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PAGE 2 INTRODUCTION PAGE 3 WHAT THE WHEAT MARKET WANTS PAGE 4 LIVESTOCK NEED CLEAN GRAIN TOO PAGE 6 IN THE AUSTRALIAN CORNER PAGE 8 THE CASE FOR
FENITROTHION PAGE 9 AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO GRAIN HYGIENE RESEARCH PAGE 10 UNWELCOME TO AUSTRALIA PAGE 12 THREE HEADS ARE BETTER THAN ONE PAGE 14 PHOSPHINE RESISTANCE NARROWS OPTIONS PAGE 14 THE EMERGENCE OF
STRONG RESISTANCE PAGE 16 COORDINATED RESISTANCE MONITORING PAGE 17 NEW FUMIGANT OFFERS A GLIMMER OF HOPE PAGE 18 RAPID TESTS FOR
PHOSPHINE RESISTANCE PAGE 19 PDAs ASSIST PEST SURVEILLANCE PAGE 20 INSECTS A PEST IN HARVEST BAGS PAGE 21 IMPROVED STORAGE
TECHNOLOGY TO SLOW RESISTANCE PAGE 22 ROBOTS COULD KEEP RESISTANCE AT BAY PAGE 23 SUPPORT FOR SUCCESSFUL STORAGE
Maintaining market access
GROUND COVER GRAIN HYGIENE2
Clean and green cannot just be an image
Cover photo: Sampling at point of sale (delivery) detects insects that may contaminate export consignments. Grain handlers are urging growers to use on-farm hygiene as the best protection against any form of grain contamination. PHOTO: CHRIS NEWMAN
Ground Cover is brought to you by growers and the Australian Government through the publisher, the Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC).
GRDC: 02 6166 4500, fax 02 6166 4599 Write to: The Editor – Ground Cover PO Box 5367, Kingston ACT 2604 Executive Editor: Ms Maureen Cribb, Publications Manager, GRDC, 02 6166 4500
Managing Editor: Brad Collis, Coretext, 03 9670 1168, fax 03 9670 1127, [email protected] Editor: Emma Leonard, 08 8834 1233 Design and production: Coretext, www.coretext.com.au
Advertising sales: Max Hyde, Hyde Media Pty Ltd, 03 9870 4161, fax 03 9870 4163, [email protected] Advertising is subject to terms and conditions published on the rate card, available from Hyde Media, and on the website www.coretext.com.au
Circulation: Ms Maureen Cribb, 02 6166 4500 Printing: Cadillac Printing, Adelaide
ISSN 1039-6217 Registered by Australia Post Publication No. NAD 3994
Disclaimer: This publication has been prepared in good faith by the GRDC on the basis of the information available to us at the date of publication, without any independent verification. Neither the Corporation and its editors nor any contributor to this publication represent that the contents of this publication are accurate or complete; nor do we accept any responsibility for any errors or omissions in the contents, however they may arise. Readers who act on information from Ground Cover do so at their own risk.
The Corporation and contributors to Ground Cover may identify products by proprietary or trade names to help readers identify particular types of products. We do not endorse or recommend the products of any manufacturer referred to. Other products may perform as well as or better than those specifically referred to.
Copyright: © All material published in Ground Cover is copyright protected and may not be reproduced in any form without written permission from the GRDC
ARTICLES AND PHOTOGRAPHS BY EMMA LEONARD, UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED
By JOHN DE MAJNIK, Manager, New Grain Products, and PAUL MEIBUSCH, Manager, New Farm Products and Services
Grain hygiene is an issue for the whole value chain, starting in the paddock and ending with the consumer. Because the majority of Australia’s grain is exported, and much of that has been managed by marketing boards, the two ends of the chain have been kept relatively remote.
For some growers deregulation has brought them closer to their market and its demands. It has also increased the number of links in the chain, with more on-farm storage and traders. Both developments make it even more imperative that growers fully understand their customers’ grain hygiene requirements.
Most export and domestic markets have nil tolerance for insects and chemical residues in grain. Weed seeds, pathogens, toxins, sticks and stones can all impact on the end-user, just as much as pesticide residues.
While all contaminants present problems to customers, pesticide failure has the greatest capacity to restrict market access. Therefore, the issues of pesticide resistance and residues are the primary focus of the GRDC’s investment in grain hygiene.
Due to its climate, Australia has a greater reliance on the use of grain fumigants and protectants than most of its trading competitors. For this reason Australia has driven many of the
issues relating to maintaining market access and the use of these products at an international level.
