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Guest Speakers Orateurs Invites Oradores Invitados ANITA GRADIN V. VAILLANT Minister of Migration Affairs and Equality Between Women and Men, Sweden Presidente de la Cornision Nacional de Repatriacion, Uruguay A. KAPPEYNE Undersecretary of State for Social Affairs and VAN DE COPPELLO Employment, Ministry of Social Affairs, The Netherlands MARIA MANUELA AGUIAR Secretaire dEtat aux CommunautCs portugaises, Portugal LEARCO SAPORITO Member of the Commission of Constitutional Affairs of the Senate, Italy GAETANO ADINOLFI Secretaire GCneral Adjoint, Conseil de 1Europe ADEBAYO ADEDEJI * Executive Secretary, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa * Statement read by Mr. C. Grey-Johnson, Economic Affairs Officer, Human Resources Development Section, Addis Ababa 15 STATEMENT BY ANITA GRADIN MINISTER O F MIGRATION AFFAIRS AND EQUALITY BETWEEN WOMEN AND MEN, SWEDEN Mr. Chairman, Mr. Director General, distinguished representatives, It is a great honour for me to have the privilege to address, for the third time, a seminar arranged by the Intergovernmental Committee for Migration. It is also a particular pleasure for me to note that this important seminar is chaired by the Swedish Under-Secretary of State for Immigration, Mr. Jonas Widgren. At the last ICM seminar, in April 1983, we discussed Undocumented Migrants or Migrants in an Irregular Situation, a topic which has since then become of ever increasing concern to many countries. The topic for this seminar, Economic and Social Aspects of Voluntary Return Migration is an equally timely choice. As we have seen, return migration is of increasing importance to individuals as well as to countries concerned. I would also like to say a word of appreciation of the documents prepared for this seminar. They contain a wealth of information and many interesting analyses, views and thoughts on the subject matter. They also spell out very aptly the many problems and dilemmas that we face with regard to return migration. My own view on this complex subject matter is the following. We must, first and foremost, see to safeguarding the interests and wellbeing of the individuals involved in return migration. We are dealing here with people who are often vulnerable and exposed and perhaps filled with agony over the decision they are about to make. Humanitarian considerations must therefore have priority over crass economic interests of the state. It should be recalled that immigrants have contributed substantially in building our modem, industrial societies and that certain responsibilities follow thereof on the part of the host countries. Similarly, our commitments to refugees, who have received a safe haven in our countries, should be ofa lasting nature. Even ifconditions in their country oforigin should be restored to normalcy, they should not feel compelled to break up and once more have to go through the process of getting settled. The return must be their own choice. In short, what we are to deal with at this seminar is voluntary return migration. The reasons behind migratory and refugee flows are today increasingly complex and intertwined. Denial of human rights, political instability, internal strife, natural calamaties, social and economic injustice and unemployment can all give rise to involuntary movements of people, and one cause often perpetuates the other. Those who are forced to leave their home and country have one thing in common: they all seek to escape an intolerable situation that their governments have been unable or unwilling to remedy. 17 It is therefore the duty of all governments represented here, and many others, to seek to eliminate all these underlying root causes in the adequate fora, within or outside the UN system. We must be able to convince all governments of their responsibilities towards their own people, with regard to human rights as well as to basic economic and social conditions. Where needed, all international support should be provided to help create the conditions where people can live in safety and dignity. Ifwe succeed in our endeavours, we will see a cessation of involuntary flows and also a voluntary return movement by those who have been driven away from their home countries. It has been most encouraging to follow developments in the last few years in Latin America. Many people have been able to return as democratic regimes have come to power. I saw a glimpse of this process myself when I visited Uruguay about a year ago, right before the election that also formally installed democracy in that country. Those who return bring new ideas, experiences and knowledge, essential for the building of a new society. This must be borne in mind when we assume responsibility for refugees in our countries. What they are able to learn in exile about the functioning ofa democratic society is most certainly the best capital they can bring back to their countries of origin. Sweden has during the post war period received over a million immigrants, refugees included. This means that some 12 per cent of the population in Sweden has been born abroad or has at least one parent of non-Swedish descent. Issues related to return migration to countries of origin have, generally speaking, played a subordinated role in the general Swedish policy debate on immigration and on the position of immigrants in society. This follows from the basic standpoint, established by the Government and the Parliament already in 1968, that the legal position of foreign workers in Sweden should not be made dependent on economic trends. This implies that a foreigner, who once has been given a residence permit, basically should enjoy the same rights as Swedes, and that those permits, for humanitarian and egalitarian reasons, should not be withdrawn during recessions. The notion offoreign workers as guest-workers was rejected already at the end of the 1960s. Thus, a State interest in promoting return migration factually takes place. Furthermore, one of the basic principles of the Swedish immigration policy is freedom ofchoice. This means that immigrants domiciled in Sweden should have a genuine choice between assuming a Swedish cultural identity or retaining and developing their cultural identity. This is achieved, we believe, by assisting the immigrant in learning Swedish and in asserting himself on the Swedish labour market and, at the same time, help him preserve his original language and cultural or professional abilities which he has brought to Sweden. Our basic attitude vis-a-vis return migration has been maintained in spite of a less favourable labour market situation and signs of xenophobia. The practice of offering a sum of money to immigrants as an inducement to return has consequently not been considered in Sweden. We fear that pressures of that kind may lead to hasty, uncontemplated decisions, resulting in disappointment and remorse and, possibly, a determination to emigrate a second time. A lot ofhuman suffering - and waste of resources - could be avoided if those who consider to return could be adequately informed about what they can realistically expect in their country of origin. This special situation of returning migrants and refugee women has not received much attention, although their problems have been recognized. Returning women often do not work for pay to the same extent in the home country as in the receiving country. Available evidence from Europe shows that the participation of many groups of migrant women in the labour force is often higher than that of national females. But when they return, their participation rate drops, partly because unemployment is particularly high for women in most sending countries. Another important issue in this respect is the changes of attitudes 18 to sex roles due to emigration and return. Women, who have experienced greater personal possibilities in a receiving country may face difficulties upon return. This fact calls for sincere efforts to assure women the same rights and possibilities as male migrants and returnees. However, once that the decision to return has been made, however, host countries should assist in every way they can, for example in co-operating with the labour market authorities in the country of origin to see to it that the returnees get a proper job. Naturally, due consideration should always be given to the guidelines which have been developed in different international fora, obliging host and sending countries to act in migration policies whether by men or women, in order to see to it that the long term needs of the countries of origin be taken into account. It is also often essential to support the country of origin in order to facilitate the reinsertion of the returnees. There is no standard pattern in administering such aid. Conditions in the varous countries vary a lot, and so do the priorities and policies of the countries concerned. Direct support to returnees may cause problems in relation to local inhabitants who have stayed behind and endured hardship but may be in equal, if not greater, need for rehabilitation. Ideally, returnee programmes should therefore be integrated in or planned to complement other development programmes in the area. We are encouraged to note the active participation of non-governmental organizations in this type of work. Given their flexibility, their field experience and motivation there would no doubt be further scope for operations of this kind, if funds are forthcoming. As I mentioned a while ago, a lot ofthe ground work for a successful reinsertion could be made by the host country before the return. Many constructive ideas and concrete suggestions are in the documents before us. Not least