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Grammar

GRAMMAR

GRAMMAR ........................................................................................................................1/37GRAMMAR KEY.............................................................................................................30/37

Version: 5.0 02/2014

GRAMMAR

SENTENCE STRUCTURE

Remember the word SVOMPT. It will help you to construct English sentences:

SVOMPT

Subjectverb objectmanner

placetime

Isaw Robert

at schoolon Monday.

He passedthe exam easily.

Questions:

(W) V S (V) OMPT ||what who when where why which how

1. Yes/No questions:

Inversion: a. verb to be: I am late. - Am I late? Yes, you are. / No, you are not. b. modal verbs: He can type. - Can he type? Yes, he can. / No, he cant. c. have got: I have got a computer. - Have you got a computer? - Yes, I have. / No, I havent. Auxiliary: other verbs: They finished yesterday. Did they finish yesterday? Yes, they did. / No, they didnt.

2. Wh- questions (using what, who, when, where, why, which, how):

No auxiliary when asking about the subject: Who made the cake? Rosie made it.

Auxiliary when asking about the object, manner, place or time: Who did you meet? I met Paul. Where does he work?

Preposition at the end of the sentence: Who do you live with?What are you looking at?Whats the weather like?

3. Alternative questions (choice): Would you like tea or coffee? Tea, please.

4. Indirect questions:

Who are those people?Do you know who those people are? (no inversion: S - V) What does she want?I dont know what she wants. (no auxiliary) Can he help us?I dont know if/whether he can help us. (yes/no questions)

Exercises:

1. Arrange these words in the right order.

a. in the lab / you shouldnt work / at night ...

b. this chapter / you should study / more carefully .

c. the project / when / finish / the students / did / ?

d. saw / the experiment / who / ? .

e. enjoyed / the lectures / have / the students .

f. decomposes / acid / at once / carbonic .

g. electricity / water power / can / make / cheap ..

h. smoke / students / in the lab / may / ? ..

2. Arrange these words in the right order.

a. your article / I / in / quickly / last night / bed / read

..................................................................................b. till / afternoon / worked / 4 oclock / the students / this

...c. gases / to / dioxide / allow / carbon / suns / and / enter / rays / other / the

......d. climate / models / warming / indicate / computer / of / changes / consequences / of / some / Earth / a

..e. oxide / released / in / coal / nitrous / of / burning / is / the

...f. destroy / can / micro-organisms / cooking / the / only / completely

...

3. Make questions to ask about the underlined statements using who, what or where.

a. I met Dr Seusse last night. ..

b. The scientist has found a new chemical element.

c. David took the pictures. ..

d. This process occurs naturally under certain conditions. .

e. The researchers published their new findings..

f. We will have to redistill the compound...

g. The condensate flows down the column...

h. Distillation consists in vaporizing a substance.

4. Read the text, and then write questions for the answers.

The educational programme is divided into Academic Years, each year being divided into two semesters, with the main vacation in July and August. The undergraduate studies take three years for the Bachelor Degree and five for the Master Degree. In addition to these, the Institute provides also postgraduate courses for PhD students.

All studies proceed on the basis of a curriculum of studies. At the end of each semester every student must obtain a certain number of credits and pass several examinations.

Students may obtain certain scholarships. These may be granted either automatically for excellent study results or on the basis of excellent research achievements, cultural or sports activities, and also to aid in the cases of serious social problems.

Graduates of the Institute usually find employment in plants and research laboratories of chemical and food industries as well as in various research institutes.

a. Academic Years ...

b. in July and August

c. three years

d. postgraduate courses for PhD students

e. every student

f. excellent study results...

g. chemical and food

For more practice see:

L.G.Alexander: Longman English Grammar Practice, Longman 1990, pp. 2-9Raymond Murphy: English Grammar in Use, Cambridge 2004, Third edition, pp. 98-99, 102-103Michael Swan & Catherine Walter: How English Works, Oxford 1997, pp. 210-211

SLOVESN ASY - VERB TENSES

1. Ptomn as prost - Present Simple Jedn se o pravideln se opakujc dj v ptomnosti v zkladnm vznamu. Tento slovesn as je nejastji pouvanm vodborn, nap.chemick a jin literatue, protoe popisovan procesy a stavy jsou prakticky vtinou bez jakhokoliv zetele ke specifick dob. Pouit ptomnho asu slovesa pak nem nic spolenho jen sptomnou dobou a ptomn as zde m vznam nadasov, co plat veobecn. Ptomn as prost vyjaduje obecnou platnost danho tvrzen.