The ability to respond appropriately and rapidly to issues relating to grain hygiene and market access is essential. The National Working Party on Grain Protection (NWPGP) brings together representatives from all sections of the grains industry to build these responses and to negotiate at an international level on behalf of the Australian grains industry.
The GRDC identified the need for closer consultation and representation on regulatory matters and has engaged industry specialist Bill Murray to establish linkages and to ensure the GRDC is better able to prioritise research activities in relation to grain storage. Mr Murray chairs the NWPGP.
In 2007 the GRDC, together with three of the key players in grain storage and handling, approached the recently formed Cooperative Research Centre for National Plant Biosecurity (CRCNPB) to establish a post-harvest integrity research program. It was also proposed that research and extension on stored-grain pest management be integrated into other CRCNPB program areas.
This integrated approach not only helps Australia deliver on its clean, green image, but has resulted in the largest single budget ever available for working on stored grain.
Australia is a world leader in the safe and responsible use of agrichemicals – a fact that supports our clean, green image. However, this responsible attitude restricts the type of products that can be used and makes the requirement for holistic, integrated approaches more critical.
The potential loss of the fumigant phosphine is the greatest challenge in the area of stored-grain pest management. Strong resistance is becoming increasingly common in endemic populations of stored-grain pests. Much effort is being put into monitoring the situation, developing better methods for fumigant application and alternative fumigation products, and in preventing the importation of new pests or pests that are already resistant to phosphine.
Grain hygiene needs to be placed on an equal footing with production issues. This Ground Cover supplement illustrates the impact that poor grain-hygiene practices can have on the customer and the huge effort that the Australian grains industry invests in ensuring continued and developing market access.
ª More information: Dr John de Majnik, 02 6166 4500, [email protected]; Paul Meibusch, 02 6166 4500, [email protected]
INTRODUCTION
MARKET ACCESS
What the wheat market wants Clean grain is one of Indonesia’s top reasons for sourcing wheat from Australia. In the future, insect resistance to storage chemicals could make our largest wheat purchaser think twice about buying our product
“We buy American and Canadian wheat because of its superior protein, gluten and baking quality; we buy wheat from India, China and the Ukraine because it’s cheap; and we buy Australian wheat because it’s clean, dry and white – and this combination of qualities makes it perform very well in a flour mill.” – David Capper, assistant CEO,
PT Eastern Pearl Flour Mills
AFTER SEVERAL YEARS working for Co- operative Bulk Handling (CBH) in positions involved with technical grain quality, and serving on the GRDC’s Western Panel, David Capper has a broad understanding of the grain-hygiene issues faced by the Australian grains industry. However, now he is looking at the issue from the other side of the fence – working in Indonesia for Eastern Pearl Flour Mills.
The first, second and fourth-largest flour mills in the world are all located in Indonesia and this creates a big demand for wheat. The Indonesian milling industry relies heavily on American and Canadian wheat to provide the gluten and baking qualities required for high-end baked products.
However, the qualities that make Australian wheat a preferred choice for Indonesian millers are its low moisture, bright white colour and high extraction. For Australian wheat, a reasonable level of protein and gluten are still expected by the Indonesian market.
The Eastern Pearl flour mill where David works is located in Makassar, Southern Sulawesi, and is part of the Interflour Group. The mill has a maximum production capacity of 2500 tonnes of flour a day.
Each year Eastern Pearl imports approximately 700,000t of wheat. About 20 to 30 per cent of this is sourced from the US and Canada, 60 per cent from Australia (mostly Australian Hard (AH), Australian Premium White (APW) and some Australian Standard Wheat (ASW)) and the remainder is sourced from various countries, including Argentina, India, China and the Ukraine.
“Eastern Pearl produces nine flour products, marketed under various brands, which cater for all types of baked goods, as well as dry instant noodles, biscuit and wafer products,” David says.
Although each product requires specific qualities from the wheat (Table 1, page 4), the requirement for
Flour colour is a key requirement. Colour can be affected by grain stained with mould or fungus.
PH OT
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GROUND COVER GRAIN HYGIENE4
Livestock need clean grain too Residues and foreign material cause logistical problems and costs to the livestock industries By Jim Cudmore
THE MAJORITY OF cattle lot-feeding enterprises hold no more than 30 days’ supply of grain on site and rely on third parties to store grain during the year. When that grain arrives at the weighbridge the lot feeder does not want any surprises in terms of grain quality or grain hygiene, and they certainly do not want any surprises once the grain has been transferred to their storage facilities.