important would be to convey information on possible job openings in the countries of origin. This is a service we in our country today can only offer to our Finnish immigrants. I understand this is a field where ICM might be well placed to assist interested countries. Other areas where progress should be made is the classifying of education grades and vocational skills which have been acquired abroad, transfer of pension and other funds etc. I am happy to note that return migration has also received increased attention in other organizations in recent times. Within the OECD, a conference on the future of migration will be held in the spring of 1986. Return migration will be one of the topics discussed there and preparatory research is now under way. Those of us who also follow the work of the UNHCR know that voluntary repatriation of refugees is generally considered the ideal solution to a refugee problem, whenever conditions allow. The subject was more thoroughly discussed at a round table in San Remo last July. The resulting conclusions,which outlined some basic principles of international law and practice with regard to voluntary repatriation, have been well received by the members of the Executive Committee of the UNHCR. I am also convinced that the ICM will continue to have an important role to play in this undertaking. New approaches and imaginative thinking will be needed to tackle the vast and complex problems ahead of us. Progress will more than ever depend on close co-operation with other organizations and with governments concerned. ICM can look back at substantial achievements over the years also in the field of return migration. I wish the organization all success in its future work. Thank you. 19 DECLARACION DE VICTOR VAILLANT DIPUTADO PRESIDENTE DE LA COMISION NACIONAL DE REPATRIACION, URUGUAY Seiior Presidente, seiior Director, seiiores representantes y particpipantes en este seminario del Comite Intergubernamental para las Migraciones reciban ustedes un saludo muy calido de mi pais. Reciban ustedes tambikn las excusas de nuestro Ministro de Trabajo y Seguridad Social que era quien en el dia de hoy debia hacer us0 de la palabra como Presidente de la Delegacion uruguaya per0 razones vinculadas a su catera le han impedido trasladarse a Ginebra. Por esta razon, ha recaido en mi la responsabilidad de dirigirme en nombre de mi pais, a este seminario. Quiero resaltar la satisfaccion y el honor que esto significa cuando ademas lo hago y lo puedo hacer en nombre de un pais que acaba de recuperar su democracia. Sin duda el tema elegido, el tema de la migracion de retorno reviste fundamental importancia particularmente para paises como el nuestro que acaban de vivir en 10s ultimos aiios una ernigracion importante y que hoy tratan de alguna forma de poder asistir al retorno de sus conciudadanos. Sentimos que cuando vamos a empezar a conversar de este tema antes de hablar de la migracion del retorno debemos referirnos a la migracion como tal. En definitiva para que podamos hablar de migracion de retorno, previamente tenemos que hablar de las causes de la emigracion producida por situaciones que se dan en determinados paises que provocan la explusion de sus conciudadanos. Nosotros concebimos a la migracion como un sintoma, como un simbolo de libertad individual, per0 creemos que la migracion es verdaderamente un sintoma de libertad individual cuando esta es voluntaria, absolutamente voluntaria. Veamos que caracteristicas tienen 10s procesos migratorios de la actualidad. De donde surgen, cuales son 10s paises de origen de 10s migrantes, y cuales 10s de destino. Una rapida observacion nos permite asegurar que 10s paises de donde provienen 10s migrantes son 10s paises subdesarrollados o en via de desarrollo y se dirige a 10s paises desarrollados. LCuales son las causas de esta emigracibn? Sin duda tenemos causas economicas: paises *Discurso leido por el Sr. Diputado Victor Vaillant, Presidente de la Cornision Nacional de Repatriacion, Montevideo 21 sudesarrollados o en via de desarrollo donde 10s porcentajes, 10s indices de desempleo superan en muchos casos el 15 y el 20 por ciento de su poblacion activa. Niveles salariales insuficientes para un nivel minimo de vida decorosa, niveles salariales que en muchos casos no superan 10s 70 dolares mensuales. Condiciones de vida que no aseguran niveles minimos de education, niveles mimimos de salud y, ni hablar, de niveles minimos de esparcimiento. La propia expectativa de vida totalmente diferente a la de 10s paises desarrollados. Estamos hablando de paises en donde la expectativa de vida en algunos casos no supera 10s 40 aiios, frente a paises desarrollados donde las mismas expectativas alcanzan 10s 70. Otras razones sin duda hay, como por ejemplo, la necesidad de desarrollo de la potencialidad intelectual, de la potencialidad profesional y tecnica de 10s hombres que viven en 10s paises subdesarrollados. Intelectuales, ttcnicos y profesionales formados con gran sacrificio en nuestros paises luego observan que no tienen la infraestructura, la posibilidad de desarrollar este potencial y emigran de nuestros paises a 10s efectos de realizarse intelectual, cultural, profesionalmente y como personas. Existen tambitn otras causas que podiamos llamar exogenas que no son de dentro del paises de origen del migrante. Nos referimos, y debemos hacerlo con enfasis, alas politicas de captacion de recursos humanos altamente calificados hechas por 10s paises desarro- llados hacia 10s paises en vias de desarrollo. Y, por ultimo, no podemos ignorar las causas politicas de la emigracion: 10s conflictos bClicos entre paises, las convulsiones internas fruto de 10s enfrentamientos sociales a su vez product0 de las crisis economicas, 10s quiebres institucionales, Ias dictaduras, particulamente en Amtrica Latina, y la sistematica violation de 10s derechos humanos en muchos paises. QuC cumulo de causas definen entonces las caracteristicas de 10s paises de donde surgen 10s migrantes. LPero ante este cumulo de causas podemos nosotros decir que estarnos ante migraciones voluntarias? LHay voluntad del individuo cuando el hombre que debe migrar lo hace condicionado, influenciado, presionado por estas razones que acabamos de enumerar?Yo mismo me contest0 la pregunta y afirmo que no, no seiiores. Esto no es una migracion voluntaria y por lo tanto esto no es un simbolo, un sintoma de libertad individual. LQut consecuencias tienen estos procesos migratorios en nuestros paises, 10s paises en vias de desarrollo? Primero, una alteracion de lo que es el tejido social que lleva implicita la dispersion de nuestras familias. Luego, una alteracion del equilibrio etario, del equi- llibrio de edades de nuestros ciudadanos porque 10s migrantes son hombres en edad laboral, hombres y mujeres en edad activa, en su mayoria entre 10s 18 y 45 aiios, y eso significa una alteracion etaria de nuestro pais, de nuestros paises, un envejecimiento de nuestra poblacion con el consecuente resultado economico y social. Y, por ultimo, una de las causas mas importantes radica en la pCrdida de 10s recursos humanos mas calificados, de nuestros mejores ttcnicos, profesionales, intelectuales, mano de obra calificada. Es en este marco que nosotros podemos comenzar a analizar lo que son las migraciones de retorno, desde nuestro modesto enfoque de pais en vias de desarrollo. LQuC debe suceder para que las migracion del retorno sea posible? LCuales son las condiciones necesarias? Sin ninguna duda, en principio, deben alterarse, deben modificarse las causas que promovieron la expulsion de estos ciudadanos, su emigracion de sus paises de origen. Los cambios politicos, por ejemplo, son indudablemente una modificacion de condicio- nes que permiten alentar la migracion de retorno. Eso es lo que ha pasado en nuestro pais. Per0 nosotros debernos decir, que asi como cuando nos referiamos recientemente a las caracteristicas y las causas que provocaban la emigracion, y como estas causas hacian que la emigracion no fuera voluntaria y por lo tanto no fuera un sintoma de libertad indivi- 22 dual, en las politicas de retorno debemos aseverar lo mismo y tener el mismo cuidado. Las politicas de retorno deben hacerse, a nuestro entender, desde la modificacion de las condiciones en 10s paises de origen y de acuerdo a las politicas que estos paises tienen para retorno, con la colaboracion de 10s paises donde en este momento 10s migrantes esan residiendo, porque de no ser asi, el apoyo de 10s paises donde estan residiendo 10s migrantes se transformaria tambien en una forma de presion que desvirtuaria el contenido de libertad individual que tiene que tener la migracion. Yo siento la necesidad ahora de en pocos minutos relatarles la experiencia de mi querida Republica, en la que estamos en plena tarea de repatriacion. Nuestro pais, es un pais cuya poblacion desde su nacimiento fue poblacion immigrante en su totalidad. Uruguay era un pais vacio, poblado luego de immigrantes. Vivimos una historia de mas de cien aiios en donde el proceso migratorio tenia la compensacion de un flujo de immigracion con un flujo de emigracion de ciudadanos uruguayos. En la historia del Uruguay, mientras se recibia una immigracion extranjera, por otro lado teniamos un flujo emigratorio de nuestros propios ciudadanos per0 que se dio durante cien aiios en un mecanismo de equilibrio permanente hasta que en la decada del 70 las alteraciones politicas que tuvo nuestro pais, el quiebre institucional y la dictadura, modificaron esta situacion, y a partir de alli, de la dkcada del70 hasta 1983, Uruguay vio emigrar 330.000 ciudadanos. Con una poblacion total de 2.800.000, emigro de nuestro pais mas del 10 por ciento de nuestros habitantes, con una edad promedio entre 