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  • 2nd

    2nd Technical Deep Dive on TOD, Tokyo, May 29, 2017 Hiroaki Suzuki

    The World Bank Urban Development Consultant and Former Lead Urban Specialist of the World Bank 1

    Financing Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) with Land Values

    © 2015 Mitsubishi Estate Co., Ltd.

    Presenter Presentation Notes The Tokyo Station area, 120 ha of land surrounding the Tokyo Station houses 4,000 companies, which generate a revenue totaling over 135 trillion yen or about 10% of Japan's total corporate revenue. It covers 13 stations and 21 railway lines including that of bullet trains that connect Tokyo with other regional cities in Japan. The Tokyo Station area has been built over many years with careful planning and financing under close cooperation between the governments and private sector. . The Tokyo Station area with its proximity to the Imperial Palace, is also a pedestrian-friendly, socially vibrant area where tourists and locals can enjoy its trendy cafes and shops or stroll around to watch street performances.

    While it will not happen overnight, the Railway City Project has a huge potential to become a similar economically vibrant and environmentally friendly space.

  • Outline Transit Oriented Development (TOD) as the Most Effective Measure for

    Sustainable Urban Development How to Maximize Values of TOD Financing TOD with Land Values – Land Value Capture Land Value Capture Global Good Practices: Schemes and Instruments Hong Kong R(Rail)+P (Property) Model Tokyo Inclusive Multiple Integration Model Emerging Land Value Capture in Cities in Developing Countries

    Critical Factors for Success of LVC in Developing Countries Conclusion

    2

  • TOD As Effective Measure for Sustainable Urban Development

    3

  • TOD Promoting Urban Sustainability

    Source: GIZ/World Bank

    www.worldbank.org/urban 4

  • TOD & Triple Bottom Line

    Economic

    Environ mental

    Social

     Time Saving  Energy Saving  Space Efficiency  Infrastructure Cost Saving  Synergy & Creativity  Agglomeration Economy  Functionality

     Air Pollution Reduction  CO2 Reduction  Land & Green Preservation  Biodiversity

    Accessibility & Mobility  Access to Jobs and Services  Affordable Housing

    5

    Aging Society

    Resilience to Disaster

  • Economy of Agglomeration and Connectivity with Tradition in Global Capital (Tokyo Station Area)

    Photo: HSuzuki

    Economic

    6

  • Green TOD (Freiburg, Germany)

    Photo: Wulf Daseking

    Environ- mental

    7

  • Electric vehicles

    Gate Square commercial and office building

    BEMS

    Gate Square hotel and residences

    HEMS

    Solar power generation Storage battery

    BEMS

    LaLaport KASHIWANOHA

    Park City Kashiwa-no-ha Campus Ichibangai District

    HEMS

    HEMS

    Park City Kashiwa-no-ha Campus Nibangai District

    Kashiwa-no-ha Smart Center A central control room for a smart city

    8Kashiwano Ha Smart City

    Source: Mitsui Fudosan

    Economic Environ mental

    8

    Presenter Presentation Notes 一例を紹介します。 これは、ゲートスクエアを含めた4つの街区で実現した日本初の街区間電力融通の仕組みです。 平常時には異なる用途の間で電力を融通し合うことに拠り電力のピークカットを行い、災害時にはマンションへEVなどへの非常時用電力供給を行う画期的な仕組みです。 この仕組みに拠り平常時には省エネしながら電力を効率よく活用するシステム、災害時には停電になっても最低限の期間生活が継続できる安心安全な基盤が実現しています。 このほかゲートスクエアでは、暮すだけで健康になれるサービスコンテンツを提供する拠点や、ベンチャー企業育成を行うインキュベーション施設等を設置し、3つのコンセプトを実証実験ではなく、 実装段階で実現しています。

  • Toyama TOD for Aging Society

    Social

    Social

    Source: City of Toyama 9

  • How to Maximize Value of TOD

    10

  • Value is created by combination of transit and its influenced land use

    Transit

    Business As Usual Vertical & Horizontal TOD

    Quantity - Density

    Quantity - Catchment VC1

    VC2

    OV

    VC2

    OV

    VC1

    Tools • FAR Increase • Transfer of

    Development Right • Land Adjustment • Urban Re-development,

    etc.