Forma : - ve 3.os.j.. pouvme koncovku -s: he, she, it speaks he, she watches, he studies;

- zpor je tvoen pomocnm slovesem do not/dont, does not/ doesnt + zkladnm tvarem ( infinitivem ) vznamovho slovem bez to: I dont work, she doesnt study;

- otzka je tvoena pomoc pomocnho slovesa do, does + zkladnm tvarem vznamovho slovesa bez to

We need a good technical dictionary in order to understand the article. Chemistry is a science which deals with substances. In the lab we dont use these dangerous chemicals. He doesnt study at our university.

- forma trpnho rodu je tvoena tvary slovesa be a minulm pestm (past participle ) vznamovho slovesa

The laboratory is equipped with experimental technology. Many scientific terms are unknown to non-scientists.

2. Ptomn as prbhov - Present Continuous Tento as se pouv kpopisu dje, kter probh prv te, v danm okamiku. Tuto ptomnost je ovem teba chpat e ne jen jako bezprostedn, prv probhajc okamik. Nejen vodbornm jazyce, ale i vbnm vyjadovn to bv e pojman ptomn doba.

Forma: tvary slovesa be (am, is, are) + tzv. -ing tvar vznamovho slovesa.

At the moment Tom is analysing the substance. Mary is studying at Cambridge this year.

forma trpnho rodu je tvoena tvary slovesa be + prbhovm tvarem being + minulm pestm (past participle) vznamovho slovesa

Polarographic methods are being used in the analysis of metals now. The problem is being intensively studied these days.

Ptomnho prbhovho asu se pouv tak kvyjden tzv. blzk budoucnosti. Budoucnost bv vyjdena pslovenm urenm asu, nap. tomorrow, next week, atd., kdy se tak jedn o vyjden jistoty, e dj probhne, i dj a innost, kter jsou pipraveny a naplnovny.

According to the programme we are carrying out the experiment next Monday. I am seeing the director tomorrow at 5 oclock.

Prbhov tvary tvo slovesa akce, innosti (action verbs), nap. sing, teach, study, talk, listen, play, sit, write, speak, travel atd. Toto pravidlo plat tak pro vechny dal anglick asy tj. minul, budouc, pedptomn, pedminul, pedbudouc.

Pozor! Non-action verbs prbhov asy netvo!Jedn se o slovesa mylen (verbs of thinking), nap. know, remember, recognize, notice, understand, forget; ctn, pocitu (verbs of feeling), nap. like, love, want, hate; slovesa smyslovho vnmn (verbs of senses) see, hear, smell, taste; nkter dal slovesa, nap. include, matter, cost, prefer, mean, fit, need.

The matter consists of small particles.

Pozor! Nkter slovesa maj dva odlin vznamy:

a) aktivn = tvo tak prbhovou formu, nap. look at = dvat se na nco, taste sth. = ochutnvat nco, feel a material = hmatat, zkoumat hmatem materil, have ve frzch = dt si nco, think of / about = pemlet o, myslet na nkoho/nco.

She is having lunch at the moment. Please be quiet! Im thinking. Why are you smelling the mixture?b) neaktivn = netvo prbhovou formu: look = vypadat (he looks tired), taste = chutnat, feel = ctit se, have = vlastnit, mt, think = myslet.

This juice tastes good. I think youre right. Shes got a headache.

3. Pedptomn as prost Present Perfect Simple

Tento as vyjaduje dj minul, kter se odehrval v neurit, nespecifikovan minulosti, neoddlen od ptomnosti ostrou hranic, kter vak souvis sptomnost, a to bu svmi nsledky, nebo trvnm. Zpravidla vyjaduje nsledky minulho dje a do etiny jej pekldme minulm asem dokonavho slovesa (asto meme doplnit ji, u). Jestlie vak perfektum vyjaduje dj, kter zaal vminulosti a jet trv vptomnosti, odpovd mu v eskm pekladu vtinou as ptomn. Nejastjmi asovmi urenmi, kter odkazuj na neuritou minulost a jsou spojovna s pedptomnm asem, jsou nap: already, yet, not+yet, just, never, ever, always, often, once, before, recently, lately, (three, several) times, so far, a t spojenmi s pouitm for(two years), since.

Forma : tvary slovesa have have/ has + minul pest (past participle)