10s 18 y 10s 45 anos. Per0 no solo emigro mas del 10 por ciento de nuestros habitantes, emigro lo mejor de nuestra intelectualidad, de nuestra cultura, de nuestros profesionales, de nuestros tecnicos. En definitiva, emigro nuestra posibilidad de desarrollo. Por eso, para el Uruguay de hoy, para el Uruguay democratico, la repatriacion, el retorno de 10s emigrantes no es solo un problema social, no es solo un problema humanitario, sino que es tambien y fundamentalmente, un problema de desarrollo economico nacional. Coherentemente con lo anterior, el Parlamento democratico en su instalacion hace siete meses, voto como primer ley o primera accion parlamentaria, la llamada Ley de Aministia, que dispuso, por un lado, la liberacion de todos 10s presos pliticos, y, por el otro, la creacion de una Comision Nacional de Repatriacion del Estado para asistir a 10s repatriados. Xual es la politica de esta Comision? Esta no es una Comision que promueva el retorno, sino es una Cornision que, con una vision objetiva de la realidad, asiste a1 retorno, crea las condiciones en nuestro pais para que pueda producirse el retorno, para que este retorno sea asistido y organizado y no cause una nueva frustracion para quienes antes habian tenido que emigrar, y no se provoque el choque entre el sector de la sociedad que quedo dentro del pais y el sector de la sociedad que ahora vuelve. SintCticamente y en un aporte, modesto aporte, a este Siminario, yo quiero seiialar las medidas que el Gobierno uruguayo, pais de origen, has tomado desde la Comision Nacional de Repatriacion para asistir a1 retorno de nuestros conciudadanos, entendiendo que el retorno no es tal si no se produce conjuntamente con el la reinsercion social, economica y cultural. Nuestro pais has decidido exoneraciones aduaneras para todos 10s uruguayos que retornan, permititndoles ingresar a1 pais todos sus bienes familiares, materiales, equipo y herramientas de trabajo. Asimismo, ha decidido un descuento del 75 por ciento de 10s proventos portuarios. Los consulados y las embajadas uruguayas realizan gratuitamente todo tramite que tenga que ver con la repatriacion de nuestros ciudadanos. En cuanto a la educacion, la Comision Nacional de Repatriacion ha asegurado el ingreso automatico de cualquier ciudadano en edad estudiantil, ya sea a nivel de primaria, secundaria o la propia universidad de la Republica, con una simple declaracion jurada de 10s estudios realizados en el exterior,como forma de obtener una rapida insercion a nivel 23 educacional. Y , paralelamente a ello, el Estado ha dispuesto, gratuitamente tambitn, la creacion de cursos complementanos en aquellas materias y asignaturas que son propias y caracteristicas de nuestro pais. Asi 10s estudiantes reciben hoy gratuitamente en 10s centros del Estado, cursos complementarios de historia y geografia nacional, nuestro propio idioma, nuestra educacion civica y moral. Se esta creando en este momento en el Uruguay un centro de asistencia sicosocial porque hemos detectado graves problemas sicosociales que afectan a las familias retornantes. Y a estos efectos estamos contando con la colaboracion de la Asociacion de sicologos uruguayos. La Universidad de la Republica ha creado una comision especial para revalidar rapidamente 10s titulos de 10s profesionales uruguayos obtenidos fuera del pais. A nivel de la salud, el Estado uruguayo garantiza gratuitamente la asistencia integral desde el primer dia y por un periodo de seis meses 10s retornados. Hemos llevado adelante programas de emergencia con a1 colaboracion de recursos obtenidos de distintas organizaciones mundiales, multilaterales o bilateralmente, donde debemos destacar la presencia del Comitt Intergubernamental para las Migraciones y del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unida para 10s Refugiados. Estos programas de emergencia nos han permitido asistir a aquellos retornados que, estando ya en el pais, no habian logrado su reinsercibn, estaban en situacion de emergencia, y la Comision Nacional de Repatriacion 10s ha asistido, y 10s sigue asistiendo economicamente en la medida que recibe recursos del exterior, con salarios minimos nacionales, y compensacion para 10s hijos. Se ha establecido una politica de alimentacion para 10s retornados a travts del Instituto NacionaI de Alimentacion del Uruguay, por el cual aquellos uruguayos que retornan y tienen situation de indigencia reciben vales de alimentacion diarios para poder alimentar a sus familias. A nivel laboral, se ha procedido a la restitucion a sus trabajos de todos aquellos que antes de emigrar habian sido destituidos por la dictadura de sus funciones en el Estado y con esto han logrado rapida insercion laboral muchisimos de 10s uruguayos retornados. Por otro lado, existen equipos ttcnicos de la Comision Nacional de Repatriacion elaborando proyectos de insercion laboral, para creacion de fuentes de trabajo alternativo y no competitivo con 10s residentes. Respecto a la vivenda, el Banco Hipotecano de Uruguay, banco de foment0 de la vivenda en el Uruguay, ha dispuesto el financiamento de vivienda para 10s uruguayos emigrados que retornan, en el 80 por ciento de su valor. El Banco Hipotecario del Uruguay financia el 80 por ciento de la vivienda para 10s repatriados, a 20 aiios y con un interes del5 por ciento anual. En este momento, la Comision de Repatriacion esta llevando adelante una politica de complementos salariales, porque en el marco de lo que significa para nosotros el retorno intimamente vinculado a1 desarrollo nacional, sentimos la necesidad de mejorar las condiciones para aquellas personas, para aquellos ttcnicos nacionales que voluntariamente desean regresar per0 no tienen las condiciones necesarias. Hoy, mediante un mecanismo de relevamiento a nivel nacional public0 y privado hemos detectado la necesidad de tecnicos y profesionales altamente capacitados per0 que no puede el Estado con su presupuesto, financiar. Y lo que hemos hecho entonces es un programa, con la ayuda de 10s organismos internacionales, de 10s paises colaboradores, un programa de complementos salariales con el cual intentamos retornar en pocos meses mas de 500 tecnicos, profesionales y mano de obra altamente calificada a nuestro pais para lograr la reinsercion, la repatriacion, entretejida con lo que es la recuparacion y el desarrollo nacional. 24 La Comision Nacional de Repatriacion ha hecho todo esto con el esfuerzo del Gobierno, per0 tambiCn con el esfuerzo y el apoyo de otros paises a travCs de acuerdos bilaterales, y de organizaciones internacionales con sus programas multilaterales. Esta es la corta experiencia de Uruguay en materia de repatriacion. Siento que he abusado del tiernpo per0 no quiero retirarme, dejar de hacer us0 de la palabra, sin antes cumplir con una obligacibn que siento ante la comunidad mundial de alguna forma hoy aqui representada. Es el agradecimiento de nuestro pueblo y de nuestro Gobierno por el apoyo que hemos recibido mientras luchabamos por nuesta libertad y el agradecimiento de nuestro pueblo y de nuestro Gobierno por el apoyo y la asistencia que nuestros migrantes han recibido en 10s lugares del mundo a 10s cuales Ilegaron, y la esperanza, la confianza, yo diria la seguridad, que esa solidaridad rnundial nos continuara apoyando en esta empresa de migracion de retorno voluntano y de reinsercion que Uruguay ha emprendido. Muchas gracias, seiior Presidente. Muchas gracias, seiiores representantes. 25 STATEMENT BY A. KAPPEYNE VAN DE COPPELLO UNDERSECRETARY OF STATE FOR SOCIAL AFFAIRS AND EMPLOYMENT, MINISTRY OF SOCIAL AFFAIRS, THE NETHERLANDS Mr. Chairman, I am grateful for this opportunity to address a few words to the participants in this interesting seminar. I am also glad that I have been able to listen yesterday afternoon to the discussions on the various forms, reasons and motivations for the voluntary return of people to their country of origin. Voluntary return migration, in my view, is part of voluntary migration as a whole. It is one form of the whole migration phenomenon. To use the words of a very gifted Australian, the late Sir Peter Heydon: Migration is the universal language of human aspiration. It is international in so far as people move from one country to another. The decisive factor in the process is, however, the human being with his talents, energy and ambitions who wishes to leave his country and settle in another where he hopes to find more scope for his aspirations in life. Mr. Chairman, my country, situated in the Rhine/Maas delta and looking out on the North Sea, has both an emigration and an immigration tradition which goes back over the centuries. Seafaring merchants sailed the seven seas, and in their wake settlers appeared, already in the early seventeenth century, in what are now known as New York, Cape Town, Sri Lanka, Japan, Indonesia, Northeast Brazil and the Caribbean Basin. Dutchmen also discovered Australia and New Zealand. At the same time, the Netherlands itself was greatly enriched by the influx of high intelligence, energy and craftmanship of Portuguese Jews, Belgian diamond cutters and French Huguenots. And finally, the Netherlands served as a temporary refuge to the famous Pilgrim Fathers before they set sail for the United States ofAmerica. Two centuries later group settlements of Dutch migrants came into being in the western parts of Canada and the United States. Whole regions in the Netherlands moved to what was then known as the New World. The end of the Second World War gave a new impetus to migration from the Netherlands. In the fifties and sixties about half a million Dutchmen emigrated to such countries as Australia, Brazil, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. Somewhat later, in the sixties and seventies, about