1 UNIT I THE INDICATIVE MOOD PRESENT TENSE Exercises I. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. 1. Mary (see) Peter standing at the bus stop. Mary: Hello, Peter. What bus you (wait) for? Peter: Hello, Mary. I (wait) for an 18 or a 17. 2. Mary: You usually (go) to work by car, don‟t you? Peter: Yes, but the car (belong) to my mother and she sometimes (want) it. She (use) it today to take my son to the dentist. 3. Mary: I usually (go) by car too. John (takes) me because he (pass) my office on his way to the headquarters of the ING Bank. But this week he (work) in the local branch in the opposite direction: so I (queue) like you. 4. Peter: Here‟s an 18 now. You (come) on it or you (wait) for a 17? Mary: I (think) I‟ll take the 18. If I (wait) for a 17 I may be late, and if you (be) late at my office everyone (look) at you. 5. The cashier used to do the accounts and I used to check his figures; now the computer (do) it all. And who (check) the computer? No one. The computer (not need) a second opinion. And what (happen) if the computer (make) a mistake? The computer never (make) a mistake. II. Complete the sentences using one of these verbs: get, change, rise, fall, increase. You don‟t have to use all the verbs and you can use a verb more than once. 1. The population of the world … very fast. 2. Bill is still ill but he … better slowly 3. The world … . Things never stay the same. 4. The cost of living … . Every year things are more expensive. 5. The economic situation is already very bad and it … worse. III. Complete using one of the following: I apologise, I insist, I promise, I recommend, I suggest 1. It‟s a nice day. … we go out for a walk. 2. I won‟t tell anybody what you said. … 3. (in a restaurant) You must let me pay for the meal. … 4. … for what I said about you. It wasn‟t true and I shouldn‟t have said it. 5. The new restaurant in Hill Street is very good. … it. IV. Complete the sentences using the most suitable form of BE. Sometimes you must use the simple (am/is/are) and sometimes the continuous is more suitable (am/is/are being). 1. I can‟t understand why … so selfish. He isn‟t usually like that.

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Exercises I. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

1. Mary (see) Peter standing at the bus stop.

Mary: Hello, Peter. What bus you (wait) for?

Peter: Hello, Mary. I (wait) for an 18 or a 17.

2. Mary: You usually (go) to work by car, don‟t you?

Peter: Yes, but the car (belong) to my mother and she sometimes (want) it. She (use)

it today to take my son to the dentist.

3. Mary: I usually (go) by car too. John (takes) me because he (pass) my office on his

way to the headquarters of the ING Bank. But this week he (work) in the local branch

in the opposite direction: so I (queue) like you.

4. Peter: Here‟s an 18 now. You (come) on it or you (wait) for a 17?

Mary: I (think) I‟ll take the 18. If I (wait) for a 17 I may be late, and if you (be) late at

my office everyone (look) at you.

5. The cashier used to do the accounts and I used to check his figures; now the computer

(do) it all.

And who (check) the computer?

No one. The computer (not need) a second opinion.

And what (happen) if the computer (make) a mistake?

The computer never (make) a mistake.

II. Complete the sentences using one of these verbs: get, change, rise, fall, increase.

You don‟t have to use all the verbs and you can use a verb more than once.

1. The population of the world … very fast.

2. Bill is still ill but he … better slowly

3. The world … . Things never stay the same.

4. The cost of living … . Every year things are more expensive.

5. The economic situation is already very bad and it … worse.

III. Complete using one of the following:

I apologise, I insist, I promise, I recommend, I suggest

1. It‟s a nice day. … we go out for a walk.

2. I won‟t tell anybody what you said. …

3. (in a restaurant) You must let me pay for the meal. …

4. … for what I said about you. It wasn‟t true and I shouldn‟t have said it.

5. The new restaurant in Hill Street is very good. … it.

IV. Complete the sentences using the most suitable form of BE. Sometimes you

must use the simple (am/is/are) and sometimes the continuous is more suitable

(am/is/are being).

1. I can‟t understand why … so selfish. He isn‟t usually like that.

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2. Tom … very nice to me at the moment. I wonder why.

3. You‟ll like Jill when you meet her. She … very nice.

4. Normally you are very sensible, so why … so silly about this matter?

5. Why isn‟t Daniel at work today? … ill?

V. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense.

1. We (plan) a mail shot to launch our new product.

2. The advertising campaign for sports shoes usually (target) younger consumers.

3. This watch (not/be) a genuine Rolex. It (be) a counterfeit.

4. When you (travel) by plane, you can choose to sit by the window or in an aisle seat.

5. If you always (buy) the same brand, people (say) you (be) loyal to that brand.

VI. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense. 1. Ann: I‟ve got a letter from our German partners. They (say) they (come) to Bucharest

next week and (want) us to meet and sign the new contract.

2. Jones and Co. (have) a sale at the moment. Shall we look in on our way home?

I‟d love to but I‟m afraid I won‟t have time. I (meet) Tom at 5.30.

You (go) out with Tom often?

3. Englishmen very seldom (talk) in the underground. They (prefer) to read their


Those two men in the corner (talk).

But they (not/talk) English.

4. The building opposite our company (be pulled) down. That‟s why we (use) the

back entrance at present. If you (go) out by the front door you (get) covered with


5. These apples (cost) 15p a bag. You (think) that is expensive?

It (depend) on the size of the bag.




I. Identify the types of Past tenses in the following sentences and explain their use:

1. What were you doing before you came here?

2. What did you do before you came here?

3. What were you doing in my room?

4. I was wondering if you wanted to come to the theatre.

5. I picked up a cake and bit a piece off to see how it tasted.

6. He walked into the bar and ordered a vodka and tonic.

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7. When Mary came in I was telephoning Harry.

8. When she arrived I telephoned Harry.

9. I lived in Paris for seven years when I was a child.

10. When did you last see her?

II. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple:

1. Police (say) they (arrest) Olivia because her statements (not/add up).

2. We (try) to find new services which (be) sophisticated and (have) added value.

3. When (you/meet) the company accountant?

4. It was hard work carrying the bags. They (be) very heavy.

5. The bank recently (open) a branch in Germany.

6. She (have) a stressful job as a sales representative.

7. He (not/accept) this reply as valid.

8. When (you/be) in this house last?

9. The company (not/disclose) how much it expects to gain from the two deals.

10. My friend (be) hungry, so we (drive) to a shopping mall to get some food.

11. How long ago (you/return) from your trip to Egypt?

12. I (look) everywhere for ideas.

13. They recently (fail) to negotiate a mutually acceptable new contract.

14. He (go) to the small stable where his horse (be), (harness) it, (mount), and (ride) out

to the beach.

15. They (not/want) to go against the wishes of their government.

16. You (feel) out of place in your suit and tie.

17. She (walk) back to the table and (sit) at the nearest of the two empty places.

18. The discussion (take place) in a famous villa on the lake‟s shore.

19. „I (not./mean) to upset you‟ John said.

20. She (be) barefoot and stones (dig) into her feet. „Ouch, ouch,‟ she (cry).

III. Complete this description using the verbs given in the past simple:

Long before jogging in Central Park (1)…(become) the fashion, intellectuals on the

tropical island of Pala (2)…. (put in) a couple of hours hard digging every day. They (3) …

(not/be) obliged to. But the Palanese (4) … (very/be) advanced in matters of health: they

(5)… (not/separate) minds from bodies, venerating brains at the expense of the whole human

organism. In economic matters too, Palanese thinking (6) … (very/be) advanced. Export

crops (7) … (be) discouraged: the islanders (7) … (be) fed first. Money (8) … (be wasted)

neither on status symbols nor on weapons. The government (9) … (buy) no armaments: there

(10) … (be) no army.

Where (11) … (this utopia/be)? Only, unfortunately, between the covers of Island Aldous

Huxley‟s final novel.

IV. Complete the conversations using the present perfect simple or the past simple of


verb in brackets.

1. ”I know Mr. Robinson”. “Really? How long (you/know) him?” “Oh, for quite a long time

now”. “ When (you/first/meet) him?” “I (meet) him at Christies eight years ago”.

2. (It‟s 10 o‟clock in the morning) “(you/see) Mrs. Carter this morning?” “Yes, I (see) her

when I (arrive) in the office, but she (go) out soon afterwards”.

3. “(you /ever/visit) Switzerland?” “Yes, I (visit) it twice. I (visit) it two years ago, and once

when I (be) a child”.

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4. (It‟s the middle of the afternoon) I‟m really hungry. I (not/have) any breakfast this

morning and I (not/have) time to go out for anything to eat this afternoon.

V. Choose the correct form of the verbs.

1. My sister has been/was interested in medicine ever since she has been/was a child.

2. It‟s nearly twenty years since I have seen / saw him.

3. Of the 59 committee members, 40 have been / were against the legislation, 13 have been /

were in favour and the remainder have been / were undecided.

4. We haven‟t been / weren‟t to a conference for over a year.

5. The last time I have been / went swimming was when we were in Spain.

6. You haven‟t tidied / didn‟t tidy this room for weeks.

7. After the meeting, the ministers have issued / issued a robust affirmation of their faith in

the European Monetary System.

8. James has been / was to Scotland last Friday.

9. Last year the Government have mishandled / mishandled the whole affair.

10.Ages ago, there have been / were deserts where there is now fertile land.

