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AdjuvantsOils, surfactants and other additives for farm chemicalsRevised 2012 edition

Title: Adjuvants Oils, surfactants and other additives for farm chemicals revised 2012 editionAuthors: Compiled by agricultural consultant Andrew Somervaille, with assistance from Graham Betts (specialist spray consultant), Bill Gordon (Bill Gordon Consulting), Vicki Green and Michael Burgis (Conservation Farmers Inc) and Rosemary Henderson (Protech Consulting). Project Coordinator: Lloyd OConnell, Australian Grain GRDC Project Code: BER000092012

Grains Research & Development Corporation Published December 2011 ISBN: 978-1-921779-32-9 In submitting this report, the authors have agreed to the GRDC publishing the material in its edited form.

Copies of this publication are available at $10 per copy plus postage and handling from:Ground Cover Direct Free Phone: 1800 11 00 44 Email: [email protected] For further information contact: Ms Maureen Cribb GRDC Publishing Manager PO Box 5367 KINGSTON ACT 2604 Phone: 02 6166 4500 Email: [email protected]

Caution: Research on Unregistered Pesticide Use

Any research with unregistered pesticides or of unregistered products reported in this document does not constitute a recommendation for that particular use by the authors or the authors organisations. All pesticide applications must accord with the currently registered label for that particular pesticide, crop, pest and region.


Any recommendations, suggestions or opinions contained in this publication do not necessarily represent the policy or views of the Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC), Conservation Farmers Inc. No person should act on the basis of the contents of this publication without first obtaining specific, independent professional advice. The Corporation and contributors to this booklet may identify products by proprietary or trade names to help readers identify particular types of products. We do not endorse or recommend the products of any manufacturer referred to. Other products may perform as well as or better than those specifically referred to. The GRDC and Conservation Farmers Inc. will not be liable for any loss, damage, cost or expense incurred or arising byreason of any person using or relying on the information in this publication.

ADJUVANTS Oils, surfactants and other additives for farm chemicals | 1

ContentsForeword 3 Chapter1Adjuvantsbackground 4Whatareadjuvants?4 Classificationofadjuvants 4 Howdoadjuvantswork?4 tosumup6

Chapter2Majoradjuvantgroups 7surfactants7 oils9 Acidifiersandbuffers10 Fertiliseradjuvants 11 others11 tosumup12

Chapter3Adjuvantsforherbicides 13GroupAherbicides 13 GroupBherbicides 14 GroupCherbicides 16 GroupFherbicides 16 GroupGherbicides 18 GroupHherbicides 18 GroupIherbicides 19 GroupJherbicides 20 GroupLherbicides20 GroupMherbicides(glyphosate)21 Groupnherbicides22 GroupQherbicides22 GroupRherbicides23 GroupZherbicides 23 specialnotesonnon-selectiveherbicidesandadjuvants23 Waterqualityandeffectiveherbicideapplications24 Readyreckoners 25

Chapter4Adjuvantsforinsecticides 26Carbamates(Group1A) 26 organophosphateinsecticides(Group1B)26 Phenylpyrazoles(Group2B)27 syntheticpyrethroidsandpyrethrins(Group3A)27 nicotinyls(Group4A)28 spinosyns(Group5)28 Avermectins(Group6)28 nonspecificmodeofactionselectivefeedingblockers(Group9B)29 Mitegrowthinhibitors(Group10Aand10B)29 Biologicalinsecticides(Group11)29 DisruptorsofAtPformation(Group12)30 Pyrroles(Group13)30 Moultingaccelerators(Group18)30 oxadiazines(Group22A) 30 Ryanodinereceptormodulators(Group28)31 Insecticidesofunknownmodeofaction31 others31

2 | ADJUVANTS Oils, surfactants and other additives for farm chemicals

Chapter5Adjuvantsforfungicides 32

Group1fungicides(benzimidazoles)32 Group2fungicides(dicarboximides)32 Group3fungicides(demethylationinhibitorsDMI:imidazoles,azoles,piperazineandpyrimidines)33 Group4fungicides(acylalanines,oxazolidinones)34 Group9fungicides(anilinopyrimidines)34 Group11fungicides(strobilurins)34 Group33fungicides(phosphonates)34 Group40fungicides(carboxylicacidamides)35 GroupMfungicides(multi-siteactivitygroup)35 Fungicidegroupswithnorequirementforadjuvants37 top10tipsforeffectivefungicidespraying38