half a million people from abroad amved in the country, partly in connexion with the economic boom in the industsalized countries of Northwestern Europe, partly in connexion with the process of decolonization in the overseas parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and partly because they had been 27 forced to leave their homelands because of hostilities, persecution or some natural disaster. It is on the return migration of such people as these most recently arrived immigrants that this seminar is focussing. And it is on the policy approach to this return migration that I should like to share with you some of the views of my Government. First of all, Mr. Chairman, it should be mentioned that migrant workers, residents from former colonies and refugees most often belong to cultural, ethnic and/or religious minorities. In most of them there has always remained a desire to return one day to their home country. The economic recession following the first oil crisis of 1973 and, especially, the serious unemployment situation caused by it have awakened this dormant desire in many members of these cultural minorities. Since the Government expects the great majority of them to remain permanently in the Netherlands, government policy aims at making these ethnic minorities feel at home in our society as much as possible and at enhancing their possibilities to improve their social and economic position. They have early this year, for instance, received the right to vote at the municipal level and participate eagerly in local elections. Should members of these minorities, in spite of this, prefer to return to their country of origin for reasons of their own, the Government tries to assist them in carrying out their plans within the limits of its possibilities. This support consists of several measures in subsequent stages. In the first stage, objective information is available to intending returnees on all aspects which are of interest to them. Furthermore, counselling is being provided to help them reaching a decision for or against return as best suited to their particular circumstances. In this stage they have also the opportunity to attend adult vocational training courses in order to improve their changes of employment after arrival. In the second stage, they will receive a government subsidy to finance the transport costs of the people and a limited amount of household belongings, as well as an amount to meet the costs of resettlement during the first three months after amval at the place of destination. Recently, a new experimental scheme has come into operation which provides a monthly pre-pension allowance to unemployed people of non-Netherlands nationality between the ages of 55 and 64. The reason for this scheme is that these people are particularly vulnerable since it is unlikely that they will find employment anymore either in the Netherlands or in their home country. On becoming 65, the normal old age pension is applicable. Mr. Chairman, as I said in the beginning, return migration forms part of migration as a whole. There are, at the same time, characteristic differences between the various types of migration. Post-war emigrants were attracted to countries like Australia, Canada and the U.S. because they found there more room, a better climate and more attractive material conditions. These considerations do not apply to the home countries of ethnic minorities as a rule. On their return they will find employment conditions not much changed during their absence. Their reasons for returning are, therefore, essentially of a non-material nature. The problem of finding suitable means of earning their livelihood is in their case of foremost importance. This problem is of such proportions that it transcends the possibilities ofcountries like mine. On the other hand, we should realize that the return of a great many countrymen from abroad constitutes understandable problems for the countries of origin. The exchange of views on these problems during this seminar is, therefore, of great value. Thirdly and finally, Mr. Chairman, the decision to return is an individual one which is the responsibility of the individuals concerned. On the other hand, we know from our migration tradition that returnees will often discover that their integration in our 28 community has been greater than they realized at the time. This will specially apply to the children who went to our schools and grew up with our ways of living. Here lies another field of problems for which no easy solutions present themselves. Mr. Chairman, this seminar pools together the knowledge and experience of a great number of experts from many countries. I congratulate both ICM and the Preparatory Working Group on this initiative. I am convinced that governments and national and international organizations co-operating in the field of migration will greatly profit from your discussions. I wish you all a very fruitful conference. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 29 DECLARATION DE MANUELA AGUIAR SECRETAIRE DETAT AUX COMMUNAUTES PORTUGAISES, PORTUGAL Monsieur le President, Mesdames, Messieurs, Je tiens en premier lieu A expnmer mes remerciements au Comite Intergouvernemental pour les Migrations pour lhonneur quil ma fait en minvitant a prendre la parole a la skance douverture de ce SCminaire, consacrk a w Aspects economiques et sociaux de la migration de retour volontaire, -- thkme dune grande actualit6 et du plus haut interst pour tous les pays demigration et &immigration. Je tiens tgalement a adresser mes plus sinckres felicitations a tous ceux qui ont pris linitiative de ce SCminaire et qui ont collabore a son organisation. En tant que membre du Gouvernernent portugais charge des questions de migration, je voudrais aussi fkliciter et remercier en particulier les experts qui ont elabort les rapports gknkraux sur les sous-thkmes et les documents nationaux dinformation, pour la prkcieuse contribution quils nous ont apportke, afin que nous puissions disposer dune base dinformation ample et sfire, non seulement pour le dialogue qui va sttablir ici, mais encore pour la poursuite ultkrieur de lanalyse de ce thtme. Du debat qui va suivre devraient resulter, et rksulteront, jen suis convaincue, de nombreux eclaircissements dune grande valeur sur la question du retour des travailleurs migrants dans leurs pays dorigine; sur toute la vaste problematiqiie economique, sociale et culturelle quelle implique, en particulier pour ce qui est de levaluation de son importance dans le contexte vkritablement actuel, a 16chelle mondiale et surtout europtenne, des mouvernents migratoires; sur les causes et les motivations de ce phknomhe; sur les conditions dans lesquelles ce retour peut &tre consider6 comme volontaire; sur les difficultks auxquelles se heurte la reintegration des emigres dans la sociktt: dorigine; sur les mesures a prendre par les Gouvernements et autres organismes afin de faire face efficacement a ces difficultks; enfin, sur tout le travail de coop6ration internationale, bilattrale et rnultilaterale, quil importe de poursuivre et de developper dans ce domaine. Je me limiterai par consequent, dans cette declaration, a souligner, dune manikre trks genkrale, le grand interit que mon Gouvernement porte a ces questions et a leur evolution, et a exposer son point de vUe quant aux politiques quelles imposent, qui doivent &tre clairement definies et appliquees efficacement, tant au niveau national que sur le plan international. Mime en ce qui concerne la situation portugaise actuelle et notre experience dans ce domaine, je ne mallongerai pas en details, etant donne que les participants a ce Seminaire 31 ont pris connaissance de notre document, ou la question est assez minutieusement exposte et ou sont signalees les mesures prises dans les dernitres anntes, et qui se projettent dans I'avenir. Cet interEt de la part de mon Gouvernement tmane avant tout de la reconnaissance de l'importance qu'a assumee la problkmatique du retour volontaire dans le contexte mondial des migrations, au cours des dix dernikres annees, principalement en Europe, et de ses incidences dans la socittt et dans l'konomie portugaises, en tant que pays traditionnel &emigration que nous sommes: il tmane aussi de notre dksir d'approfondir constamment notre experience dans cette matikre. I1 kmane enfin de notre volonte, non moins traditionnelle, de chercher toujours, dans nos relations avec les autres Etats, a appliquer et a intensifier une politique d'etroite cooperation. Et l'on sait a quel point cette cooperation est essentielle, si l'on veut trouver des solutions justes et efficaces pour les probltmes multiples et varies que soulkvent le retour des emigres et leur reintegration dans le pays d'origine. Quant a l'experience portugaise sur ces matitres, je dois dire que ce n'est qu' a partir du debut des annees quatre-vingt qu'elles ont commenckes a Etre analysees avec l'attention voulue. Jusque-la, en effect, on ignorait le nombre des emigres effectivement retournes, et I'on partait du principe qu'il ne devait pas Etre trks significatif, et on le considerait trks inferieur ce qu'il ttait en realite. J'ai moi-m&me appelk ce phtnomkne 'les retours invisi bles'. Permettez-moi, cependant, une breve observation et de rappeler que nous avions deja eu, dans la dtcennie de soixante-dix, une experience assez considerable, dans un domaine offrant des caractkristiques identiques a celui dont nous nous occupons ici: Ie retour et la reintegration de prks de 500.000 Portugais rapatrits des anciennes colonies. Cette experience nous a enseigne, entre autres, quelque chose de trks important, croyons-nous, pour la reintegration des emigres: d'un cBtC, la ntcessitk