the above methodology are presented in the form tables and

    graphs in the following report.

  • Waste Quantification and Characterization Sri Lanka (2009) ________________________________________________________________________________________________

    ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Extracted from Project on Converting Waste Agricultural Biomass to Energy/Material Resource Report

    II: Waste Biomass Quantification and Characterisation

    2. Paddy Processing Residues

    2.1 Paddy Production Scenario

    2.1.1 Production in Sri Lanka

    Paddy is the most extensively cultivated crop in Sri Lanka. The crop is grown in two

    seasons per year; the "Maha" season which is harvested in February and the "Yala"

    season which is harvested in August. As shown in table below, the gross area of paddy

    sown in 2008/09 was about 632,000 hectares in Maha season and 345,000 hectares in

    Yala season. The corresponding total production is 2,384106 kg in Maha season (65%)

    and 1,268106 kg in Yala season (35%)1

    Table 2.1: Paddy Production Data in 2009 (Source 1)

    Gross Area Sown Net area Harvested

    Production

    Average Yield

    Season

    hectare hectare (106 kg) (kg/net ha)

    Maha 632,130 539,271 2,384 4,421 Yala 345,431 302,863 1,268 4,186 Total 977,561 842,134 3,652 4.337

    In the past few decades, there has been a steady growth in paddy production in the Island.

    Table 2.1 gives the annual paddy production from 1979 to 2008 for each season and the

    entire year (note that the corresponding values for the year 2009 are presented). Figure

    2.1 depicts the growth in annual pa...

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