VI. Continue the following sentences. Use the past progressive.

1. My next door neighbour burnt his hand while he ……

2. The television was on but nobody ……

3. Her parents helped with child care while she ……

4. We saw an accident while we ……

5. For a ruin it was in good condition, as though the place ……

6. When the rain began they ……

7. Marianne was tempted to turn the large rooms into traditional French style salons, while

she ……

8. The doorbell rang while I ……

9. Dave fell asleep while he ……

10.Somebody followed her while she ……

VII. Complete the following paragraph with suitable verbs. Use either the past simple

or past progressive tense.

I had a terrible time last Sunday. It was rather cold, but quite sunny, so after lunch I (1) …

into town. I (2) … to buy a pullover. I (3) … in the window of a clothes shop when someone

(4) … my wallet. While I (5) … home, it (6) … to rain and I arrived home cold and

miserable. I (7) … to have a bath. I (8) … ready to have my bath when the doorbell (9) …. It

was a salesman and it took me several minutes to get rid of him. Unfortunately, all the time

he (10) … to me the water (11) … . You can imagine the state of the bathroom!

VIII. These paragraphs begin three stories: a love story, a western and a horror story.

Complete the paragraphs using the past progressive or the past simple of the verbs in


It was midnight and I was alone in the house. Outside it (rain) very hard. I (get) ready

to go to bed when I suddenly heard a strange noise outside my room in the corridor. Then,

when I looked at the door, I noticed that someone (turn) the handle! I (rush) over to the door

and quickly (turn) the key in the lock. Then I (ask) in a trembling voice, “Who is it?”

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It was early evening and it (begin) to get dark in the surgery of Doctor Nigel Harris.

The young, handsome doctor (stand) looking sadly out of the window when there was a quiet

knock at the surgery door. The door (open) and Dr Harris (turn) round to see the young girl

who had just entered the room. She was very beautiful. With a sad smile the doctor (ask),

“Are you the new nurse?”

I (sit) in the big chair in Henry‟s barber‟s shop at the time. Henry (cut) my hair with

his big pair of scissors when we heard the sound of horses outside. The noise was so loud that

we (go) over to the window to look. Through the window we could see at least twenty

gunmen riding into town. Henry immediately (go) over to his desk and (put) on his gun and

Sheriff‟s badge.

IX. Correct the possible mistakes in the following sentences.

1. What did you when you left school?

2. Last year we visited the States.

3. Martin looked forward to a peaceful weekend, when his brother arrived with all his friends

from the football club.

4. Optimism gradually took the place of pessimism while she was talking to the Production


5. When the reasons behind the decision were explained, of course, it was all becoming


6. Dan folded it in his handkerchief and placed it in the inside pocket of his jacket.

7. Her use of the word hate was sounding strange and out of place.

8. He was spending a year studying Japanese in Tokyo, followed by a six-month work

placement with the Japanese government.

9. Last week they had placed an advertisement in the local paper for a secretary.

10.What was going on here was an abuse of power.

X. Translate into English:

1. Anul trecut firma noastră şi-a deschis alte trei sucursale în Asia de sud-est, cererea de

articole sportive fiind în creştere în ultimii cinci ani.

2. Nu am participat la târgul internaţional de mobilă de anul trecut de la Paris, deoarece

taxele de participare au fost mult mai mari decât ne-am aşteptat.

3. Am devenit director de marketing în urmă cu cinci ani.

4. Ieri am lucrat de la opt dimineaţa până la nouă seara.

5. Lee Iacocca, şeful firmei Chrysler, a analizat posibilitatea preluării firmei General

Motors, însă a renunţat la idee după ce a ajuns la concluzia că: “ar fi mai uşor să

cumpăr Grecia “.

6. A fost dificil pentru cei de la British Leyland: directori, funcţionari, muncitori, să

accepte schimbarea.

7. Roboţii de la firma Buick, fie nu s-au ridicat la nivelul aşteptărilor, fie s-au defectat.

La fel s-a întâmplat şi cu relaţiile dintre administraţie şi angajaţi.

8. Anul trecut aproximativ 5600 de firme japoneze au dat faliment în primele şapte luni

ale anului.

9. Penuria de materii prime şi componente i-a forţat pe mulţi industriaşi să-şi închidă

fabricile la începutul anului trecut.

10. Multe dintre predicţiile lui Asimov, inclusiv roboţii liniilor de asamblare şi

computerele de buzunar, au devenit realitate.

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I. Rewrite each sentence, beginning as shown, so that the meaning stays the


1. It‟s a long time since I last met our German partners.

I haven‟t


2. This is my second visit to our subsidiary in New York.

This is the second time


3. I paid this bill earlier, actually.

Actually I‟ve


4. We haven‟t been driving for ages.

It‟s ages


5. Our PR manager started learning Spanish three years ago.

Our PR manager has


6. I am on the second page of the letter I am writing.

So far I


7. After I arrived here, I started to feel better.

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Since arriving here,


8. It‟s over ten years since I started working in this company.

I have


9. The last time I saw the company chairman was before Christmas.

I haven‟t


10. There is a definite improvement in your work.

Lately your work


II. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals, and so that

the meaning stays the same.

1. You have missed the beginning of the negotiations. HAS


2. Our boss is different from what he used to be. HAS


3. This has been my home for twenty years. HAVE


4. I don‟t know where my documents are. HAVE


5. My father bought his company in 1950 and he‟s still running it. BEEN


III. Choose the most appropriate word or phrase for each situation.

1. The price of petrol has risen/has been rising by 20% over the past year.

2. I‟ve read/I‟ve been reading the terms of our contract with the French firm for an


3. I‟ve worked extra hours quite often lately/from time to time.

4. Sorry, but I haven‟t got that project finished already/yet.

5. Don‟t disappoint me! I‟ve counted on you/I‟ve been counting on you.

6. Our boss has finished translating our contract with the Chinese partner at last/this


7. I‟ve been phoning/I‟ve phoned our branch in Sophia all morning, but there‟s no


8. Nothing much has been happening by now/so far.

9. They‟ve been working at that Swiss firm for years/for ever.

10. Ann has asked /has been asking for a pay-rise three times this year.

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I. Identify the Past Perfect tenses in the following sentences and comment upon their


1. As soon as the boss entered the office, he realised that the relations between his two

subordinates had improved.

2. By the time they got to the party, most guests had left.

3. He had established his company before the threat of recession loomed over some of the

democracies of Eastern Europe.

4. When he had established his company the threat of recession didn‟t loom over some of

the democracies of Eastern Europe.

5. When I reached Mr. Wood's place he had already heard the news.

6. He met her in 1990 and again ten years later. Her hair, which had been grey at their first

meeting, was now white.

7. He met her first in 1990 when her hair was grey. He met her again in 2000 (or didn‟t meet

her again till 2000). Her hair was now white.

8. At last the bus came. I‟d been waiting for 20 minutes.

9. He‟s out of breath. He has been running.

He was out of breath. He had been running.

10. I‟m very tired. I‟ve been working hard all day.

I was very tired when I arrived home. I‟d been working hard all day.

II. Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable past tense (Past Tense or Past Perfect):

1. Police (say) they (arrest) Olivia because her statements (not/add up).

2. We (try) to find new services which (be) sophisticated and (have) added value.

3. When (you/meet) the company accountant?

4. It was hard work carrying the bags. They (be) very heavy.

5. The bank recently (open) a branch in Germany.

6. She (have) a stressful job as a sales representative.

7. He (not/accept) this reply as valid.

8. When (you/be) in this house last?

9. The company (not/disclose) how much it expects to gain from the two deals.

10.My friend (be) hungry, so we (drive) to a shopping mall to get some food.

11.How long ago (you/return) from your trip to Egypt?

12.I (look) everywhere for ideas.

13.They recently (fail) to negotiate a mutually acceptable new contract.

14.He (go) to the small stable where his horse (be), (harness) it, (mount), and (ride) out to the


15.They (not/want) to go against the wishes of their government.

16.He (feel) out of place in your suit and tie.

17.She (walk) back to the table and (sit) at the nearest of two empty places.

18.The discussion (take place) in a famous villa on the lake‟s shore.

19.„I (not to mean) to upset you‟, John said.

20.She (be) barefooted and stones (dig) into her feet. „Ouch, ouch,‟ she (cry).

21.John (react) with the same affronted horror Ann (feel).

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22.He (always / look) so young, but he (seem) to have aged in the last weeks.

23.A spokesman (say), however, that the two men (not / reach) agreement on the issues


24.I (mention) that I (really/not/like) contemporary music.

25.The head of the state (say) his country (always/attach) great importance to good


26.He (claim) that his parents (abandon) him.

27.I (go up) to the policeman and (complain) that this man (accost) me in the street.

28.Mary (discover) an addiction to housework which she (never/feel) before.

29.The women who (work) in these mills (begin) to agitate for better conditions.

30.They (have) no money because they (spend) everything on duty free whisky.

31.When we (arrive) at the stadium, the match (already/start).

32.We (get) everything ready for them long before they (arrive).

33.That (be) something I (not/expect)

34.As soon as they (finish) breakfast, they (leave) for the University.

35.When Dimitri (come) to England in 1995, he (already/learn) to speak English well.