d'organiser, dans le pays d'origine, des mtcanismes destines a faciliter la reintegration de ceux qui retournent, en leur assurant un appui stable et efficace, mais qui respecte leur capacitt &initiative et s'efforce de tirer parti, dans toute la mesure du possible, de leurs qualitts et de leurs aptitudes; d'un autre cBte, l'interet qu'il y a a promouvoir des actions concertkes de cooperation internationale suffisamment efficaces, parmi lesquelles les appuis financiers ne sont pas les moins importants. Toutefois la manikre assez heureuse dont s'est dtroulk ce processus de reintegration des Portugais rapatrits des anciennes colonies et les resultats obtenus, que Yon peut considtrer comme indubitablement satisfaisants, compte tenu du nombre elevt de rapatrits, des caracttristiques structurelles de I'tconomie de mon pays (trks semblables, d'ailleurs, a celles d'autres pays mCditerranCens d'tmigration) ainsi que de la crise que nous traversions d6ja ce moment-la, ne doivent pas nous faire oublier les coOts Clevis qui en ont rCsultt, aussi bien pour la communautk que pour un nombre non negligeable de rapatrib, qui n'ont pu voir leurs capacitts rCelles mises a profit, comme il eOt ete souhaitable, pour leur realisation et leur promotion personnelles et pour le developpement du pays. C'est la encore une raison - parmi toutes les autres, bien connues, d'ordre juridique, moral, tconomique et social (ou se detache en premier lieu le droit fondamental des emigres a la libre option quant aux decisions a prendre en chaque phase du processus migratoire) - qui fait que, dans toutes les reunions et negotiations internationales relatives au retour des emigres dans leurs pays d'origine, nous avons toujours insistt sur l'obligation et la ntcessitt de respecter, sans restrictions, le caractkre volontaire et reellement libre de ce retour. Et je dis ntcessitt, parce que seuls les retours dans ces conditions pourront permettre un processus de reintegration sociodconomique avec de bonnes probabilitts de succes, sans 32 Iimposition de coQts extrCmement lourds pour les pays dorigine, et sans aggraver encore les desequilibres entre ces pays et les pays plus dCveloppCs, ce qui, en dernikre analyse, est egalement prejudiciable pour ces derniers. Dans le cadre de la politique portugaise de lemigration, nous ne sommes pas excessivement prkoccupes par le retour volontaire et reflkchi des emigres qui considkrent avoir realis6 leur projet migratoire (dont fait gtneralement partie, tout au moins au debut, lintention de retourner), et qui sont bien inform& sur les conditions socio-tconomiques quils vont trouver dans leur pays, sur les possibilitts dappliquer efficacement leurs capacites et leurs Cpargnes, et sur les appuis dont ils pourront disposer. Nous pensons mCme que les unes et les autres pourront avoir un effet positif sur ltconomie de notre pays, pourvu quelles soient dQment encadrees et orientkes surtout dans le sens de la realisation de projets de developpement regional. Je pense, en accord avec les donnees disponibles, que la majeure partie des emigres portugais qui sont retournes dans leur pays au cours des dix dernikres annCs ont pris cette decision dans la pleine conscience de ce quils avaient realist leur projet migratoire et quils se trouvaient par consequent en conditions de rentrer, sans prejudice sensible pour leur niveau de vie et leur avenir. En faisant cette observation, je ne pretends nullement nier Iinfluence quont pu exercer aussi Iaggravation des difficultes, surtout dordre social et tconomique, et quelques-unes des mesures prises par les gouvernements des pays daccueil. Le caractkre volontaire et lechelonnement dans le temps de ce type de retours ont fait quils sont passes presque inaperps, ce qui prouve, jusqua un certain point, que la reintegration sociale des migrants retournts sest operke sans soubresauts significatifs et, peut-on dire, sans consequences negatives pour notre tconomie. Mais, et pour cela m&me, une grande part de Iesprit dinitiative, des capacites et de Iexptrience de ceux qui sont rentrts a etk insuffisamment mise a profit, alors quelle aurait pu Ctre canalisee dans le sens du developpement de leurs regions dorigine. Quoi quil en soit, lintensification des retours, Iacuite qua assumte dans les dernikres annees la problematique du phenomkne pour les autorites et les populations des pays dkmigration et &immigration, et en particulier pour les travailleurs migrants et leurs familles, nous ont aments, depuis une demi-douzaine dannees, a definir une politique dappui aux emigres, en ce qui concerne leur retour et leur reintegration. Je pense que cette politique est suffisamment Claire et sest traduite par ladoption dun nombre deja appreciable de mesures et de mtcanismes jug& ntcessaires pour que cet appui soit efficace. Ces mesures et ces mtcanismes, enumerks dans le document tlabore pour ce Seminaire, visent, en premier lieu, a fournir aux tmigrts une information ample, rigoureuse et actualiske sur les conditions sociales, tconomiques et culturelles qui existent tant dans les pays daccueil que dans notre pays, - information de la plus haute importance pour quils puissent prendre une decision autant que possible fondke, libre et rCflCchie quant au prolongement de leur skjour dans le pays daccueil, ou quanta leur retour dans leur pays dorigine. Un autre objectif essentiel est dapporter aux travailleurs migrants qui retournent et a leurs familles Iappui necessaire pour les aider a surmonter leurs difficultes et de creer les conditions qui leur permettent de se rkintegrer dans la socikte portugaise en tirant le meilleur parti possible de leur esprit dinitiative et de leurs capacitts. Ceci exige egalement un travail intense &information et une parfaite articulation entre le dtpartement gouvernemental qui soccupe des probl6mes de Yemigration et les autres, notamment les dkpartements responsables du dtveloppement regional, des investissements, du march6 du travail, de la skcuritk sociale et de lkducation. 33 Notre experience dans ce domaine sera analyske, et certainement discutke, au moment de la presentation du document portugais. Mais pemettez-moi d'insister ici une fois de plus sur des aspects que nous considerons comme de la plus haute importance, et pour cela il me suffira de les mentionner, a tel point cette importance est connue et reconnue de nous tous, a savoir: le r6le essentiel de I'information et de la cooperation - cooperation bilattrale entre pays d'origine et pays d'accueil, mais aussi cooperation multilaterale - et l'appui inestimable des organismes internationaux qui ont pour objectifle developpement de cette coopkration. Je voudrais encore souligner, dans ce domaine des mtcanismes de cooperation, en particulier en ce qui concerne I'information des migrants, I'activite du groupe de travail luso-franCais et les skminaires realids conjointement avec 1'Allemagne. J'aimerais voir multiplier les groupes de travail de ce genre. Je n'ignore pas l'oeuvre mtritoire qui a ett realisbe par le CIM dans ce domaine - entre autres - de l'information. C'est son initiative et a sa competence que nous devons l'organisation de ce Seminaire qui, j'en suis certaine, constituera une etape importante dans le sens des objectifs que nous proposons, a savoir: que les problkmes du retour et de la reintegration des migrants cessent de representer, pour des millions de personnes, un facteur d'insecuritt, et que la solution de ce probleme soit de plus en plus recherchee dans le dialogue et dans la cooperation ouverte et efficace entre tous les pays inttresses. Je vous remercie, Monsieur le President. 34 STATEMENT BY LEARCO SAPORITO MEMBER OF THE COMMISSION OF CONSTITUTIONAL AFFAIRS OF THE SENATE, ITALY Taking into account all the dramatic aspects ofthe crisis in the present historical period, it is necessary to recognize that the general recession which has hit the most industralized countries and the violent development of inflation which has upset national and inter- national economies have dramatically increased unemployment problems, hitting parti- cularly the migrant workers with the most negative consequences. For these reasons several most divergent situations have appeared: on the one hand, the difficulty of finding employment in the country of origin has determined a new push towards emigration, while, on the other hand, the recent recession has engendered such a high level of unemployment as to provoke numerous returns of migrants. However, there is no intention to ascribe to the economic situation the only motivation for return. In fact, in the last ten years, migratory movements have changed so that, even while maintaining characteristics of increased mobility, the annual balance of migrations is in favour of returns. The migrant, returning to his own country of origin, goes through a difficult and complex period of social, cultural and economic reinsertion. As a consequence, it is necessary to look with great realism into the problem of return, to avoid creating illusions and expectations. At present, the internal problems related to employment and social security in the countries oforigin seem to overshadow those related to the legal and political protection of workers living abroad, the dimensions of which are dramatic on the personal, family and social planes and increase even more when the host countries follow policies which do not recognize their obligations. Parallel to the internal situation in Italy there is an international reality, especially in the main countries where Italian migrants are residing, which is equally worrying for many reasons. Such reality gradually modifies even the role migration should have in a future international order. The return of migrants is often