Sadly, surprises such as pesticide residues, foreign matter and toxins (such as ergot in sorghum) can and do occur, and all cost the lot feeder time and money.
The introduction of the Safe Meat Commodity Vendor Declaration requires the producer or supplier of grain to provide details of how grain has been treated in-crop, post-harvest and in storage prior to being delivered to the end user. This declaration has substantially reduced the occurrence of pesticide- residue issues. Grain sampling at the point of delivery and laboratory screening have further assisted in the prevention of delivery violations.
Grain will not be accepted at National Feedlot Accredited Scheme (NFAS) feedlots without a Commodity Vendor Declaration. This form is completed by the grower or grain storage agent. Where these businesses have a third party and an independently audited quality assurance (QA) system in place, details of any post-farm treatment will be recorded and can be supplied to the lot feeder.
However, in the past lot feeders have experienced problems with grain residues.
The Australian Lot Feeders’ Association (ALFA) has previously expressed some concern about the potential double dosing of grain with treatments of deltamethrin at different times. The situation could occur where an owner of the grain treats it with deltamethrin and then on-sells the grain to another party who also treats the grain with deltamethrin.
Lot feeders support the use of deltamethrin on grain, but only where whole-of-chain QA can substantiate the record of treatment.
The grains industry has several QA systems
MARKET ACCESS
wheat to be free from foreign matter is universal. All wheat coming into a flour mill is extensively
cleaned. Flour mills use a combination of screening, aspiration and gravity separation to ensure that no foreign material enters the mill. Flour products are not directly affected by grain hygiene, but purchasing wheat containing foreign material does have knock-on effects.
The more foreign material that needs to be removed per tonne of wheat, the lower the overall flour extraction per tonne. Extraction is a very high consideration in the desirability and price of wheat and suppliers providing dirty product quickly lose favour.
Purchases that require cleaning cost the mill in time and, most importantly, energy. This is particularly true for wheat containing rocks or stones. When wheat contains a high percentage of rocks and other foreign material the cleaning system must be run at a much lower capacity, which consumes more energy. After wheat, energy is the second highest cost for a flour mill.
At Eastern Pearl Flour Mills all organic material removed from the wheat during cleaning is hammer milled, mixed with bran and pollard (by-products of the milling process) and steam pressed into stock pellets. If the wheat contains toxins these will be concentrated in the stock pellets and could be dangerous to the livestock fed the pellets.
Another extremely important point is that the Indonesian milling industry relies on the same grain protectants that are used on-farm and in central storage systems in Australia and other countries around the world.
Eastern Pearl Flour Mills stores wheat for up to nine months. Being located in the tropics any small grain insect population can very quickly develop into a large infestation. As the entire supply chain from grower to miller uses the same grain protectants, managing insect resistance is extremely important. In the future, insect resistance to grain treatments, such as phosphine, will become an important characteristic for consideration when buying wheat from a particular location or supplier.
ª More information: David Capper, +62 81 1410 7754, [email protected]
TABLE 1 A SUMMARY OF WHEAT-QUALITY PARAMETERS REQUIRED FOR KEY PRODUCTS PRODUCED FROM FLOUR MARKETED BY EASTERN PEARL FLOUR MILLS
Bread Gluten is most important, plus water absorption and baking qualities
Dry instant noodle
Colour is of utmost importance, as well as dough stability and extensibility – colour can be affected by grain that is stained with mould or fungus, particularly if it penetrates through to the endosperm
Wafer and biscuit Almost the opposite characteristics to those required for bread – low gluten and low water absorption
5GRAIN HYGIENE GROUND COVER
MARKET ACCESS
that have been developed, including Grain Care, and ALFA encourages the adoption of these systems by the grains industry.
Many lot feeders use tempering or steam flaking to process grain before feeding it to cattle, therefore it is essential that grain is free from foreign material that could interfere with processing equipment. For example, a knife off the harvester can do significant damage to grain-processing equipment if undetected.
While residues and foreign material cause logistical problems and costs, the receival of sorghum grain containing ergot can cause major production issues. When cattle eat grain
contaminated with ergot, their weight gain and feed conversion can be severely reduced, in some cases by as much as 30 per cent, even with a low level of ergot contamination. During summer, this production loss can be further enhanced in high-heat-load events due to the animal consuming ergot on grain.
Communication and whole-chain QA are seen as vital tools to help grain growers, merchants and storage agents better meet the requirements of lot feeders.