36.Consumer advocates (claim) that some oil companies (exploit) the Persian Gulf crisis.

37.Although the child (only/miss) for eight hours the parents (decide) to call the police.

38.No wonder the engine (break) down yesterday; it (run) for 24 hours.

39.I (realise) someone (use) my camera because there were finger marks on the lens.

40.She (fail) the exam though she (study) German for two years.

41.When Jane (come) to the college in 1990, Mr. Robinson (already / teach) there for five


42.Catherine (say) that the President (try) hard to hang onto power.

43.The prisoner (saw) the bars for three nights before he finally (make) his escape.

44.She (say) she (take) a big liberty in developing Mike‟s photos without his knowledge.

45.When we (enter) the room they (negotiate) for three hours.

46.It (be) only last year that Mr. Blake (finish) the book he (write) since 1999.

47.They (say) heavy industry (pollute) our rivers with noxious chemicals for ages.

48.Many modern medicines (not/be) invented by western scientists but by tribal people

who (use) them for generations before the Europeans (arrive).

49.At last the bus (come). I (wait) for 20 minutes.

50.We (play) tennis for about half an hour when it (start) to rain very heavily.

III. Starting from the information given, complete each sentence with a suitable verb in

the past perfect simple or progressive.

1. Maggie worked in the garden all afternoon. Then she took a hot bath.

Maggie took a hot bath because ………….. in the garden all afternoon.

2. Mary came top in the final examination. Her father bought her a car as a reward.

Mary‟s father bought her a car because she …………. top in the final exam.

3. Henry came home from work early. He cooked lunch. His family were very impressed.

Henry‟s family were very impressed to discover that he ………. lunch when he came

home from work early.

4. I lost my watch. We had looked for it for hours. I was very pleased when my son found it.

I was very pleased when my son found my watch because we ……. for it for hours.

5. Ann worked very hard all morning. Her boss gave her an extra half hour for lunch. She

boasted about it.

Ann boasted that her boss …………. her an extra half hour for lunch because she …….

very hard all morning.

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6. Patrick went to the disco. He came home very late. His mother was worried and she told

him off when he got in.

Patrick‟s mother told him off when he came home late because she …………. about him

all evening.

7. Rebecca attended a marketing course. She made some new friends. She sent postcards to


Rebecca sent postcards to the new friends she …………. while she was attending a

marketing course.

IV. Choose the most appropriate time expression:

1. The parcel still hadn't arrived by/until the end of the month.

2. We bought our tickets and ten minutes later/after the fast train arrived.

3. It was more than a week before/until he realised what had happened.

4. Once/afterwards I read the instructions I found I could use the hair-dryer quite well.

5. When/after I got to the cinema Harry had been waiting for me.

6. Brenda had left before/until I had time to talk to her.

7. Only after/only when posting the letter did I remember that I had forgotten to put on a


8. No sooner/scarcely had I got into the bath than someone knocked at the door.

9. We had only just/ only after arrived home when the police called.

10. Mary had learned French before/until she came to France.

V. Read the situations and complete the sentences using by the time…:

1. Mrs. Woods was invited to a party but she got there much later than she intended.

………….., most of the other guests had gone.

2. I had to catch a train but it took me longer than expected to get to the station.

………….., my train had already gone.

3. I saw two men who looked as if they were trying to steel a car. I called the police but it

was some time before they arrived.

………….., the two men had disappeared.

4. A man escaped from prison last night. It was a long time before the guards discovered

what had happened.

………….., the escaped prisoner was miles away.

5. I intended to go shopping after finishing my work. But I finished my work much later than


………….., it was too late to go shopping.

VI. Read the situations and write sentences ending with BEFORE. Use the verb given in


1. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. It was his first flight.

(fly) He …………

2. A woman walked into the room. She was a complete stranger to me.

(see) I …………..…

3. Simon played tennis yesterday. He wasn‟t very good at it because it was his first game.

(play) He …………

4. Last year we went to Denmark. It was our first time there.

(be) We …………

5. They concluded a contract two weeks ago. It was their first contract.

(sign) They ............

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VII. Use the sentences given below to complete the paragraphs. Make all the necessary

changes in order to have meaningful structures:

1. Somebody broke into the office during the night.

We arrived at work in the morning.

We called the police.

We arrived at work in the morning and found that somebody …………. into the office

during the night. So we ………..

2. Mr. Richard went out.

I tried to phone him this morning

There was no answer.

I tried to phone Mr. Richards this morning but …. no answer. He …. out.

3. Jim came back from the holiday in Paris a few days ago.

I met him the same day.

He looked very well.

I met Jim a few days ago. He …. just ….. He …..

4. Kevin wrote to the local newspaper many times.

They never replied to his letters.

Yesterday he had a phone call from them.

He was very surprised.

Yesterday Kevin ……….. He ……. very surprised. He ……. many times but they


5. I applied for the assistant marketing manager last month.

I arrived at the company for an interview at 12.30

I found my husband in there, too.

He was waiting for the interview for four hours.

I arrived at the company for an interview at 12.30 as I …….. the assistant marketing

manager the previous month. To my surprise I …….. my husband in there who ………..

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Mi s-a spus că acel contract fusese semnat înaintea sosirii mele la firmă.

2. Deşi fusese concediat, John încă a mai păstrat legătura cu foştii săi subordonaţi.

3. Când în cele din urmă a ajuns la aeroport, Bill a aflat că avionul său decolase de un sfert

de oră.

4. Negociam noul contract cu partenerii austrieci de mai bine de trei ore, când şi-a făcut

apariţia şi noul preşedinte al firmei.

5. Acţiunile firmei britanice ICI au înregistrat o creştere de 17.9% în primele opt luni ale

anului trecut, în consecinţă agentul nostru de bursă ne-a sfătuit să cumpărăm mai multe

acţiuni. Bursa londoneză este în prezent în scădere astfel încât ne-am hotărât să vindem.

IX. Put the verbs in brackets into past simple or past perfect simple.

1. John (react) with the same affronted horror Ann (feel).

2. He (always / look) so young, but he (seem) to have aged in the last weeks.

3. A spokesman (say), however, that the two men (not / reach) agreement on the issues


4. I (mention) that I (really/not/like) contemporary music.

5. The head of the state (say) his country (always/attach) great importance to good


6. He (claim) that his parents (abandon) him.

7. I (go up) to the policeman and (complain) that this man (accost) me in the street.

8. Mary (discover) an addiction to housework which she (never/feel) before.

9. The women who (work) in these mills (begin) to agitate for better conditions.

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10.They (have) no money because they (spend) everything on duty free whisky.

11.When we (arrive) at the stadium, the match (already/start).

12.We (get) everything ready for them long before they (arrive).

13.That (be) something I (not/expect)

14.As soon as they (finish) breakfast, they (leave) for University.

15.When Paul (come) to England in 2001, he (already/learn) to speak English well.


I. Put the verb in brackets at the tense required and make all the necessary changes:

a. The carpenter (feel) the cupboard to see how polished it (be).

b. Your friend from Canada (wait) for you in front of the airport.

c. I (see) what you (mean).

d. Keep quiet! What you (think) about that?

e. You don‟t have to stay with me if you (be busy).

f. The student did not know what temperature ice (melt) at.

g. The plane (take off) at seven.

h. I won‟t go out as it (snow) and I (not have) a thick fur coat.

i. Never he (speak) to me nicely in weekends.

j. This handbag (belong) to her.

k. I (bet) you (not know) the news!

l. Unless she (invite) us, we won‟t go there.

m. Come quickly! I (smell) something burning in the kitchen.

II. Comment on the use of the tenses in the following sentences:

a. It rained heavily this morning.

b. Today it has been a fine day.

c. We‟ve never seen or heard of her since she moved to Paris.

d. Sorry about all this mess. I‟ve been whitewashing the kitchen.

e. I‟ve painted two walls since lunchtime.

f. She‟s been lying in bed all day.

g. Where‟s Mary? She‟s lying on a rug under that lime tree.

h. A lot of lovely houses have been built in our village.

i. How many buttons has she sewn?

j. How many buttons did you sew yesterday?

k. I have mown the lawn.

l. „Who mowed the lawn?‟ „I did.‟

m. The President has been assassinated.

n. The President was assassinated last night/ two hours ago.

o. I can‟t go on holiday because I‟ve broken my arm.

III. Continue the following sentences with the most suitable words or phrases:

a) „You look tired.‟ „Yes, I‟ve been working ... ‟

b) „You look tired.‟ „Yes, I was working ... ‟

c) He had his hair cut three times ...

d) He has had his hair cut twice ...

e) Don‟t bet on that horse! But I have ...

f) He took her out last Sunday, but he hasn‟t taken her ...

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g) Has he bought the groceries ... ?

h) She‟s been in the shop ... but she ... hasn‟t bought anything.

i) Have you travelled by bus ...?

j) ... did you travel by tube?

k) The last time I had a glass of champagne was ...

l) The heating was put on ...

m) The heating has been put on ...

n) They haven‟t greeted each other ... they parted.

o) They haven‟t given a party ... months.