encouraged by the governments of many countries, as well as by the inappropriate policies of the emigration communi- ties. Many governments are inclined to consider migration as undesirable in the face of the new challenges to the economies of each state as a consequence of technological evolution. This phenomenon increases the more intensive economic sectors and determines the elimination in many economic areas of old concepts which, as a consequence of a special 35 type of international organization of work, permitted a different level of mobility of international manpower. The above change limits the possibility of employment of unskilled workers, while the intensive economic system increases the need for highly technical professional capacities. The consequence in the field of migration is an increase in nationalistic trends and in expulsion proceedings along with the related phenomenon of involuntary returns ; thus, the slowdown of the integration process which for years had been pursued in many countries of Europe. From the above it seems necessary to initiate political action for the purpose of creating a European unity beyond economic factors. It seems also urgent to avoid voluntary return movements based on an incorrect assumption of the possibilities for reinsertion in national productive systems. In Italy, the various economic and social situations of each region, the different points of view in the individual regions on the migratory phenomenon and the different dates of regional legislation have led to a great disparity on this matter, and above all have weakened the process of integration of the returning migrants. In order to eliminate the main problems it is indispensable to harmonize the different regional legislations so to elaborate a unified national policy with a clear view of the difficulties deriving from unplanned returns. It is advisable, therefore, that there be greater harmony between the interventions at the central government level and interventions at the regional level. Without the intention of limiting the autonomy of the regions, it seems advisable to emphasize the need for serious planning ofall interventions for the purpose ofcoming to grips with a phenomenon which, even if articulated by area and sectors, has a national dimension. As already mentioned, a greater harmony is necessary among decisions and operations of the two administrative structures of the state and of the regions. This applies, speci- fically in relation to the directives of EEC, to the elaboration of integrated plans in favour of migrants and to the definition of actions in the sectors of vocational training and educational assistance. Among the motivations of returning migrants the needs of family, such as the studies of the children, are the most important. If it would be possible to find solutions to this problem, one of the major causes of returns will be diminished. It is a problem which undoubtedly has deep pedagogic, psychological and social implications, but it could be solved by means of precise and appropriate cultural interventions. The Italian Govern- ment could intervene in Italy and even in the countries of reception themselves. The purpose would be a better reinsertion of the migrant children in the social system of the country of reception, maintaining at the same time a cultural link with Italy. The advisability of an overall new legislation in Italy is now evident in order to regulate the activity ofthe state and the activities ofthe regions, as well as to establish a state-region social fund for the problems of migration. Such a fund should guarantee to the returning migrants some incentives for reinsertion in the productive apparatus and in the national and regional social context. Facilities should be established to encourage actions by the migrants themselves such as contributions for productive initiatives, facilitated credit, vocational training and profes- sional rehabilitation. The Italian Government should attempt to raise the interest of the EEC member states for the purpose of obtaining economic support from the economic European fund. Countries such as Italy should examine carefully the migration phenomenon in all its aspects, so as to understand fully the migrants problems and the anxieties of their rein- sertion, while at the same time supporting the migrant workers rights. As regards such 36 rights, correct information is necessary, especially for those who intend to return, in order to avoid damaging expectations and inevitable disappointments. Today it is extremely dangerous to maintain in the field of migration uncertain orien- tations between the integration in the countries of reception and the return to the country of origin. In my opinion, the Italian Government will continue a policy directed to favour the integration of Italian migrants in the country of reception within the context of the possibilities of a united Europe in the economic, social and political fields: a goal which Italy is pursuing with firm belief and determination. 37 DECLARATION DE GAETANO ADINOLFI SECRETAIRE GENERAL ADJOINT CONSEIL DE L'EUROPE Mesdames, Messieurs, Consacrer le septibme stminaire du Comitt intergouvernemental pour les migrations aux 'Aspects tconomiques et sociaux de la migration de retour volontaire' est une heureuse initiative et je tiens a en ftliciter le Directeur gtntral, M. James L. Carlin. Nous connaissons tous l'oeuvre hautement humanitaire du CIM. Depuis plus de trente ans, cette Organisation octroie une aide vitale a des milliers de personnes qui, pour des raisons politiques, Cconomiques et sociales, ont dii s'expatrier. Les efforts de rtflexion du Comite intergouvernemental pour les migrations pour apprehender les changements profonds que connaissent nos socittts au niveau des migrations internationales ont aussi une importance capitale comme le prouvent ces diffirents stminaires organists ptriodiquement sous sa responsabilitC. Puisque des personnalitts iminentes venues de pays aussi divers que les Etats-Unis, le Canada, I'Argentine, la Colombie, la Guinte, et bien d'autres, nous feront partager leur exptrience et leur prtoccupation sur la question qui nous occupe aujourd'hui, je voudrais, quant a moi, limiter mon intervention aux 21 pays membres du Conseil de 1'Europe. En Europe occidentale, la situation actuelle de la migration pose plusieurs dCfis a nos socittts. Je n'en mentionnerai que trois: l'inttgration des migrations a la vie tconomique, sociale, culturelle et politique des pays d'accueil ; maintien de l'identitC culturelle de ces migrants, en particulier des jeunes qui dans plusieurs pays &Europe appartiennent des minoritts ethniques durablement installies ; la rtinsertion harmonieuse dans la socittt d'origine des migrants qui, volontairement, veulent regagner leur pays. Parmi ces trois defis, celui de la rtinsertion dam la sociktt d'origine souleve, plus que tout autre, la question de la cooperation, je dirais de la solidarite, entre 1es pays &immigration et les pays d'bmigration. 39 En effet, durant les annees dexpansion economique les pays industrialises dEurope ouvrent leurs frontiires a cette migration, quand ils ne vont la chercher directement sur place. Ainsi, lorsque surgit la crise au debut des annkes 1970, le chiffre de la population immigree en Europe (auquel se sont ajoutees les minorites ethniques provenant des anciennes colonies), atteint un niveau jamais connu auparavant, quelque 13 millions de personnes. La plupart des pays daccueil adopteront alors un comportement nouveau a legard des travailleurs migrants essayant dbord de contenir ou de stopper des flux dimmigration et ensuite de faciliter, parfois meme dencourager les mouvements de retour dans les pays dorigine. Aujourdhui on constate que la population dorigine migrante, dans les Etats membres du Conseil de lEurope, sest accrue par le jeu des regroupements familiaux et des naissances. Elle est estimke a 17 millions de personnes. Par ailleurs, la generalisation de la crise entraine dune part, un accroissement general du ch6mage qui touche tres largement les travailleurs migrants et particuliirement les jeunes et, dautre part, frappe avec plus dintensite encore les pays dorigine des migrants, ce qui limite les possibilites de reinsertion professionnelle de ceux qui voudraient y retourner. Le ComitC des Ministres du Conseil de ]Europe, bien avant le declenchement de la crise economique que nous vivons aujourdhui, recommandait aux Etats membres, dans sa Resolution de 1968, relative au retour des travailleurs migrants, la mise en oeuvre dune politique de cooperation en la matiirre. Plus tard, en 1980, le mCme Comite des Ministres dans sa Recommandation R (80) 14, invitait a nouveau les gouvernements des pays concernks par les questions de migration, a rechercher conjointement des solutions satisfaisantes aux problirmes qui affectent les travailleurs migrants retournant dans leur pays dorigine. Les mesures propostes visent, non seulement la formation et la reinsertion professionnelle et sociale des migrants et de leur famille, mais aussi un developpement industriel et tconomique des differentes regions des Etats membres interesses. Tout rtcemment, IAssemblee parlementaire dans sa Recommandation 1007 (1 985) rappelait le principe, selon lequel les travailleurs migrants et leur famille ont le droit de choisir librement le maintien de leur residence dans le pays daccueil ou le retour au pays dorigine. Ce principe implique que les politiques tendant 5 faciliter le retour doivent ailer de pair avec les politiques visant a favoriser linttgration des migrants qui veulent demeurer dans le pays daccueil. Conformement a cette double approche, un comite dexperts vient detre charge, au sein