    Tools • Transit Feeder • Bus Terminal • Bicycle Lanes, etc. 11

    Value Capture (VC1)

    Original Value (OV)

  • GROW HIGH: Increasing Densities

    12

  • 13

    Dveloping Countries: Average Built Up Densities

    Beijing

    Bangalore

    Hyderabad Tianjin

    Shanghai

    Guangzhou

    Hong Kong

    Ahmedabad

    Curitiba

  • Articulated Density Matters; Not Average Density

    14

    Source: OECD Compact City Policies / Laruelle, N

    Uniform Average Population Density can have totally different height and spatial form. What matters most for transit and land integration is not average population density, but articulated density.

  • Bogota: Low (

  • SOUTH STRUCTURAL AXIS

    Nova Curitiba

    Av. Paraná

    Represa Do Passaúna

    DOWNTOWN Mal. Floriano

    Parque IguaçúGreen Line

    Porto Alegre 

    Ponta Grossa 

    INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT

    Parque Barigui

    São Paulo 

    Curitiba’s Transit Oriented Development Source:Curitiba

    16

    Presenter Presentation Notes . Average densities in Curitiba are not high citywide, for example, but densities are high where they matter—along BRT corridors. Curitiba enjoys “articulated densities”—high densities in high-quality, transit-served corridors and the acquiescence to market-driven spread-out patterns of development in highway corridors.

  • TOD as Envisioned by Peter Calthorpe

    A diagram of Peter Calthorpe’s vision for TOD

    600 meters

    17

    Presenter Presentation Notes

    As a reaction to American sprawl, TOD emerged as an explicit design strategy in California in the 1980s and 1990s. Peter Calthorpe designed the TOD strategy in order to create a framework for neighborhood-level developments that would be well connected to public transit. The image found on this slide shows a diagram of Calthorpe’s original TOD vision.

  • Expand Catchment Area by Various Transport Modes

    18 Mode Connectivity At Station

    Source: S. Sakaki

  • Expand Catchment Area by Rail & Bus Connection

    Source: Toyama City

    Rail Bus

    Catchment

    Rail enjoys Economies of Scale Bus enjoys Economies of Scope

    Toyama LRT & Bus Catchment Area

    19

  • TOD in Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    20 <Source :TOKYO2050 fibercity / JA63 / Hidetoshi Ono > ※Pink is the author's ideas

    • Mega-Cities in Japan = Chains of Walkable Cells connected by Railways

    • A network of 800m radius walk-able areas from each railway station in Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Presenter Presentation Notes In other parts of the world,  TOD concepts have been practiced at much earlier times. This diagram shows how urban areas in Tokyo Metropolitan are well covered by the railway network. Major urban areas are conveniently covered by walkable distances from the stations. 

    In the map, they are shown in a series of gray circles of 800m in radius. In addition to this, the public bus network is also well developed, connecting and supplementing this railway network. These public transit networks have been developed from as early as 1910 all through the 20th century. The Tokyo Metropolitan area was developed in conjunction with railway network construction. The governments developed the railway system before the wave of motorization reached Japan. In addition, during the fast-growing post-war period, railway companies were often leading developers, who combined railway extensions with building new communities on the metropolitan fringe.

    Image Source: Wataru Tanaka, Nikken Sekkei, Ltd based on the graphic of Tokyo 2050 fibertcity/JA63 of Hidetoshi Ono (NOTE: Suzuki is currently asking the authorization of Tanaka to use this slide. To be checked before the finalization).

  • Quality Increases Land Value of TOD Areas

    Transit

    Quality Urban Design Enhancing TOD Efficient

    Functional VC1

    VC2

    OV

    Pleasant

    Vibrant

    VC3 Quality

    Quantity: Vertical- Horizontal Expansion-

    Transit Value

    Original V

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  • Land Value Premiums of TOD in U.S.

    Station

    Pe rc

    en t I

    nc re

    as e

    in L

    an d

    Va lu

    e

    Distance from Station

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    ½ Mile 1 Mile¾ Mile¼ Mile

    Land Value Premium in TODs

    Station

    Pe rc

    en t I

    nc re

    as e

    in L

    an d

    Va lu

    e

    Distance from Station

    5

    10

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