IV. Put the verb in brackets into a suitable tense:

1. It takes only one day. I (come) back in time to sit for the exam.

2. This device is cheap and useful. I think I (buy) it.

3. What (you do) this weekend? I was thinking of visiting the international exhibition of


4. All right. I‟ve put the spare part where you told me. Now what I (do) next?

5. As far as I know, you‟ve talked about his plans. He (leave) tonight?

6. What (offer) your daughter for her graduation?

7. Is that so? Then, neither me nor my stepbrother (give) her a hand.

8. In three days‟ time I (fly) over the Atlantic Ocean.

9. „There‟s someone at the door. „That (be) Mr. Brown, the governor.

10. ‟By the time the manager comes to terms with the strikers, we (get) the money.

V.Correct the mistakes in the following sentences. (Remember not to use a Future tense

in a 'time' or 'if' clause, or after 'in case'.

1.I'll go to the hairdresser's after it will cease raining.

2.Will you be going to the greengrocer's later? If you will go, could you get me some

potatoes and onions?

3.He said he wouldn't bother to fix a time to see me, because he'll call into the office anyway

several times the next week.

4.She had working as a secretary for a Manchester-based orchestra when Raphael has begun

making regular appearances with them as guest conductor.(Ch. Lamb)

5.That olive tree will still stand there five hundred years from now.

6.What will they do on top of the mountain in case it will be a downpour?

7.I will give the car a push if you will get in.

8.She promised she would stop crying after her parents will have listened to her.

9.He hopes they will repair this road by the time he will come back next summer.

10.He asked us to heat the oil till it will begin to bubble.

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Exercises I. Recognise the Future tenses (or ways of expressing futurity) in the following

sentences and comment upon their use:

1. I shall be flying to Canada this time tomorrow.

2. He'll buy you a ring if you ask him.

3. He's going to buy a ring for you.

4. He won't buy it unless it's cheap.

5. He's not going to buy it unless it's cheap.

6. Will you leave without paying?

7. You'll always find a welcome here whenever you call.

8. She will go to the hairdresser's after she has washed her hair.

9. She said the house at the back of their garden would be pulled down the next week.

10. Will you be visiting aunt Cynthia tomorrow?

II. Put the verbs in brackets at the tense required:

1. How you (get) to the party tomorrow?

2. My friend (sit) for an exam on Monday.

3. He (sing) in Paris next week.

4. I (take) my parents to the ballet tomorrow.

5. They (play) some Beethoven next.

6. Peter (call) for you at nine.

7. We (meet) him at the airport at five.

8. Hurry up! The train (leave) in a minute.

9. We (leave) as soon as it (cease) raining.

10. She told me she (see) the doctor at five p.m. the day after tomorrow.

III. Put the verbs in brackets into the „going to‟ form and make a context for each


1. When the gardener (water) the flowers?

2. Ann (miss) her bus.

3. This airplane (crash)

4. The petrol tank (explode).

5. What your teacher (do) with that big dictionary?

6. It (snow). Look at the sky.

7. I (plant) an oak tree here.

8. You (tell) me the whole story?

9. I (give) you one of these pills.

10. How much you (give) me for this book?

IV. Replace „be going to‟ by the future continuous and show the differences in

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meaning (mention whether they are interchangeable):

1. Are you going to sleep in the armchair?

2. Are you going to take it with you?

3. Are you going to spend your money in a hotel?

4. Are you going to tell him the truth?

5. Are you going to make all the arrangements?

6. Are you going to discuss the matter with your mates?

7. Are you going to sing at the concert tonight?

8. Are going to come by air?

9. Are you going to creep up the stairs?

10. Are you going to take your medicine?

V. Put the verbs in brackets in the appropriate form:

1. I‟ve noticed you have bought yourself a new bike. You (sell) the old one?

2. You (turn off) the radio, please?

3. He (do) the washing up today? No, I think it can wait till tomorrow.

4. I‟m going fishing on Saturday. You (join) me?

5. You (have) some more wine? No, thank you.

6. Why did you make such an effort? You (take part) in the elections this year?

7. You (buy) a bar of soap for me, please. I‟ve heard it‟s cheaper this week.

8. You (have) some more wine? No, thank you.

9. You (listen to) me, please. I (tell) you some unusual story.

10.Why are you wearing this uniform? You (participate) in the parade?

VI. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense (present, present perfect, future):

1. You (forget) your head next, you absent-minded old thing! .

2. I‟ll wait for her in the restaurant till the clock (strike) four.

3. When you (get) the results we all expect you‟ll participate in the competition.

4. When he (admit) he was rude I‟ll forgive him.

5. If I quit I (let) you know first.

6. If you accept the bargain you (have) to pay for it.

7. When he (bring) what he owes to me I‟ll set him free.

8. When we (provide) all the facilities we‟ll speak about leaving the country.

9. When we (get) there we‟ll play hide-and-seek.

10. If this terrible heat (not come) to an end we‟ll suffer from hunger the next year.

VII. Identify the mistakes and correct them:

1. I have discussed with Allan; we will meet our guests at the airport at ten a.m.


2. What will you do this evening?

3. My father is very determined. He isn‟t going to accept their resolution.

4. Your schoolmaster told me everything. As far as I understand you will attend the

Russian course next term.

5. I really don‟t know what to do. Are we going to a movie?

6. By the time her father discovers her absence we will be reaching the Mediterranean


7. What do you suppose you will have done when he will see you tomorrow?

8. You can‟t disturb him now. He is about of falling asleep.

9. You arrived a little bit too late. She is on the point to get on the plane

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10.Look how pale he is! He will faint.

VIII. Rephrase each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals. Do not change

the word in any way: 1. What time is the train for Iaşi? leave

What time does the train for Iaşi leave?

2. What does your boy friend intend to do? going

3. If he isn‟t ill you‟ll find him playing tennis in the court. unless

4. The members of the crew have planned to leave the ship tomorrow. leave

5. The aircraft is on the point of landing. about

6. His wife is pregnant again. have

7. I‟m bound to work here till the end of my life. won‟t

8. You can be sure that at the end of the school the car will be in

front of the house. have

9. His fate is to become a great singer. be

10.The show will start in half an hour. start

IX. Use the correct form of the verbs in brackets: 1. It's midnight. He (to have a bath) now.

2. By the end of the month we (to save) $ 300.

3. He (to hear) the bad news by now.

4. Your car looks filthy. I (to clean) it tomorrow.

5. She has moved to Scotland, so I (to visit) her soon.

6. They are playing a Beethoven overture, and then they (to play) a Mozart symphony.

7. He's studying Biology first, and later he (to take up) Anatomy.

8. I'm afraid Mr. Jarvis is out. I (to call back) tomorrow.

9. The red carpet (to go) with the curtains in the sitting-room.

10.The sun's getting in my eyes. I (to pull) the curtains.

X. Choose the correct form of the verb: 1. Pour boiling water on the coffee grounds, wait till the grounds …, then strain it into a

clean jug.

a. will settle; b. settle; c. are settling; d.have settled.

2.. John said he would give me a ring as soon as he … Paris.

a. reaches; b. reached; c. will reach; d. will be reaching.

He visits a new country every year. By the time he … fifty he …all the countries in

the world.

a. is - will have visited; b. will be - has visited.

4. By the end of the year all our debts … .

a. will have been paid off; b. will be paid off;

5. It's no use phoning Irene at the office, she …

a. will be leaving; b. is leaving; c. will have left.

6. Couldn't they stay in your spare room at Easter?

Yes, I … it by then.

a. will have decorated; b. will be decorating.

7. Your hair is getting terribly long.

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Don't worry, I… it cut on Wednesday.

a. will be getting; b. get.

8. She can't come to the beach with us because she … an exam on Sunday.

a. will be taking; b. will take; c. will have taken.

9. He … her at once when he … her.

a. will recognise - sees; b.will be recognising - will see.

10. According to the latest forecast, the tunnel … next year.

a. will be finished; b. will have been finished; c. is finishing.

XI. Choose the most appropriate word or phrase in italics:

1. She can't leave on Sunday. She won't be ready until then/by then.

2. John's father will be retiring soon/already.

3. By twenty four hours /this time tomorrow I'll be in the Netherlands.

4. Please call Ann exactly when/the moment you get any news.

5. I'm sure everything will be all right at the end/in the end.

6. Wait for him. He'll be back after a few minutes/in a few minutes.

7. There will be no official announcements from now on/forthwith.

8. The company will make a profit next year/by this time next year.

9. I'll have a three weeks' holiday this year/just.

10.I'll kiss him 'good night' when/after he goes to bed.

XII. Give alternatives beginning as shown or containing the words on the margin:

1. The arrival of the coach has been delayed, I'm afraid.

The coach will ………

2. This play will take him two months to write.

In two months' time ….

3. Let's leave at the end of the next lecture.

As soon as ……

4. We'll have to leave immediately at the end of the film.

The moment …..

5. Paul will get over his illness. Then his work will improve.

Once ….

6. She'll find him waiting outside the station. BE

7. This will be the band's first concert in the US. TIME

8. You will eventually appreciate what I'm getting at. IN

9. They'll arrive soon. IT

10.I won't spend a penny more. HE

XIII. Translate into Romanian:

1. I tried to explain to him that I certainly wouldn't have a breakdown anyway.

( Drabble)

2. I'll make a deal with you. I know you' ve had a rough time lately, so I'll pay for you to

have a holiday in a good hotel for a week, and then I'll pay your fare home, first

class.(Ch. Lamb)

3. We are having lunch in half an hour's time.

4. Our company is going to open a second office.

5. Will they be listening to a record this time tomorrow?

6. He was sure that mother would be delighted when she heard that.

7. Cynthia has just paid for the holiday she is taking in July.

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8. I am going to keep my luggage in the spare room.