du Conseil de IEurope, sous la responsabilite du Cornit6 Directeur sur les Migrations Intra-Europkennes, dttudier: les effets sur les migrants des restructurations industrielles dans les pays daccueil, les programmes de recyclage destines a ameliorer leur insertion sur place ou a faciliter leur reinsertion volontaire dans le pays dorigine. Les travaux de ce comite dexperts, dont la premiere rkunion aura lieu la semaine prochaine a Strasbourg (1 6- 18 dkcembre), doivent permettre de determiner quelles methodes de formation et de recyclage permettraient aux migrants dexercer un choix vtritable entre: une reconversion professionnelle rtelle dans le pays daccueil, leur offrant ainsi les moyens dameliorer leur insertion sur place et un retour volontairement choisi dans leur pays dorigine avec le maximum de chances de sy reinserer avec succ&s. Je voudrais souligner que le Conseil de lEurope, profondement attacht au respect des droits fondamentaux des individus, se doit de promouvoir a legard des migrants une 40 politique tendant avant tout a ameliorer la situation madrielle, sociale, juridique et psychologique de ces travailleurs. Actuellement, plusieurs pays europeens ont adopt6 une serie de mesures daide a la reinsertion des travailleurs migrants dans leur pays dorigine. I1 est certainement trop t6t pour se prononcer sur ces mesures. Mais il est des questions qui mkriteraient dCtre mQrement refltchies au cours du present seminaire. Tout dabord, on peut se demander jusqua quel point certaines propositions daide a la reinsertion faites aux travailleurs migrants ne remettent-elles pas en question le principe du libre choix du pays de residence. Certes, ces mesures sappuient sur le dtsir latent des immigres de rentrer au pays. Cependant, nous nignorons pas a quel point cette volonte de retour est difficile a apprkhender. I1 convient de rkfltchir longuement avant de prendre a la lettre une expression dintention qui est davantage la manifestation dune nostalgie que dune veritable decision. Noublions pas que pour le migrant un retour non reussi equivaut non seulement a un echec personnel, mais a une humiliation pour lui-mCme, pour sa famille et pour la communautt a laquelle il appartient. Lobligation faite par ailleurs au migrant, qui beneficie des aides a la reinsertion, de ne plus retourner au pays daccueil, lui enEve la possibilite de revenir sur son propre choix. La question peut se poser si cette clause qui donne a la decision de retour un caractere irreversible est vraiment compatible avec nos principes dtmocratiques. I1 en est de mCme des clauses qui stipulent que le travailleur migrant retourne au pays dorigine doit renoncer A certains de ses droits acquis par son travail dans le pays dorigine. Cependant, tout en reconnaissant la nkcessite de se premunir contre des abus, i1 faudrait rechercher des clauses qui tendent a assouplir ces mesures. Enfin, il ne faut pas ignorer que certaines mesures trop expeditives sont de nature a aggraver les tensions sur les marches du travail des pays demigration, tensions qui, comme nous le savons, sont en partie responsables des mouvements migratoires. Dautant plus quil nest pas certain que le depart dun certain nombre de travailleurs migrants ait une incidence notable sur le taux de ch6mage des pays daccueil. Les recherches effectutes dans ce domaine tendent a dtmontrer que Ihypothise dune baisse nest Cvidente qua court terme, alors que les effets a long terme sont beaucoup plus incertains. I1 semble, en effet, que la substitution travailleurs immigrts/travailleurs nationaux ne joue que faiblement sur une longue periode. Je voudrais en venir maintenant a la question de la reinsertion au niveau individuel du migrant dans la societe dorigine. I1 existe une erreur tris repandue qui consiste a croire que ces travailleurs sont, apres un long sejour dans un pays Ctranger, encore adaptes, sur un plan psychologique et culturel, au mode de vie qui prevaut dans le pays dorigine. Or, sil est encore trop t6t pour tirer un bilan precis des operations de reinsertion, on doit dores et deja se poser des questions quant a leur capacite effective dadaptation. Ces travailleurs migrants, mais surtout leurs enfants nes dans le pays daccueil, sont tconomiquement et psychologiquement dependants du milieu dans lequel ils vivent depuis longtemps. La nationalite donne Iillusion dune identit6 culturelle commune a tous les ressortissants dun pays, alors que souvent elle ne constitue plus, pour les travailleurs migrants, quun facteur dindividualisation au sein de la communaute nationale du pays daccueil. Si des difficult& dinsertion sont par consequent previsibles pour les migrants de la premiere generation, elles sont presque inevitables pour leurs enfants. 41 STATEMENT BY ADEBAYO ADEDEJI UNITED NATIONS UNDER-SECRETARY-GENERAL AND EXECUTIVE SECRETARY ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR AFRICA * Mr. Chairman, Excellencies, Distinguished Director General of E M , Ladies and Gentlemen, It is for me a great privilege and an honour to have been invited to address you as you begin your deliberations on an issue which is of great interest to the entire international community - developing and developed countries alike. The theme of this Seventh Seminar, the Adaptation and Integration of Migrants, is of great concern to us in Africa because it places into perspective, not only the social and economic preconditions that would spur return migration, but also the very causes of out-migration from developing to developed countries. We need not belabour the point that out-migration constitutes a very serious social and economic loss to developing countries. That fact has been recognized by all and is well documented in the various studies on the economic consequences of the flight of skills from developing countries. What needs emphasizing here is that brain drain is getting more tightly interwoven with the problem of underdevelopment. The brain drain occurs when socio-economic conditions are unfavourable; and yet the fact that it occurs at all deprives the economies of developing countries of a most important input to efforts aimed at ameliorating those very same conditions that are responsible for bringing it about. In Africa we, for a number of years, have been witnessing a serious deterioration in our economic and social conditions as a result of a combination of a number of external and internal factors. As these adverse conditions became further aggravated in the last few years due to the severe and persistent drought that affected many parts of Africa, we watched, helplessly, as a good number of our skilled men and women took refuge in migration to greener pastures in the developed world. Short of adopting repressive mea- sures to prevent the out-migration of skilled manpower, African Governments can, for the moment, do little to stem this tide. They have, of necessity, to resort to a fundamental reappraisal of the policies that have created the conditions responsible for the intensifi- cation of the brain drain from African countries in recent years. In this, they must examine a number of factors which have set the pace of things in the world today and attempt to chart out new directions which would lead to the strengthening ofAfricas socio-economic foundations within the global system of production, exchange and consumption of goods and services and accelerate the process of growth and development at home. * Statement read by Mr. C. Grey-Johnson, Economic Affairs Officier, Human Resources Develop- ment Section, Addid Ababa 43 This does not imply that African Governments should not first look inwards to identify internal inefficiencies and deficiencies that help to perpetuate, if not reinforce, the condi- tions that give rise to the brain drain. In fact, it is from that very point that they would have to start. They would have to ask themselves some basic soul-searching, questions: Why would a Nigerian who happens to be a holder of a Ph. D. in chemical engineering prefer to drive a taxi in Washington, D.C., rather than return to work in his countrys petroche- micals industry? Why does the medical doctor from Benin decide to set up a practice in the suburbs of Paris instead ofreturning to his rural folks back home to contribute his share to the war against disease? Why are so many of the university professors and lecturers in Ghana filing applications for posts in American educational institutions? Why have one quarter of the Malian students who have graduated with degrees in fields that are crucial to their countrys development opted not to return home and chose rather to roam the streets of European capitals in search of a job? The answers to these questions will automatically explain some of the causes of the brain drain from African countries. These answers would reveal that, financially and materially, migrants do not feel secure in their countries of origin. Socially, migrants would have to make a superhuman effort to adjust to poorer environmental, infrastruc- tural and other conditions; politically they should in many cases be prepared to have their freedoms curtailed ; and mentally and psychologically, they should have to brace them- selves to face the tremendous stresses and strains of living in difficult surroundings. Most men do not have the fortitude of spirit to opt for such drops in standards of living nor accept political and other restrictions which return migration in these circumstances would imply. And yet the situation, as it exists today, is not a desirable one for Africa. In the midst of shortages in critical skill areas throughout the continent, there exist tens of thousands of Africans endowed with these very same skills, but who are reluctant to