himachal pradesh

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Introductions Himachal Pradesh is one of the prominent states of north India.Majority of the population lives in villages. It is one of the states having highest rural population. Himachal Pradesh is a state in the Punjab region in northnorthIndia. west India. Himachal Pradesh is spread over 21,629 sq mi (56,019 km),[1] and is bordered by the Indian states of km),[1] Jammu and Kashmir on north, Punjab on west and southsouthwest, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh on south, Uttarakhand on southsouth-east and by Tibet, China on the east. The literal Tibet, meaning of Himachal Pradesh is Region of snowy mountains

CultureHimachal was one of the few states that had remained largely untouched by external customs, largely due to its difficult terrain. With the technological advancements the state has changed very rapidly. It is a multireligional, multicultural as well as multilingual state like other Indian states. The state is well known for its handicrafts. The carpets, leather works, shawls, paintings, metalware, woodwork and paintings are worth appreciating. Pashmina shawl is one of the products which are highly in demand not only in Himachal but all over the country. Himachali caps are also famous art work of the people. Extreme cold winters of Himachal necessitated wool weaving. Nearly every household in Himachal owns a pit-loom. Wool is also considered as pitpure and is used as a ritual cloth. The well known woven object is the shawl, ranging from fine pashmina to the coarse desar. Kullu is famous for its shawls with striking patterns and vibrant colours.

SMALL SCALE AND COTTAGE INDUSTRIES The Small scale Industrial (SSI) Sector contributes significantly to the prime social objective of providing employment opportunities to millions of people across the country. The SSI sector has been contributing significantly to industrial production, exports and national Gross Domestic Product. The sector has been assigned the target of annual growth of 12% and creation of 4.4 million additional jobs. Being a labor-intensive sector, they offer a higher productivity of capital than capitallaborcapitalintensive enterprises due to low investment per worker. The SSI today constitutes a very important segment of the Indian economy as they help in dispersal of industries, rural development, and the decentralization of economic power. The central discussion of this paper highlights the importance of small industries and their role in the economy and the impact of economic reforms on growth pattern and productivity performance of small-scale industries. However, this is not to say that there smallare no shortcomings within the industry, or in public policy relating to it. Small industries are faced with numerous problems major and minor, which make them either uncompetitive, or sick. An attempt is made to address some solutions that can improve their productivity by focusing on a sustainable vision. Over the last five decades, the small-scale Industries (SSI) sector has acquired a Place of smallprominence in the economy of the Country. It has contributed significantly to the Growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Employment generation and exports. The Sector now includes not only SSI units but also Small scale service and business enterprises(SSSBEs) and is thus referred to as the small Enterprises sector.

COTTAGE INDUSTRIESCottage Industry is a specialized form of small scale industry where the production of the commodity takes place in the homes and the labor is supplied by the family members only. The machineries or means utilized for the production of the commodities generally are the common ones used at homes. The basic characteristic feature of Cottage Industry is that it is basically unorganized in nature and come under the group of small scale industry type. The commodities that are being produced by these industries are basically consumable ones and are produced through the utilization of the traditional techniques. Cottage Industry especially started its function in the country sides of a country where unemployment along with under-employment are prevalent. Thus, this industry helps the undereconomy by absorbing a huge amount of surplus labor of the rural economy. Another glaring feature of Cottage Industry is that it is not a mass producer of commodities. The main risk that is being faced by this industry is from the factory based medium or large industries which are again capital intensive in nature. This is because of the fact that these large industries utilize all sorts of cost effective technologies which enable them to supply the products at low price. On the other hand, the Cottage Industry is basically labor intensive and utilizes traditional techniques in production process which are generally not cost effective in nature which escalates the price of their product. The products supplied by the Cottage Industry thus face risk of extinction if they don't receive enough financial or other form of support from the government. Cottage Industry is often characterized by its enormous potential for employment generation and the person getting employed is basically regarded as a self-employed one. self-

MALWA COTTON SPINNING MILLS LTD Malwa is among the top ten textile mills in the country. Malwa Cotton Spinning Mills Ltd, a subsidiary of VSO Group, has a facility at Paonta Sahib. The plant, which was set up in 1988, manufactures cotton, acrylic, polyester, viscose and other synthetic fibres. The Government of India awarded the group for consistent performance in exports and ISO 9002 for quality assurance.

