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GRDC GrowNotes Northern Durum March 2014

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Know more. Grow more.

Text of GRDC GrowNotes Northern Durum March 2014

  • DURUM -

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    March 2014

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    DurumKnow more. Grow more.

    planning/paddock preparation pre-planting planting

    plant growth and physiology nutrition and fertiliser weed control

    insect control nematode control diseases plant growth

    regulators and canopy management harvest storage

    environmental issues marketing current research

    March 2014

  • March 2014

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    The GRDC GrowNotes are an entirely new initiative for GRDC and for the first time provide

    a one-stop shop for northern region trial results and best practice recommendations.

    Having said that, the GrowNotes build on extension media of past and present from crop

    notes to YouTube.

    The GrowNotes are digital documents, available online, so they are able to use the very

    best e-publishing technology available to make the information easy to find and navigate.

    The GrowNotes constantly link to further information. In the wheat GrowNotes alone there

    are 900 hypertext links.

    We hope ready access to information will help growers adopt best practices and increase

    production and profit.

    The notes are a dynamic document that will be regularly updated as new research and

    agronomic information come to light and growers and agronomists provide feedback.

    The three modules, wheat, barley and durum, are effectively pilot

    projects for the entire 17 crops grown in the northern region.

    We urge you to test them and give us your feedback. There is a

    feedback button on every page that sends your comments, good

    or bad, directly back to GRDC.

    Access the GRDC GrowNotes via

    James Clark GRDC Northern Panel Chair

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    FeedbackDURUM - Foreword


    It is my pleasure to welcome you to the GRDC GrowNotes, a new and exciting information

    product range providing you with regional trial results and best practice recommendations on

    the crops you grow. A good example of your levy at work!

    The GRDC has been investing in grains RD&E for more than 20 years. During this time, together

    with our partners, we have generated a mass of information from research outputs and findings,

    most of which remains relevant today.

    Typically, this research has been communicated to industry through GRDC Grower Updates,

    GRDC Adviser Updates, Ground Cover, fact sheets, media releases, communication

    campaigns and the GRDC website. While these remain important communication channels,

    new information technologies such as digital publishing and mobile device applications provide

    an opportunity to communicate the results of GRDC-funded research more effectively.

    The Regional Grower Services business group was established within GRDC to actively listen,

    service and deliver results to growers. Through Regional Grower Services we have heard your

    feedback loud and clear. Our Regional Cropping Solutions networks and Grower Solutions

    Groups have told us that growers now need more specific information, tailored to their

    environment and in a format they can access when they need it most. Having this all in one

    location so they dont have to go trawling through the internet is another critical feature.

    So whats special about GRDC GrowNotes? It really comes down to actively listening to

    growers and the intense collaboration between our Regional Grower Services group and our

    science writers. Comments and observations from growers about GRDC publications and

    products and what theyd like to see improved and the feedback received from the growers and

    advisers who first tested GrowNotes, have come together in a very unique blend.

    The GRDCs GrowNotes are a direct result of your GRDC listening to what you need and

    presenting it in a way that best informs the cropping decisions you make.

    Youll see a feedback button at the top of every page. I encourage you to use this to provide us

    with any comments or feedback so we can continue to improve and extend the

    GRDC GrowNotes. I want to thank all of those who have already provided

    input and feedback on the various beta versions. Theyve given us insights

    that have allowed us to develop GrowNotes to a whole new level.

    We will continue to make improvements to GrowNotes so stay tuned as

    other crop modules are progressively rolled out.

    I hope you find the GRDC GrowNotes useful.

    Stuart Kearns GRDC Executive Manager Regional Grower Services

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    A.1 Crop overview

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) or pasta wheat (Photo 1) is known for its

    hardness, protein, intense yellow colour, nutty flavour and excellent cooking qualities. In

    200506, production was ~500,000 tonnes (t), with New South Wales (NSW) accounting

    for around 56% and South Australia (SA) 41% of current production. The balance is

    produced in Queensland, Victoria and Western Australia (WA). 1

    Durum wheat should only be grown on highly fertile soils where high-protein grain can be

    produced, as protein levels >13% are required to meet premium market grades. Protein

    levels below 10% can be marketed only as feed. 2

    A.2 Keywords

    Durum, northern grains region, winter cereals, crop rotation, fallow weed control, cereal

    diseases, root-lesion nematodes, water use efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency, soil testing,

    crown rot, Fusarium head blight, protein, pasta, crop nutrition and fertiliser.

    Photo 1: Durum wheat.

    1 J Kneipp (2008) Durum wheat production. NSW Department of Primary Industries,

    2 DAFF (2012) Durum wheat in Queensland. Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry,

    Section A DURUM - Introduction

  • Section 1 DURUM - Planning and paddock preparation

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    Planning and paddock preparation

    For more information, see the GRDC GrowNotes WHEAT (Northern region), Section 1:

    Planning and paddock preparation.

    1.1 Paddock selection

    Select paddocks that are fertile, and store good levels of stored water or receive reliable in-

    crop rainfall or have access to supplementary irrigation. Durum wheat must only be grown

    where a reliable harvest of high protein (13%+), plump hard vitreous grain can be produced.

    The highest grade of durum (ADR1) must have a minimum protein level of 13% and ADR2

    >11.5%. Careful management of soil nitrogen (N) is essential to achieve this. 1

    Durum wheats and bread wheats should not be sown into paddocks known to carry high

    levels of crown rot inoculum. Ground preparation is the same as that for bread wheat.

    Adequate weed control should eliminate all weeds and volunteer plants of bread wheat,

    barley or other crop species. 2

    1.2 Paddock rotation and history

    Photo 1: Rotations with non-cereal species, including canola are important for durum paddocks.

    1 R Hare (2006) Agronomy of the durum wheats Kamilaroi, Yallaroi, Wollaroi and EGA Bellaroi. Primefacts 140, NSW Department of Primary Industries,

    2 DAFF (2012) Durum wheat in Queensland, Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry,

  • Section 1 DURUM - Planning and paddock preparation

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    Crop rotations using pulses, canola, sorghum, sunflower and pasture legumes are essential

    to control disease, and also to provide opportunities for weed control. A robust crop

    rotation must be planned over a number of seasons if successful crops of durum wheat are

    to be produced. 3

    Rotations with non-cereal species, including pulses, canola, sorghum, pasture legumes

    (especially lucerne) and sunflowers, are essential in order to:

    control root disease, especially crown rot

    provide for the biological fixation of N2 through legumes

    control weeds and contaminant crop species, and aid in herbicide group rotation

    Durum should be the first cereal crop after a non-cereal species. Avoid successive durum

    crops. 4

    1.3 Benefits of crop as a rotation crop

    Generally, durums are relatively resistant to the root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus thornei,

    compared with other winter cereal crops.

    1.4 Disadvantages of crop as a rotation crop

    Durum will more rapidly build up crown rot inoculum that can negatively affect subsequent

    winter cereal crops.

    1.5 Fallow weed control

    Good weed control can be achieved effectively by controlling weeds in preceding crops

    and fallow, rotating crops, growing competitive durum crops, and the judicious use of

    herbicides. It is important to control weeds such as New Zealand spinach, climbing

    buckwheat (black bindweed

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