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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION OUTFITS ACTIVE - DYNAMIC ENGINE 1.2 - 8V 65 bhp No. of cylinders, arrangement 4, in line, front transverse No. of valves 2 Bore x stroke (mm) 70.8 x 78.9 Capacity (cc) 1242 Environmental compatibility EURO 4 Emissions control EOBD Compression ratio 11:1 Max. power output: bhp-EC (kW-EC) 65 (48) at rpm 5500 Peak torque: kgm-EC (Nm-EC) 10.4 (102) at rpm 3000 Timing (control) 1 OHC with mechanical tappets Fuel feed MPI electronic sequential phased Ignition Static with digital electronic control TRANSMISSION Drive front Clutch control hydraulic Gearbox, no. of speeds 5 Ratios: 1 2 3 4 5st nd rd th th th

3.909 : 1 2.158 : 1 1.480 : 1 1.121 : 1 0.921 : 1

6 / Reverse 3.818 : 1 Gearbox family C514 Final drive 4.071 STEERING Type rack and pinion with electric drive Turning circle (m) 10 BRAKES - D (disc) - T (drum) Front: (mm) D257 x 22 (ventilated) Rear: (mm) T203 SUSPENSION3

VBE COURSE PROJECTFront independent MacPherson, telescopic dampers, anti-roll bar with spherical joint links Rear torsion axle and crossbeam. Telescopic hydraulic dampers MEASUREMENTS Wheelbase (mm) 2510 Front/rear track* (mm) front 1473 - rear 1466

DEVELOPMENT OF FIAT PUNTO The Fiat Grande Punto is a car manufactured by the Italian automaker Fiat. It was unveiled on 5 May 2005 and replaced by the Punto Evo in 2010. The car is manufactured in Italy, in Brazil from 2007, and in India from 2008. This model is at its third facelift. After the Fiat Grande Punto and Fiat Punto Evo, the 2012 third version is simply called Fiat Punto. Grande Punto (20052009) The third generation Fiat supermini to bear the name Punto, codenamed Project 199, the Grande Punto was unveiled at the 2005 Frankfurt Motor Show and went on sale later that year. Styled by Giugiaro, the car is based on the Fiat-GM Small platform. Whilst the model shares some of its name with the previous Punto, a large number of its components are new, including a new chassis and body shell. The engines are the Fiat 1.2 8v Fire (65 PS), a new 1.4 8v Fire (77 PS) and the 1.4 16v StarJet (95 PS). Four MultiJet diesel engines are also available: two 1.3 16v units (75 PS (55 kW) and 90 PS (66 kW), the latter with a variable geometry turbocharger) and two 1.9 with 120 PS (88 kW) and 130 PS (96 kW), all of them with diesel particulate filter. The 1.9 diesel was replaced with the new 1.6 MultiJet starting the end of 2008. All the engines are Euro IV compliant. In 2007, a new 1.4 16v T-Jet turbocharged petrol engine, 120 PS (88 kW), became available. At the 2007 Frankfurt Motor Show, Fiat introduced 155 PS (114 kW) an Abarth version by Abarth & C S.p.A.. It was branded as an Abarth rather than Fiat.[8] The car's nose, headlights and front grill look reminiscent of the Maserati Coup (both were designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro of ItalDesign). In Australia, Fiat introduced the Grande Punto in mid-2006, sold only as the Punto; it is the first Fiat to be sold in Australia since 1989. Shortly after its launch the car, powered by the 1.3 90 PS (66 kW) diesel engine, was recognized as the most economical on the market. It was launched in Mexico in November 2006. The Grande Punto is placed above the Fiat Palio in the Mexican Fiat car lineup. Initially it was sold with the 1.4 16v StarJet 95 PS (70 kW) engine with 6-speed manual gearbox in 5-door Dynamic and 3-door Sport trims. In December 2007, the 1.4 16v T-Jet 120 PS (88 kW) variant was launched. The Italian-made Grande Punto4

VBE COURSE PROJECThas already been launched in Chile and the Dominican Republic in petrol and diesel versions. The Grande Punto also went on sale in South Africa in 2006, replacing the previous generation. In the rest of South America, the Brazilian-built Grande Punto (called only Punto) was launched in August 2007. Codenamed Project 310, it is produced in the factory of Betim, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The chassis is an adaptation of the Fiat Palio, a lower cost compact. Levels of safety were not maintained (airbags and ABS are optional on lower trim levels, and the highest one has only two airbags as standard), but the ride comfort is said to be the same. The five-door version is the only one available in the Brazilian line, and there are no plans for a two-door version (in Brazil, two-door vehicles are only accepted for cheaper cars). The engines available at launch were the 85 PS (63 kW) 1.4 Fire 8v and the 115 PS (85 kW) 1.8 Family 1 X18XE engine that comes from GM-Fiat/Powertrain, and later the 1.4 Fire 16v TurboJet, also available for the Linea. For the 2011 model, there were added the new E.torQ engines 1.6 16v and 1.8 16v. Produced by Fiat Powertrain Technologies, they were based on the discontinued Tritec engines. All non-Turbo petrol models produced in Brazil are flex-fuel. Grande Punto was launched in India during the Delhi Auto Expo in January 2008, with sales starting in June 2009. The Indian market Punto is manufactured by the Fiat-Tata Motors joint venture Fiat India Automobiles Ltd (FIAL) in a new plant in Ranjangaon, Maharashtra. A related sedan car, the Fiat Linea, was launched in early 2007 to replace the aging Fiat Marea. It is built on an extended version of the Grande Punto's chassis, with a total length of 4,600 mm (181.1 in), making it part of the superior small family car segment.