9. She said auntie would have cooked dinner by the time my brother came back home.

10. Have they repaired the roof yet?

Not yet, but they' ll have repaired it by next Wednesday.

XIV. Translate into English:

1. Vom pleca după ce îmi va spune cum s-au petrecut lucrurile.

2. Nu te culca înainte de a-ţi lua medicamentul.

3. Dacã Irina va gãsi cartea, o va cumpãra.

4. Orchestra va fi repetat de douã ore când solistul va ajunge la operã.

5. Nu credeam cã la ora aceea tu vei mai cânta la pian.

6. Unde mâncãm în seara asta? La bunica?

7. Îţi voi comunica hotãrârea mea dupã ce voi consulta avocatul.

8. I-am explicat secretarei cã va putea merge acasã numai dupã ce va bate la maşinã toate


9. Voi trece pe la teatru să cumpăr două bilete pentru premiera de mâine seară după ce mă

voi coafa.

10.Este îngrozitor de cald în cameră. Vom leşina cu toţii.

XV. Use „will‟ or „shall‟ to fill the spaces in the following sentences:

1. By this time next month he ........be teaching mathematics at Howard University.

2. Who‟ll help me ? I.....

3. What ......we do now? Wait.

4. You‟ve behaved according to my expectations so, when we reach the final point of our

trip you.......have a reward.

5. I really don‟t know what to do this evening. .....we go for a ride? Yes, let‟s.

6. Now we‟re here studying English. Where .....we be in twenty years‟ time, what do you


7. ..... have a cigarette?

8. Who.........do this dirty job for me? I.......

9. When.......I call on him?

10.When you come to pay your debts, I.......lie on the beach.

XVI. Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect tense:

1. I (find) out the results by this time tomorrow.

2. By Monday he (work) it out.

3. In 2020 I (be) here for thirty years.

4. I‟ll still be here next year but John (leave).

5. The dean (make) a decision before we reach the end of the semester.

6. In two months‟ time we (solve) this misunderstanding.

7. By June my father (work) in this company for twenty years.

8. He (dig) the garden by nightfall.

9. They (sort out) all the Valentine cards by 7 p.m.

10.Within two weeks' time they (get married) and (leave) for their honeymoon in Venice.

XVII. Put the verbs in brackets into the most suitable future form (future simple,

future continuous, future perfect, or future perfect continuous):

1. I can‟t lend you the car now. It is out of order. Call me in the evening. I (fix) it by

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2. Call me on Monday. By then I (finish) to check your test and you (know) the mark

you‟ve got.

3. By May I (work) in this office for ten years. I feel like making a change.

4. Shirley (take) some guitar lessons next term. I hope she (learn) some pieces before the

contest takes place.

5. My pupils have already gathered about 1,000 bottles. By the end of the month they

(collect) more than 2,000 if people keep on drinking at this rate.

6. The band (give) a lot of air-open concerts by the end of the autumn.

7. He has wasted his youth on the tennis court. Next week he (practice) it for five years

and hope he (do) his best in the ATP Tour in Hamburg.

8. According to the scientists‟ opinion cancer (continue) to make lots of victims. It (kill)

probably about 500,000 people by the year 2010.

9. It started raining three hours ago. I hope that it (stop) by five o‟clock when we go to

the party.

10. They both are very good players. They (play) together for two years in April.

XVIII. Choose the most appropriate words underlined: 1. Will your brother be working / work on the first day after Easter? I was thinking of

inviting him on a trip.

2. John and Helen are due to divorce / are on the point of divorcing.

3. Mary is / is going to earn a large amount of money so she retires / will be retiring.

4. Here comes a policeman! What will you tell / are you going to tell him about the


5. Don‟t be so anxious! I‟ll just come / I‟m just coming.

6. What do you think you‟ll be doing / you‟ll do in five years‟ time?

7. Come on, hurry up, or we‟ll miss / we‟ll have missed the train

8. This time next week he'll be driving/he'll drive his own car.

9. He said he would be leaving/will be leaving by the three o'clock fast train.

10. He will have read/will read seven of Shakespeare's plays by the end of the month.



3M is the epitome of all that is best in

corporate America. To stay top the company must export its virtues to Europe.

Whenever lists of America‟s brightest and best are compiled 3M is guaranteed to


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3M was born early in the 20th century as Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing. The

mining soon ceased when the company‟s founders failed to dig up the corundum they had

hoped to discover. So they turned to trading in sandpaper, a product that uses the abrasive

corundum. From the beginning the company was forced to innovate or die.

Today 3M‟s headquarters and many of its laboratories are in St Paul, Minnesota. Most

of its customers are other industrial concerns. Its 60,000 products range from medical-

imaging equipment to Scotch tape to abrasives for the car industry. With that unpromising

background, how has the company been so successful?

Perpetual innovation

When asked to explain its own success, 3M begins with technological innovation.

3M is among the 25 companies with the most patents in the world – 11 of the 25 are

Japanese, 10 are American and only four are European. The company spends some 6.5% of

its total sales on research and development, almost twice the American average. And that has

increased from about 4.5% at the beginning of the 1980‟s. The increase – part of the response

to the less sparkling performance in the mid-1980‟s – adds a not-insignificant $200 million a

year to the research budget.

European action

3M sees its future as lying increasingly outside the United States. Europe accounts for

some 30% of the company‟s worldwide sales and one-quarter of its employees. That puts 3M

among the largest companies in Europe.

The company has had subsidiaries in the region for almost 40 years and now has 17

different companies on the continent and 14 major R&D centres. Since 1984 a number of

European Management Action Teams (EMATs) have been set up under the direction of Joe

Warren, 3M‟s Brussels-based vice-president in charge of Europe.

Briefly, 3M worldwide is divided into four sectors: industrial and electronics (36% of

sales); information and imaging technologies (28%); life sciences (22%); and commercial

and consumer (14%). These four sectors are divided into 15 „strategic business centres‟

(SBCs) – for audio-visual products, abrasives, etc. – and each centre is responsible for three

or four of the company‟s 50 operating divisions. The operating divisions are run like small

businesses and 3M staff say that each has its own culture.

Global strategy is determined by the business centres in St Paul. European input comes

via group directors (one for each business centre) based at 3M‟s European headquarters in

Brussels. In addition, the European organization has a number of product managers (most of

them in Brussels) plus managing directors in charge of each of the 17 European subsidiaries.

These subsidiaries are run nationally, with a few exception – for example, the MD of Spain is

also the MD of Portugal, and the MD of the UK is also the MD of Ireland.

Each of the 40-plus EMATs corresponds roughly to an operating division and has

between eight and ten members drawn from different functions and different countries.

Typically they meet every four to six weeks. In theory they have collective responsibility for

achieving the company‟s European goals; in practice they spend much of their time

discussing the launch of new products.

Although 3M has only 150 Americans working for the company outside the United

States (even in the UK there are only six American employees), the language of the EMATs

is English. Since these were the first formal means for more junior employees of different

nationalities to get together, the early discussions tended to be dominated by the fluent

English-speakers: the British, the Dutch and the Irish. Now the company insists that a certain

level of proficiency in English is a prerequisite for joining an EMAT, and team members are

being trained to learn how to accommodate different cultures.

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The future depends on how well the company has learnt to adapt to change. One of

the greatest changes in its markets is occurring in Europe, and much hangs on the ability of

the EMATs to come up with products that will meet the fast-shifting demands of 3M‟s

European customers.


Vocabulary Exercises

I. Read the text and answer these questions in your own words:

1. Make a short profile of 3M.

2. Why the term „innovation‟ is so closely connected to the American company?

3. Where are 3M‟s European headquarters located?

4. What is the language of the EMATs? Can you give reasons for that?

II. Match the words listed with the dictionary definitions: subsidy, census, recovery,

stability, budget, Treasury, privatization, deficit, sterling, conciliation 1. To take a count of something, such as population, production or distribution. A

government device to monitor economic developments.

2. When nationalized industries are being returned to shareholders.

3. One of a government‟s principal aims both in terms of currency and employment.

4. A payment by the State to producers in order to reduce prices.

5. The attempt to bring the two sides together in an industrial dispute which is damaging

the national economy.

6. A time when businessmen are beginning to regain confidence. Order books are

beginning to fill up and more jobs are being created.

7. The currency for the UK.

8. The budgetary situation when the Chancellor of the Exchequer raises less in taxes

than he spends.

9. The government department concerned primarily with finance.

10.The national income and expenditure plans.

III. Some of the words in the following sentences are in bold. Look through the text

and identify the words that were actually used to express the same ideas. 1. 3M has had its own local companies in Europe for 40 years.

2. Joe Warren is responsible for European business. He has helped establish several

EMATs since 1984.

3. There are four main divisions in which 3M does business worldwide.

4. The operating divisions are managed like small businesses and, according to

employees, each division has its own culture.