ª More information: Jim Cudmore, Vice President, Australian Lot Feeders’ Association, 07 4692 2277, [email protected]
A COMMENT FROM THE NATIONAL WORKING PARTY ON GRAIN PROTECTION
BY BILL MURRAY
It is essential that growers have access to new chemicals in their continual battle against stored-grain pests. Deltamethrin has been fully evaluated as a grain protectant by the National Working Party on Grain Protection (NWPGP) and is a valuable chemical in the ongoing fight against insects.
Currently this grain protectant is not available to growers to control insects in farm-stored grain. It has been agreed with the meat industry, including the Australian Lot Feeders’ Association (ALFA), that deltamethrin can be used by bulk-handling companies, and has been employed by them for several years without problems.
The grains industry has been in negotiations with the meat industry and various government agencies for several years regarding the inability of growers to access this valuable grain protectant. In these discussions it has been agreed by all parties that the risk associated with feeding deltamethrin-treated grain to livestock is low if a single treatment is employed. Current discussions are addressing the concerns of ALFA regarding the possibility of grain being treated twice.
ALFA has recently indicated a way forward in these discussions by confirming that better grain treatment compliance is required, and suggesting that this “could be achieved by an addendum to grower supply NACMA* contracts and minor changes to SAFEMEAT Commodity Vendor Declarations”.
The NWPGP considered this advice from ALFA at its June 2008 meeting, welcomed ALFA’s suggestion for progress, and has asked the NWPGP to continue to coordinate meetings with a view to resolution.
* National Agricultural Commodities Marketing Association
ª GRDC Research Code WJM00003 More information: Bill Murray, consultant, W J Murray Consulting Services, 03 9763 8396, [email protected]
Jim Cudmore: pesticide residues and foreign material in grain cause logistical problems for lot feeders, while toxins, such as ergot in sorghum, inhibit productivity.
THE AUSTRALIAN LOT-FEEDING INDUSTRY CONSUMES THREE MILLION TONNES OF GRAIN ANNUALLY – LARGELY SORGHUM, BARLEY AND WHEAT
PHOTO: ALFA
GROUND COVER GRAIN HYGIENE6
In the Australian corner
THE GRAINS INDUSTRY needs to use grain protectants and fumigants to ensure that grain can be safely stored and presented to customers in a clean, uninfested condition. Due to its climate, Australia has a greater reliance than most of its trading competitors on the use of these products in the storage of grain.
To help ensure the risks associated with the use of pesticides in the food chain are minimised, Codex Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) have been established for many pesticides by the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues and recommended to the Codex Alimentarius Commission for inclusion in the Codex Alimentarius as international standards.
Due to its greater reliance on these pesticides Australia has been instrumental in ensuring MRL have been established for the chemicals most important to the export market. Some export markets will only accept grain with residue levels lower than the Codex MRL, but these standards provide a platform for negotiation. Many markets do accept the Codex MRL.
The GRDC identified the need for closer consultation and representation on regulatory matters and engaged Bill Murray to help establish appropriate linkages to ensure the GRDC is better able to prioritise its research activities in relation to grain storage.
Mr Murray chairs the National Working Party on Grain Protection (NWPGP) and represents the Australian grains industry in the delegation to the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues.
This GRDC investment is designed to ensure that industry registration requirements are identified and defined, adequately presented to regulatory/registration authorities, and the required action by researchers is prioritised.
Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) The Codex Alimentarius Commission operates under the United Nations Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Food Standards Program. Its objectives are protecting the health of consumers, ensuring fair practices in food trade and promoting coordination of food standards work undertaken by international agencies.
The value of Australian representation at the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues is clearly demonstrated by the recent outcome which ensured that Codex MRL were maintained for chlorpyrifos-methyl, dichlorvos, fenitrothion (see page 8), methoprene and pirimiphos-methyl. These five chemicals are very important for the safe storage of grains in Australia and the loss of Codex MRL for these compounds would have posed significant difficulties for grain storage in Australia as well as adversely affected exports.
While pesticides come up for re-approval on rotation, the threat to revoke the previously mentioned MRL arose unexpectedly. By having direct representation on the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues, Australia was informed
Australia is highly reliant on grain protectants and fumigants, but the continued market acceptance of these products does not occur without a fight
MARKET ACCESS
The new, freer – but more fragmented – marketplace increases the importance for grain to be tested for residues at each stage of the value chain.
7GRAIN HYGIENE GROUND COVER
The National Residue Survey (NRS) operates as a government-based independent arbiter able to demonstrate that Australian grain meets domestic and international residue standards.
NRS is a voluntary program and is subscribed to by the major grain storers and exporters…

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