Chapter6Adjuvantsfordefoliantsandconditioners 39 Chapter7Adjuvantsforfoliarnutrients 40 Chapter8Waterqualityandyoursprayproduct 41 Mixingorder42 examplesofpesticideseffectedbywaterquality43

Frequentlyaskedquestions 44 Glossaryofterms 46 Adjuvantsquickguide 47 References 48

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FoReWoRDANNUAl worldwide spray adjuvant sales are currently estimated to be worth more than $1.5 billion. In Australia alone, over 300 branded products are currently registered for use as spray adjuvants, surfactants or wetting agents and these products have more than 30 different active ingredients providing different functions for enhanced pesticide or nutrient efficacy. The Australian adjuvant market continues to expand with a plethora of new products offering improved performances of herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, foliar nutrients, defoliants and conditioners. But there is a limited, and sometimes outdated understanding of how to get the most out of the right adjuvants for different spraying jobs. This revised edition of Adjuvants Oils, surfactants and other additives for farm chemicals addresses this often complex area. The Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) and Conservation Farmers Inc (CFI) have produced this revised publication with the aim of equipping consultants, agronomists and farmers with a greater understanding of adjuvant attributes and their properties. This often complex subject is clearly explained with the use of easy to follow charts, tables and tools such as ready reckoners, a Q&A section and a glossary of technical terms. The GRDC and CFI would like to acknowledge the expert assistance of agricultural consultants Andrew Somervaille, Graham Betts, Bill Gordon, Vicki Green and Rosemary Henderson in the revision of this publication.

Michael Burgis Executive Officer Conservation Farmers Inc (CFI) Queensland Phone 07 4638 5355 Email [email protected]

John Harvey Managing Director Grains Research and Development Corporation

4 | ADJUVANTS Oils, surfactants and other additives for farm chemicals

1 BACkGRounDANNUAl worldwide spray adjuvant sales are currently estimated to be worth more than $1.5 billion. A large part of this estimate represents the value of adjuvants built into pesticide formulations. But many millions of dollars are also spent on stand-alone products retailed as adjuvants, surfactants and wetting agents. In Australia over 300 branded products are currently registered for use as spray adjuvants (142), surfactants (44) or wetting agents (120). These include about 30 different active ingredients some of which are combined in individual products to provide different functions. While there are many adjuvants available for use with farm chemicals, a much smaller number of products are recommended by the manufacturers or distributors of farm chemicals. This can cause some confusion particularly where there are a large number of branded products providing identical or near to active constituents. Adjuvants are used in a variety of farm chemicals, including herbicides, fungicides, insecticides and growth regulator products. In recent years, the major growth area in the use of adjuvants has been with herbicides. There has been an economic incentive to optimise effectiveness, under a wide range of conditions, of the more expensive herbicides.

Howdoadjuvantswork?Adjuvants work at three levels in the application of farm chemicals.

i. Modifying how chemical components or products interact in the spray tankThe two most common adjuvant products at this level are compatibility agents and drift retardants. Compatibility agents are usually surfactants that enable active and inert materials to co-exist in a stable solution. These products are normally factory fitted into the formulation. They are particularly important in formulations where the active ingredient is insoluble in water. In other formulations where the active ingredient is relatively insoluble, the active may be formulated as a suspension or dry flowable concentrate. Here surfactants are used to ensure that the product is stable in the concentrate form but readily disperses on dilution in water.

Figure 1a: How oil and water based solutions can be made to mix using adjuvants

Whatareadjuvants?An adjuvant is any material that when added to a spray solution enhances or modifies the action of a pesticide. Many adjuvants are included (or factory-fitted) in the formulations of various products to facilitate the stability and functionality of the active ingredient(s) in a spray solution. But farmers are keenly interested in those adjuvants that can be added to the spray solution on-farm to help get the most out of their dollars spent on spraying programs.

There are a number of drift retardant products, which when combined with pesticides, alter the surface tension properties of the solution. In this process the atomisation of spray droplets may be modified. Adjuvant products which increase the surface tension of solutions will tend to reduce the atomisation of sprays which alters the spectrum of spray droplets formed. A coarser spray can be achieved by increasing the viscosity of the spray mix. This results in an upward shift of the droplet spectrum to reduce driftable fines. Many spray adjuvants can be added to a tank mix to increase its viscosity. There are a number of drift retardant products commercially available and they are normally some type of

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