INDUSTRIAL INFRASTRUCTURE The State Government has established 16 industrial areas, 11 export promotion parks and 11 industrial estates with basic amenities such as roads, power, sewerage, water, communications and power supply. An electronics complex has been developed at Shoghi, near Shimla. The state has established three agro export zones, including the one at Parwanoo, which is one of the largest in Asia

AGRO-BASED INDUSTRIES The diverse agro-climatic conditions and fertile soil enable the growth of horticulture produce in the state. Himachal Pradesh recorded a total fruit production of 0.56 million tonnes in 2003-04. Apple, the dominant fruit crop, constitutes about 42 per cent of the total area under fruit crops and 84 per cent of the total fruit production in the state. Other fruit crops include mango and litchi. Vegetable production in the state increased from 25,000 tonnes in 1951-52 to 731,000 tonnes in 2003-04. Animal husbandry and dairy are key contributors to the states income.

TEXTILES INDUSTRIES In addition to handloom and handicrafts, sericulture is one of the key cottage industries in the state. In 200304, 114,000 kg reeling cocoons were produced. There are about 50,000 handloom units primarily based on wool. The main products of the textile industry in the state are shawls, tweeds & blankets, woollen carpets, traditional dresses and other handicrafts. The BaddiBarotiwala-Nalagrah belt in Solan district near Chandigarh is fast emerging as a textile belt. The valley has a dozen units with a total capacity of about 600,000 spindles. Another five units with an additional capacity of 200,000 spindles are in the pipeline.

Stonework Thanks to the fair variety of stone found in this hilly region, stone carving has been explored to the fullest in Himachal. Numerous shikhara (spired) stone temples dot the landscape. The Lakshminarayan temples of Chamba and the temples of Baijnath and Masrur in the Kangra Valley are some splendid specimens of the kind. Beautifully carved memorial stone slabs called panihars are also found in several places, especially near temples and fountains. Stone carvers in HP are hammering away at their blocks even today, producing several artefacts of domestic use widely available in the markets. These include traditional stoves (angithi), circular pots for storing (kundi), pestle and mortar (dauri danda), mill stones (chakki) and other things. The centres of sculpting in Himachal are concentrated mainly in Mandi, Chamba, Kinnaur and the Shimla Hills.

Metalwork In a land where religion rules daily life, worship is bound to be an elaborate process. Temples are replete with pretty objects needed for worship, all fine specimens of metalwork. The metals used mainly are brass, copper, iron, tin and bell metal. Apart from the exquisite statuettes enshrined, there are several metal objects like bells with artistically designed handles, lamps, incense burners, low settees of silver or brass, vessels and ornate musical instruments in these temples. In fact, the common lota (a small globular pot for storing water) itself is available in so many different forms all over the state that its amazing. Similar things may be used as everyday items at home. Some of the more affluent homes possess beautifully fashioned teapots, smoking pipes, carved panels, doorknobs and various other artefacts. Metal workers havent lost their magic touch; this centuries old craft is still one of the most vital traditions of the state.

Jewellery Chunky bead-and-metal jewellery of the hill people is usually in great bead-anddemand. As with most tribal communities, the traditional attire includes ornaments for almost all parts of the body. Markets abound with stalls selling amulets, pendants, necklaces, daggers and rings youll probably want to take everything home! Fine jewellery is crafted out of silver and gold. The jewelers of the onceonceRajput kingdoms of Kangra, Chamba, Mandi and Kullu were famous for their enameling skills. They mainly worked with silver and were partial to deep blue and green enameling. They created exquisite pieces like elliptical anklets, solid ironironpeepal-leafheaded bangles, hair ornaments, peepal-leaf-s