5. The company‟s plan of action is determined in St Paul.

6. The central offices of 3M Europe are located in Brussels.

7. The EMATs often discuss the introduction of new products onto the market.

8. The EMATs are responsible for reaching the company‟s European objectives.

9. In the future, the EMATs will have to think of products that will meet the demands of

European customers.

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Our society is made up of all kinds of organizations, such as companies, government

departments, unions, hospitals, schools, libraries, and the like. They are essential to our

existence, helping to create our standard of living and our quality of life. In all these

organizations, there are people carrying out the work of a manager although they do not have

that title. The vice-chancellor of a university, the president of a students‟ union or a chief

librarian are all managers. They have a responsibility to use the resources of their

organization effectively and economically to achieve its objectives.

Are there certain activities common to all managers? Can we define the task of a

manager? A French industrialist, Henri Fayol, wrote in 1916 a classic definition of the

manager‟s role. He said that to manage is „to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to

coordinate and to control.‟ This definition is still accepted by many people today, though

some writers on management have modified Fayol‟s description. Instead of talking about

command, they say a manager must motivate or direct and lead other workers.

Henri Fayol‟s definition of a manager‟s functions is useful. However, in most

companies, the activities of a manager depend on the level at which he/she is working. Top

managers, such as the chairman and directors, will be more involved in long range planning,

policy making, and the relations of the company with the outside world. They will be making

decisions on the future of the company, the sort of product lines it should develop, how it

should face up to the competition, whether it should diversify etc. These strategic decisions

are part of the planning function mentioned by Fayol.

On the other hand, middle management and supervisors are generally making the day-

to-day decisions which help an organization to run efficiently and smoothly. They must

respond to the pressures of the job, which may mean dealing with an unhappy customer,

chasing up supplies, meeting an urgent order or sorting out a technical problem. Managers at

this level spend a great deal of time communicating, coordinating and making decisions

affecting the daily operation of their organization.

An interesting modern view on managers is supplied by an American writer, Mr.

Peter Drucker. He has spelled out what managers do. In his opinion, managers perform five

basic operations. Firstly, managers set objectives. They decide what these should be and how

the organization can achieve them. For this task, they need analytical ability. Secondly,

managers organize. They must decide how the resources of the company are to be used, how

the work is to be classified and divided. Furthermore, they must select people for the jobs to

be done. For this, they not only need analytical ability but also understanding of human

beings. Their third task is to motivate and communicate effectively. They must be able to get

people to work as a team, and to be as productive as possible. To do this, they will be

communicating effectively with all levels of the organization – their superiors, colleagues,

and subordinates. To succeed in this task, managers need social skills. The fourth activity is

measurement. Having set targets and standards, managers have to measure the performance

of the organization, and of its staff, in relation to those targets. Measuring requires analytical

ability. Finally, Peter Drucker says that managers develop people, including themselves.

They help to make people more productive, and to grow as human beings. They make them

bigger and richer persons.

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In Peter Drucker‟s view, successful managers are not necessarily people who are

liked or who get on well with others. They are people who command the respect of workers,

and who set high standards. Good managers need not be geniuses but must bring character to

the job. They are people of integrity, who will look for that quality in others.

Vocabulary Exercises

I. Complete the following sentences using suitable words from below.

managing director junior executive colleague

director supervisor staff

senior executive superior employee

middle manager subordinate work-force

1. The group of executives working below the top managers are generally called …… .

2. Valerie is an important person in our company. She is a member of the Board of …

3. Peter, a recent university graduate, has been with the firm for a year. He is at present

a …………… and is being trained for a managerial position.

4. Their ………………. is expending rapidly. They now have over 5,000 employees.

5. At least 50% of our ……………………. have been with the company for over ten


6. … in an organization generally have more fringe benefits than lower-level


7. We are a small group in the Research and Development Department. Fortunately, I

get on well with all my ………………. .

8. Our telephone operators work under the direction of a …… . I work under Mr. Brown.

He‟s my …………………… .

9. Sheila and Tom work under my authority. I am their boss and they are my

………………… .

10. I am responsible for ………………. training and development.

11. A ……………………… is a person of high rank in an organization, usually next in

importance to the Chairman.

II. Word building

Complete the following sentences with correct form of the words in italics.

1. produce

a Our ………… of washing-machines increased by 5% last year.

b We have recently put on the market two new ………………… .

c …………… per worker will increase with the introduction of the new machines.

d Word processors have helped to make office workers more ………………… .

e The company is well known in the agricultural industry. It sells mainly farm …… -

eggs, butter, milk, etc.

2. compete

a Coca Cola‟s main ……………… is the Pepsi-Cola company.

b We try to stay ………… by investing heavily in advertising and promotion.

c Our company‟s main objective is to keep ahead of the ……………. .

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1. plan

a The meeting did not go as …………….. .

b Some projects take years of ……………….. .

c Before asking a bank manager for money, it is wise to show him a business …….. .

2. analyse

a Managers need to have an ………………. mind.

b Our …………….. showed that we needed to put more emphasis on marketing.

c We must look at the problem ……………………… .

III. Complete the following sentences with the correct word or phrase (a,b,c or d).

1. Nowadays, I eat out at restaurants regularly and often go abroad for holidays. My

………… is much higher than it used to be.

a standard of living b cost of living c lifestyle d way of life

2. Writing reports is not a …………… that everyone enjoys.

a duty b work c job d function

3. This machine uses much less fuel than the previous one. It is far more ………… .

a sparing b economic c effective d economical

4. The management has worked out a ……………. to improve our market share.

a strategy b policy c target d planning

5. Many of the …………….. in the Personnel Department are part-time workers.

a staff b staffs c employers d personal

6. One of the company‟s main …………… is to increase sales by 10% per year.

a designs b plans c purposes d objectives

7. Several machines have broken down. We won‟t be able to ………… an important


a fill b meet c make d do

IV. Complete the following sentences, using suitable forms of the verbs below.

sort out make out bring out pull out

spell out buy out carry out

sell out sound out turn out

1. The firm …………… about five hundred sports cars a year.

2. We hope to …………… our production problems soon.

3. If the firm doesn‟t make a profit, the owners will probably …………… .

4. I‟m willing to consider introducing flexitime, but would you first ……… the advantages

of the system, please?

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5. Givenchy have …………… an exciting new perfume.

6. Would you …………… the cheque to David Cotton, please?

7. In order to develop new products, pharmaceutical companies have to …………. a lot of


8. Several leading banks such as Barclays have …………… of South Africa.

9. A group of senior managers want to take over the firm by …………… it ………… .

10. We‟re looking for a new chief executive. I understand one or two candidates have

already been ………… .


Sales and negotiation

Selling and Negotiating Background information


You don‟t have to be a very special kind of a

person to sell a product. But although

successful salespeople often have special

talents and an outgoing personality, the skills

they employ are used by us all: we build and

maintain relationships with different kind of

people, we listen to and take note of what they

tell us and don‟t just enjoy the sound of our

own voices, and we explain things to them or

discuss idea with them.

A firm may depend on their own sales team

and/or on the salesmanship of their

distributors, wholesalers or retailers. But any

company needs to establish a personal

relationship with its major clients („key

accounts‟) and potential customers

(„prospects‟). It is often said that „people do

business with people‟: a firm doesn‟t just deal

impersonally with another firm, but a person in

the buying department receives personal visits

from people representing firm‟s suppliers on a

regular basis - or in the case of department

stores or chain stores, a team of buyers may

travel around visiting suppliers.

Keeping salespeople „on the road‟ is much

more expensive than employing them to work

in the office because much of their time is

spent unproductively travelling. Telephone

selling may use this time more productively

(though in some country this is illegal), but a

face-to-face meeting and discussion is much

more effective. Companies involved in the

export trade often have a separate export sales

force, whose travel and accommodation

expenses may be very high. So servicing

overseas customers may often be done by

phone, fax or letter with not so many personal

visits. Many firms appoint an overseas agent

or distributor whose own sales force takes over

responsibility for selling their products in

another country.

A sales department consists of many people

who are based in different parts of the country

or the world, who don‟t have the day-to-day

contract and opportunities for communicating

with each other that office-based staff have.

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For this reason, firms hold regular sales

conferences where their entire sales force can

meet, receive information and ask questions

about new products and receive training.


Diplomacy, friendliness and co-

operation are important in selling.

There‟s a widespread belief, which is

probably true, that buyers „buy from

those they like‟ and that sellers give a

better deal to „those they like‟. All

salespeople have a certain „fear‟, or

reverence, for buyers because they have

the power to give or to withhold an

order. „Negotiation” is the part of the

sales conversation where bargaining

about the conditions of an order takes

place. It comes at the end of the sales

talk at the point when the buyer id

definitely interested. Because additional

persuasion may be required, it‟s

important not to give away concessions

while making the sales presentation.

In international business there are different

types of business negotiations, negotiation

styles and negotiation situations. A simplified

model of what goes and shows four main

phases of negotiation:

1. The preparation phase: this is where you

work out what you want and what your

main priorities are.

2. The debating phase: this is where you try

to find out what the other side or the

customers wants. You say what you want

but you don‟t say yet what the final

conditions are. You use open questions and

listen to the customer to try t find out in

what areas they may be prepared to move.