return to help mitigate the effects of these shortages on the socio-economic development of the land of their birth. Thus, clearly, something must be done to institute a programme of return and reintegration of highly skilled African migrants into economic activities in their countries of origin. This seminar should help us unravel the many causes of social and economic difficulties surrounding efforts to increase the rate of voluntary return migration. I have mentioned a few aspects of the problem as I see it confronting African countries. I am sure that you will elaborate on these with a view to helping us better identify the causes of the brain drain, and to prescribing solutions of the type that would not only arrest it, but also bring about a reversal of the trend. As you delve into the substance ofthe problem in the next few days, let me suggest that you also remain cognizant of the broader context within which the problem of skilled migration should be situated. A consideration of certain global questions in the course of your deliberations will, I am sure, assist you in coming up with the types of recommen- dations that should help us all find lasting and effective solutions to the problem of the brain drain. Let me suggest in this context just two questions for your consideration: the first is the present world economic system in which production roles have been assigned, and consumption patterns set for the rich - the developed world - and the poor, the under- developed countries. This dichotomization, apart from its effects on terms of trade, on technology development and application, on the rate of wealth creation and on interna- tional economic relationships, has also brought about a certain international division of labour which we must situate at the heart of the brain drain problem. This division of labour follows the way the world economy appears to have been structured. The third world in general, and the African region in particular, have been assigned the 44 role of the primary producer of agricultural and mineral commodities and the net impor- ter of technological goods and services, whose production is the preserve of the developed world. With the type of economic activities one must expect in primary goods producing economies, the mix of skills that economic activities would demand would, perforce, be extremely limited. This would be more true for certain types of skill categories than for others. Engineering, scientific, technical and management fields tend more to be circum- scribed by the type and level of economic activity existing in a given country. In Africa, activities of the type that would have a relatively high demand for the relevant skilled manpower is severely limited. Even those skilled men and women who get employed in these fields have to contend with situations that result from the low level of development of these economic activities, such as inadequate tools and equipment, maintenance prob- lems, shortages of production inputs and raw materials etc. etc. The less fortunate find themselves in job areas that are not directly related to their skills, qualifications and interests. Consequently, they feel frustrated, unfilled, and encouraged to migrate to places where they can be used as they have been trained. Thus, the structuring of the world economy and the economic roles of the poor countries on one hand and rich nations on the other determine not only patterns ofproduction but also the types of labour activities that would be prevalent in a region, as well as the skill demand profiles within the economies of that region. Naturally, in situations where, as a result of this, there exists an oversupply of certain skills which can therefore not be put to use, the manpower so affected will move to the international employment market to fulfil their job needs. This is the first element that must be recognized in our search for solutions to the brain drain. The second question, which is related to the first,,is one that finds its roots in the education and training system inherited by the African countries, and whose primary objective at the time ofits being introduced into the continent was to modernize Africans. That education and training system, as it continues to operate today, inculcates skills, knowledge and attitudes that largely fit realities of life in industrialized, developed socie- ties. And although development efforts have aimed at transforming African societies so that they resemble lifestyles, production and consumption norms of the west, only a small part of African societies and economies have been so affected. Meanwhile, the number of people who are exposed to this sort of education has outstripped the rate at which African societies are being transformed. Thus whereas our human resources are being continously developed in a manner that is suited to western ways oflife, those ways of life appear to be more and more elusive in African countries. Hence the search for these ways of life through outmigration to developed countries of the west; and little wonder that the return rate of African students who have pursued their education in Western countries is so low. It can be seen that the problem of migration and return migration goes much deeper than the mere flow ofpeople from one geographical area to another. It is embedded within the very problem of social and economic underdevelopment: weak economic structures; low productivity ; inadequate social amenities such as effective educational and health services; inefficient institutions; insecure political systems and so on and so forth. One can therefore not bring solutions to the problem of the brain drain without focusing attention on efforts to strengthen the socio-economic foundations of the supplier countries. As you all know, Africa is at present going through a social and economic crisis of unprecedented proportions, with every single indicator of growth and development regis- tering a declining and/or disturbing trend. Unless the present trends are reversed, the little left to us by way of skilled manpower might, by force of circumstances, be lost through out-migration to the developed countries. 45 Voluntary return migration is therefore the cart that comes after the horse. We must first prepare the ground for the return process to be effective, before looking for ways of inducing skilled migrants to take the way home. This means that concerted efforts must be made by African Governments with the substantial support of Western countries and the international community at large, to mitigate the effects of the African crisis, not only through short-term, emergency interventions, but also and more importantly by institu- ting long and medium-term measures to buttress socio-economic foundations and create the conditions necessary for self-sustaining development. Let me hasten to add that the effort to create those socio-economic conditions that would significantly reduce or obviate the need for out-migration, does not preclude action to facilitate the voluntary return of African migrants now. There are, today in Western Europe and North America, thousands of skilled Africans who would, given the oppor- tunity and the requisite incentives, willingly return to Africa to contribute their share to the continents development. To these Africans, let me address a word of appeal: no society progresses towards full social and economic development without sacrifice, hard work and a pioneering spirit. Conditions are the way they are in Africa partly because of your absence from the scene. Your skills and knowledge, combined with an unflinching commitment to the welfare of your people can play a most important part in transforming your countrys economy and in raising the living standards of your people. Let me misquote Uncle Sam: Your continent needs you now. Pack up your bags; return to Africa to till the soil, heal the sick, impart knowledge to the young and help change and reshape the course of events for the better. As you know, ECA and ICM have been aware of the possibilities in this regard. And when my distinguished colleague, the Director of ICM, James Carlin, and I signed a memorandum of agreement in 1982, it was with a view to tapping these and other possibilities for return migration, and to strengthening the bonds of co-operation between our two organizations so that we would, together, assist Africa to recover her lost skilled manpower from developed countries. We have forged ahead in this regard with the development of a joint ECNICM project for the identification in Europe and North America of highly skilled African migrants who wish to return and be reintegrated into African countries so as to assist materially and financially in their return. Although the project is only in its infancy, it is proving to be very popular with African countries, particularly the universities. I feel sure that with adequate assistance to attack the more stubborn socio-economic side of the brain drain problem, we would have made significant progress in the coming years to arrest, if not reverse the brain drain from African economies. Your seminar is therefore oftremendous importance to us in Africa. We would expect a number of recommendations to emerge from your deliberations that would assist us in formulating the right policies and instituting the measures that are appropriate in facili- tating a speedy return and reintegration of our highly skilled Africans, and so help us plug the skills gaps that impose serious constraints on our development. I wish you success in your deliberations during this seminar and thank you for your attention. 46


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