VBE COURSE PROJECTCALCULATION OF DRAG COEFFICIENT AND ROLLING RESISTANCECalculation of Frontal Cross Sectional Area (A) Overall height of the vehicle = 1.490m Overall width of the vehicle = 1.473 m Ground clearance = 0.185 m Therefore A = (Overall height-Ground clearance) Overall width A = (1.490-.185) 1.473 A =1.922mm2 Velocity of the vehicle (v) = 160 kmph = 44.44 mph

Maximum power of the vehicle(P) = 65 bhp Maximum speed of the engine(N) = 5500 rpm Radius of the tyre (r) = 0.24m gear ratio = 3 transmission efficiency = 0.90

Torque available at crankshaft (T) = (HP*5252)/N = (65*5252)/5500 = 62.06 lbft = 8.56 kgm


(1 lbft = 0.138kgm)

Torque available at wheels (Tw) = T*gear ratio*transmission efficiency = 8.56*3*0.9 = 23.12 kgm6


Total tractive effort available at wheels (P) = (Tw/r)*g = (23.12/0.24)*9.81 = 944.703 N

Total tractive effort available at wheels (P) =1.35*( Coefficient of air resistance (Cx) = = = 0.368


Trials in Direction 1

Trials in Direction 2

Time sec 0 10 20 30 40 50

V1 kph 70 61 52 44 37 32

V2 kph 70 60 52 44 37 32

V3 kph 70 61 52 43 37 32.5

V4 kph 70 60 51 43 37 31

V avg kph 70.0 60.5 51.8 43.5 37.0 31.9

= 1.22kg/m3 A= 1.922 m2 g= 9.81 m/s2 m= 1050kg7


Vehicle Velocity vs Time25.00


Actual Model

Velocity [m/s]




0.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Time [sec]

time sec 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

V actual m/s 19.44

V model m/s 19.44 18.05374

F Newtons 417.2116 381.1215 350.493 324.2977 301.743 282.2094 265.2077 250.3465 237.3106

a m/s^2 0.278141 0.254081 0.233662 0.216198 0.201162 0.18814 0.176805 0.166898 0.158207


time sec


0 5


16.78333 15.61502


10 15


14.53403 13.52822


20 25


12.58752 11.7035


30 35






VBE COURSE PROJECT45 50 8.85 10.07797 9.325163 225.8433 215.7345 0.150562 0.143823 0.22184 45 50

Sum of error^2 (minimize by changing Cd & Crr) = 0.0832 Drag co-efficient Cd= 0.401 Coefficient of rolling resistance Crr =0.013

Calculation for blind areaAt normal position of driver seat Blind area at right A piller Blind area at right B piller Blind area at right C piller Blind area at left A piller Blind area at left B piller Blind area at left C piller Total blind area 05deg 09deg 05deg 04deg 04deg 03deg 30deg


VBE COURSE PROJECTERGONOMICS INTERIORS The Grande Punto is surprisingly roomy and comes with inspiring dual-tone interiors. The height adjustable driver's seat, the comfortable position of the pedals, the alignment of the tiltable steering and the full, dominant view of the road makes driving a bold new experience. While the passengers at the back can sink into well-shaped seats and slip away into a world of comfort. Dual-tone dashboard and interiors Automatic climate control AC adapted for tropical climate with pollen filter Electrically controlled outside rear-view mirrors Remote foldable key Easy to find ignition facing the driver 60:40 split seats for customized storage space Comfort features: The interiors of Fiat Grande Punto are no less. The convenience and comfort level in this hatchback is high and classy. The dual tone dashboard adds more charm to the interiors of the car. The steering wheel and gearshift knob has been wrapped in leather, while the comfy positioning of the pedals makes the driving quite easy and hassle free. The hatchback features power tilt steering with power windows. The audio controls are mounted on the steering wheel makes the journey quite entertaining and the audio player with FM radio with speakers is impressive. The air conditioner in Fiat Grande Punto comes with automatic climate control and pollen filter in the top trim variant. The hatchback also has automatic foldable key, relaxing seats and ample of luggage storage space Colors Fiat Grande Punto is offered in numerous color sh