3. The proposal phase: this is the point at

which you suggest some of the things you

could trade or which you might

theoretically be prepared to trade, offer or

concede. Formulate your proposals in the

form of if…then… Be patient and listen to

the other side‟s proposals.

4. The bargaining phase: this is when you

indicate what it is you will actually trade,

offer or perhaps concede. In turn you

conditionally exchange individual points,

along the lines of: ‟If you are prepare to

pay swiftly, then we are prepared to

change our delivery schedules.‟ Remember

to write down the agreement.

Not all business negotiations take place face-

to-face. Sometimes you may have to exercise

negotiating skills on the telephone. Clearly,

too , not all business bargaining ends in a deal.

Some negotiations may begin with an

exploratory session during which the clients

specify their needs and expect you to come

back later with a proposal of how your

company will meet those needs.

People often try to postpone a decision. They

might politely break off from the negotiation

and say something like: „I’ll have to think

about it’ or „ I’ll have to consult my boss or my

department head’, etc. On the whole, however,

people expect that agreement will be reached

or else you‟ll do business with another

company. Normally both parties are interested

in reaching an agreement in which both sides

take away something positive from the deal.

This is called a „win-win situation‟.

However, conflict can occur in business

negotiations and relationships. Naturally, we

all try to avoid this because this is where only

one side can wind and the other will lose.

Situations which might lead to such

negotiations could be late delivery, poor

performance of a product, component failure

or the need to make compensation payment. In

a situation where one side is clearly wrong, the

outcome is clear: either the conflict continues

until the dispute is resolved or it goes to court.

The final important point about negotiating in

the business world is the law of contract. It is

generally enforceable in the courts. The

position is more complicated in international

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business negotiations because of differences in

laws and assumed liabilities. But, nevertheless,

the courts are a source for remedies if contract

are broken. Suing defaulting contractors is

quite common. A sound knowledge of contract

law is therefore essential for negotiators

drawing up an agreement at the end of a deal.

However, this is the point at which the experts

will usually have to be called in and so is not

dealt with further here.

B. Reading comprehension

Co-operation and competition in Negotiation

Negotiations are complex because one is dealing with both facts and people. It is

clear that negotiators must above all have a good understanding of the subject. They

must also be aware of the general policy of the company or institution in relation to the

issues and they must be familiar with the organisational structure and the decision-

making process. However, awareness of these facts may not necessarily suffice to reach a successful outcome.

Personal, human factors must be taken in account. The approach and strategy adopted in negotiations

are influenced by attitude as well by a cool, clear logical analysis of the facts and one‟s interests. The

personal needs of the actors in negotiating must therefore be considered, these can include a need for

friendship, goodwill, credibility, recognition of status and authority, a desire to be appreciated by

one‟s own side and to be promoted and, finally, an occasional need to get home reasonably early on

a Friday evening. It is a well-known fact that meetings scheduled on a Friday evening are shorter

than those held at other times. Timing can pressure people intro reaching a decision and personal

factors can become part of the bargaining process.

Researchers who have studied the negotiating process recommend separating the people from

the problem. An analysis of negotiating language shows that, foe example, indirect and impersonal

forms are used. This necessity to be hard on the facts and soft on the people can result in the

sometimes complex, almost ritualistic, style of negotiating language.

Language varies according to the negotiating style. In negotiating you can use either a co-

operative style or a competitive one. In the co-operative style the basic principle is that both parties

can gain something form the negotiation without harming the interests of the other. Or in other words

that both parties will benefit more in the long run in friendship and co-operation even if they make

some concessions. This type of negotiation is likely to take place in-house between colleagues and

departments, or between companies when there is a longstanding relationship and common goals are

being pursued.

Unfortunately co-operative style negotiations without a trace of competition are rare. In most

negotiating situations there is something to be gained or lost. There can be a danger in adopting a co-

operative mode, as unscrupulous people may take advantage of co-operative people.

The opposite mode to co-operative negotiating is competitive negotiating. Negotiators see

each other as opponents. Knowledge of the other party‟s needs is used to develop strategies to exploit

weaknesses rather than to seek a solution satisfactory to both sides. This type of negotiating may be

appropriate in the case of one-off contract where the aim is to get the best result possible without

considering future relationships or the risk of a breakdown in negotiations. Needless to say, the

language in this type of discussion may become hostile and threatening even it remains formal.

In reality, most negotiations are a complex blend of co-operative and competitive mode.

Negotiating successfully implies dealing appropriately with the four main components of any

negotiation: facts, people, competition, and co-operation.

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Skilled negotiators are sensitive to the linguistic signals, as well as the non-verbal ones of

facial expressions, gesture and behaviour, which show the type of negotiating mode they are in.

Language reflects tactics and therefore a study of the language use in negotiating brings a

greater awareness of the negotiating process.

(Adapted from Negotiate in French and English by Pamela Shepard and Bénédicte Lapeyere)

C. Exercises

I. Read the above article and then fill each gap below with one word.

1. Good negotiators must know their ……… well and they must know their

company‟s ………. But they must also consider ……… factors because they are

dealing with ……… 2. Negotiations are affected by the participant‟s ………, as well as logic.

3. Research has shown that it can help to separate the ……… from the ………. This can be done

by using special negotiating ………

4. In a ………style of negotiation, the participants try not to harm each other‟s ………. In order to

maintain a good long-term ……… they both make ………

5. In a ……… style of negotiation the parties are ………. This style may be suitable for a ………

contract. The language here become ……… and ……….

6. Most negotiations are a ………of the two styles. A good negotiator must be aware of the

……… and ……… signals which show the style being used.

7. The four main factors involved in a negotiation are ………, ………, ……… and ……….

II. Fill the gaps in these sentences with a suitable noun or prepositional phrase.

of inferior quality of minor importance of short duration out of date out of order out of

stock out of work to a certain extent under separate cover with reference to

1. We are sending you our Spring catalogue ………

2. Because the other items on the agenda were ……… the meeting was adjourned.

3. It is at this stage of the process that any products ……… are removed from the assembly line.

4. Even if the machine are ………, they should not be touched unless the power supply is off.

5. At a time when so many skilled workers are ………, it will be easy to fill the vacancy.

6. The old machinery was completely ………

7. ……… your letter of 15 March, we are unable to offer you an alternative delivery date.

8. The strike was ……… so the production last was minimal.

9. We‟ll have to reduce the workforce ………, perhaps by a process of voluntary redundancies.

10. We regret that we are unable to supply the items you ordered, as we are completely ……….

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III. Decide which of the expressions below can be used for these functions. Mark the

expressions a, b, c, etc.

a. asking for advice from a friend

b. asking for advice from someone you

don’t know well

c. giving advice indirectly

d. giving advice in a direct fashion

e. accepting advice

f. rejecting advi

1. That‟s a good idea ………


2. If I were in your position, I would

……… ………

3. Good idea, let‟s try that ………


4. I‟m not sure that‟s such a good idea

……… ………

5. I would appreciate your advice on

……… ………

6. Could I ask for some advice on

………? ………

7. Have you ever thought of ………?


8. I‟d like your advice on ………


9. Why don‟t you ……… ?


10. Do you think I should ………?

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IV. Write the missing words in these sentences in the spaces in the puzzle

1. We‟ll send you a ……… of our product

2. How can we ……… sales without taking on more sales staff?

3. I‟ve noticed that there has been a ……… towards ordering later.

4. There is an enormous market for this product ………

5. ACME plc is our major ………

6. What ……… of sales do you anticipate in your region?

7. We have built up a great deal of ……… among our regular customers.

8. After that report on TV, we have had a lot of good ………

9. Even a company that has a ……… invests in marketing and sale.

UNIT IX Marketing

A. What is marketing? Background information

Nowadays, marketing influences, and often

actually controls, almost every part of a

company‟s activities.

Underlying all marketing strategy is “The

Marketing Concept”, explained here:


(We must produce what customers want, not

what we want to produce)

This means that we PUT THE


(We organize the company so that this




(We carry out market research)

We must SUPPLY exactly what the

customer wants

We can do this by offering the right

MARKETING MIX: „The Four Ps” = the

right PRODUCT at the right PRICE

available through the right channels of

distribution PLACE presented in the right


The Four Ps

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PRODUCT =the goods or service that you

are marketing

A „product‟ is not just a collection of

components. A „total product‟ includes the

image of the product, its design, quality and

reliability – as well as its features and

benefits. In marketing terms, political

candidates and non-profit-making public

services are also „products‟ that people must

be persuaded to „buy‟ and which have to be

„presented and packaged‟ attractively.

Products have a life cycle, and companies are

continually developing new products to

replace products whose sales are declining

and coming to the end of their lives.

PRICE = making it easy for the customer to

buy the product.

Pricing takes account of the value of a product

and its quality, the ability of the customer to

pay, the volume of sales required, and the

prices charged by the competition. Too low a

price can reduce the number of sales just as

significantly as too high a price. A low price

may increase sales but not as profitably as

fixing a high, yet still popular, price.

As fixed costs stay fixed whatever the

volume of sales, there is usually no such thing

as a „profit margin‟ on any single product.

PLACE = getting the product to the customer

Decisions have to be made about the channels

of distribution and delivery arrangements.

Retail products may go through various

channels of distribution:

1. Producer end-users (the product is sold

directly to the end-user by the company‟s

sales force, direct response advertising or

direct mail (mail order))

2. Producer retailers end-users.

3. Producer wholesalers/agents

retailers end-users

4. Producer wholesalers directly to


5. Producer multiple store groups /

department stores / mail order houses


6. Producer market wholesalers

retailers end-users.

Each stage must add value to the product to

justify the costs: the person in the middle is

not normally someone who just takes their

„cut‟ but someone whose own sales force and

delivery system can make the product

available to the largest number of customers

more easily and cost-effectively. One

principle behind this is „breaking down the

bulk‟: the producer may sell in minimum

quantities of, say, 10,000 to the wholesaler,

who sells in minimum quantities of 100 to the

retailer, who sells in minimum quantities of 1

to the end-user. A confectionery manufacturer

doesn‟t deliver individual bars of chocolate to

consumers: distribution is done through

wholesalers and the retailers who each „add

value‟ to the product by providing a good

service to their customers and stocking as

wide range of similar products.

PROMOTION = presenting the product to

the customer

Promotion involves the packaging and

presentation of the product, its image, the

product‟s brand name, advertising and

slogans, brochures, literature, price lists, after-

sales service and training, trade exhibitions or

fairs, public relations, publicity and personal


Every product must posses a „unique selling

proposition‟ (USP) – the features and

benefits that make unlikely any other product

in its market.

Thinking marketing

Marketing affects every aspect of a

company‟s operations, as shown


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Everyone who works for the company must

„think marketing‟

To think marketing we must have a clear idea


What the customers need

What the customers want

What causes them to buy

What the product is to the customer: its

functional, technical; and economic aspects as

well as the aesthetic, emotional and

psychological aspects

„FEATURES‟ (what the product is) +

„BENEFITS‟ (which means that …)

We must be aware of our firm‟s strengths and

weaknesses as well as the opportunities and

threats we face in the market. („S.W.O.T.‟)

B. Reading Comprehension

Are brand names being pushed off the shelf?

According to the

Wall Street

Journal: “More

and more

shoppers are


household names

for the cheaper,


products one

shelf over. This

shows that even

the biggest and

strongest brands

in the world are

vulnerable.” It has been clear

for some time –

principally since

recession began to be

felt in the major

economies of the

world –that the

strength of brands

has been under fire.

During the second

half of the eighties,

the Japanese, for

example, showed

themselves willing to

pay a huge premium

to buy goods with a

smart label and

image to match: they

were fashion victims

par excellence, be it

in choosing their

luggage (Louis

Vuitton was much

favoured) or in buy

in their booze, where

a 20-year-old version

of a good malt

whisky could fetch

the equivalent of £60

or more. Over the

past year or two, that

enthusiasm to spend

big money on a

classy label has

waned markedly.

But we

may be witnessing

the death of the


First, every story

that now appears

about the troubles

being experienced by

makers of luxury

goods triggers wise

nods and told-you-so


Two days ago,

LVHM in France,

which owns Moet

et Chandon

champagne, Louis

Vuitton and the

Christian Lacroix

fashion house,

reported lower

earnings for the

first half of 1993

that it did a year

ago. As David

Jarvis, in charge

of the European

operations of



puts it: „A few

years ago, it might

have been

considered smart

to wear a shirt

with a designer‟s

logo embroidered

on the pocket;

frankly, it now

seems a bit naff.”

This conclusion

fits with one‟s

instincts. In the

straitened nineties,

with nearly 3

millions out of work

and 425,000 people

officially classed as

homeless in England

alone, conspicuous

consumption now

seems vulgar rather

than chic.

But just because

flashy, up-market

brands have lost

some of their appeal,

I does not follow that

all brands have done

so. Cadbury‟s Dairy

Milk is just as much

a brand as Cartier

watches. Tastes may

have shifted

downmarket but that

does not mean that

they have shifted

from flash-brand to

no brand.

The second

strand of the brand

argument Is tied

intimately with the

effects of recession.

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No one yet knows to

what extent the

apparent lack of

some brands‟ appeal

is merely a temporary

phenomenon. It may

well be that, deep

down, we would still

love to own a Loius

Vuitton suitcase

rather than one from

Woolworth‟s but

while we are out of

work or fearing that

our job is at risk, we

are not prepared to

express that

preference by

actually spending the


Third, the

example of Marlboro

is an extreme one.

The difference in

price between

premium brand

cigarettes and budget

rivals in the US had

become huge during

the 1980s: a packet

of Marlboro or

Camel might cost 80

per cent more than a

budget variety few

brands in any area of

consumer goods

could hope to

maintain so great a

premium indefinitely.

And fourth, in

looking at the brands

argument globally it

is too easy to become

misled by what is

happening in an

individual market. In

the UK as a whole,

about one third of

groceries are under

supermarkets‟ own

labels. In the USA

the proportion is only

20 per cent. But it

does seem that the

gradual shift from


to retailer-branded

goods is worldwide.

As David Jarvis

of Hiram Walker

says: “We believe

that brands will retain

their halo, but people

are less inclined to

pay for something

just because it‟s a

fashion accessory.

They need to be

reassured that the

product is

intrinsically better.”

Reports of the

death of the brand

have been

exaggerated. Reports

of the death of the

luxe brand may be

premature, but sound

much more plausible.

(from the Guardian)

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C. Exercises

I. Read the above article and the fill each gap below with one word.

1. Consumers often prefer to buy ……… unbranded products rather than more

……… branded goods. The reason for this seems to be the worldwide ………

in major economies.

2. In Japan consumers are less likely to buy goods with a fashionable ………

3. In the present economic climate it seems ……… to spend money on expensive

designer products.

4. ……… brands are less popular, but ……… brands are still important

5. Maybe, when the recession is over, designer brands will regain their ………

6. In the 80s, famous-brand cigarettes cost ……… per cent more than cheap

brands. This difference is no longer so ………

7. In the USA proportionally ……… own-label brands are sold than in Britain.

8. The consumer won‟t buy branded goods unless they are ………

II. Add the missing words to the puzzle

1. Please take one of these ……… describing our new product.

2. There‟s a full description of the product on the ………

3. We are about to ……… a new product.

4. You can see the trend that these figures show by looking at this ………

5. The average ……… is unaware of marketing.

6. This ……… shows that our sales are rising.

7. I think you‟ll like our new ……… on the wall outside.

8. Retail outlets are being encouraged to use this window ………

9. Coca-Cola and Pepsi are both famous ………

10. I think you‟ll agree that this new budget-price products is a real ………

11. Which of the ……… should we place our advertisements in?

12. Our product compares very well with nationally advertised ………

13. According to a recent ………, 45.9% of consumers prefer not to by imported


14. The motor is exactly the same, but the case is a completely new ………

15. Which ……… do our products sell best in?

16. Demand for many products may ……… according to the season.

17. It‟s important that our ……… don‟t find about our new process.

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18. I saw the product ……… in a magazine.

19. You can buy this product in any supermarket or ………

20. Consumers must be fully aware of the ……… ……… ……… of a product.

III. Fill the gaps in the sentences below with words from this list:

commercials competes design distribution end-users hire purchase image

labels mail order materials newspaper advertisement opportunities outlets

place posters price product promotion public relations radio spots rival

satisfy strengths threats weaknesses

1. What is the „marketing mix‟?

The marketing mix consists of „four Ps‟: providing the customer with the right p

……… at the right p ………, presented in the most attractive way (p ………)

and available in the easiest way (p ………).

2. What is „a product‟ ?

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A product is not just an assembled set of components: it is something customers

buy to s ……… a need they feel they have. They i ……… and the d ……… of

the product are as important as its specification.

3. What is „price‟?

The product must be priced so that it c ………… effectively with r…………

products in the same market.

4. What is „promotion‟?

The product is presented to customers through advertising (e.g. TV c…………,

r…………, n…………, p…………), packaging (e.g. design, l…………,

m…………), publicity, P.R. (………..) and personal selling.

5. What is ‟place‟?

Your product must be available to customers through the most-effective

channels of d………… A consumer product must be offered to e……….. in

suitable retail o……….., or available on h……….. or by m…………

6. What is meant by „S.W.O.T‟?

A firma must be aware of its s……….. and w……….. and the o……….. and

t……….. it faces in the market.

IV. Match the words listed below with the dictionary definitions which follow.

market research customer list price money spinner monopoly

competitor cash cow brand niche market share key player market

economy sales force marketplace market segment

1. Individuals or organizations who buy things from shops or other organizations.

2. A product or investment that steadily continues to be profitable.

3. A company which is the only provider of a particular product and service and

which therefore has complete control over an industry, so that it is impossible

for other companies to compete with it.

4. A specific area of a market which has its own special customers and


5. Companies who are trying to sell similar goods or services in the same market.

6. The version of a product that is made by one particular manufacturer.

7. The price which the manufacturer suggests that a shopkeeper should charge for


8. The most important competitors in a market.

9. All the people that work for a company selling its products.

10. The activity of buying and selling products.

11. The activity of collecting and studying information about people want, need and


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12. A part of a larger market, for example the market for trucks seen as a part of the

overall market for vehicles.

13. The proportion of sales that a company or a product has in particular market.

14. The activity in the market where things are bought and sold freely and not

under government control.

15. A product or business generating a lot of profit.